RUDN immunologists developed method for assessing inflammation in respiratory tract diseases

December 05, 2020

A team of immunologists from RUDN University suggested a new tool to control inflammation levels in asthma patients with accompanying diseases. To obtain information about disease flow and risks of complications, they used different types of cytokines found in the patients' nasal swabs. Results of the study were published in the World Allergy Organization Journal.

Cytokines are signal molecules of our immune system which determine the inflammation profile in case of an infection or allergy. Some of the 200 types of cytokines aggravate the inflammation and some mitigate it. Due to the fact, that different cytokines can have the same function, many types can be found in a patient at the same time. The composition and levels of each cytokine type form the so-called cytokine profile. A team of immunologists from RUDN University compared the profiles of asthma patients with accompanying diseases and discovered certain regularities that could help predict disease flow and promptly prevent complications.

"Disease flow is determined by peculiarities of respiratory mucosa inflammation, and effective control over the inflammation process depends on the timely evaluation of its activity. Knowing the parameters of local cytokine profiles, a specialist could not only control the efficiency of treatment but also prevent complications and deterioration of the patients' general state," said Prof. Natalia Tataurshchikova, Ph.D. MD, allergologist-immunologist, Head of the Medical and Social Adaptology Department at RUDN University.

To analyse cytokine profiles, the team took biological material samples from the nasal cavities of 57 patients who suffered from asthma accompanied by either a specific allergic rhinitis type or hay fewer. This condition is associated with a runny nose, sneezing, and other sensitive reactions to pollen, animal hair, and other allergens. The team also included 25 patients in the study who, in addition to asthma, were diagnosed with herpes and 21 participants diagnosed with blood vessel diseases. Control group consisted of 11 asthma patients without any accompanying conditions.

Using the immunoenzymatic approach, the team measured levels of cytokines that are most typical for allergic rhinitis. These cytokines were IL-4 and IL-10, the ones that limit inflammation spread (as well as IL-2 and IL-8), interferon γ - INF, and tumor necrosis factor (α-TNF) which promote it. Immunologists managed to identify cytokine profile dynamics for different combinations of conditions. For example, changes in IL-10 and γ - INF levels are typical for asthma patients without underlying conditions; the levels of IL-2 and IL-8 should be measured if a patient has blood vessel diseases, and acute herpes leads to increased IL-8 levels, reduced γ - INF level, and changes in α-TNF. Using this data, one could monitor the disease flow. For example, an increase in α-TNF levels may indicate that the disease is transferring into a chronic form. Doctor may be able to timely identify dangerous tendencies and prevent complications by means of analysing the cytokine profile of a certain patient.

"Taking swabs from mucous membranes and enzyme immunoassay are quite simple and cheap procedures. We believe it is important to include them in diagnostics and management protocols of various asthma phenotypes, including asthma, accompanied by allergic rhinitis," added Prof. Natalia Tataurshchikova from RUDN University.
-end-


RUDN University

Related Asthma Articles from Brightsurf:

Breastfeeding and risks of allergies and asthma
In an Acta Paediatrica study, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 3 months was linked with a lower risk of respiratory allergies and asthma when children reached 6 years of age.

Researchers make asthma breakthrough
Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have made a breakthrough that may eventually lead to improved therapeutic options for people living with asthma.

Physics vs. asthma
A research team from the MIPT Center for Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-Related Diseases has collaborated with colleagues from the U.S., Canada, France, and Germany to determine the spatial structure of the CysLT1 receptor.

New knowledge on the development of asthma
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have studied which genes are expressed in overactive immune cells in mice with asthma-like inflammation of the airways.

Eating fish may help prevent asthma
A scientist from James Cook University in Australia says an innovative study has revealed new evidence that eating fish can help prevent asthma.

Academic performance of urban children with asthma worse than peers without asthma
A new study published in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology shows urban children with poorly controlled asthma, particularly those who are ethnic minorities, also suffer academically.

Asthma Controller Step Down Yardstick -- treatment guidance for when asthma improves
The focus for asthma treatment is often stepping up treatment, but clinicians need to know how to step down therapy when symptoms improve.

Asthma management tools improve asthma control and reduce hospital visits
A set of comprehensive asthma management tools helps decrease asthma-related visits to the emergency department, urgent care or hospital and improves patients' asthma control.

Asthma linked to infertility but not among women taking regular asthma preventers
Women with asthma who only use short-acting asthma relievers take longer to become pregnant than other women, according to research published in the European Respiratory Journal.

What are the best ways to diagnose and manage asthma?
A team of experts from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston examined the current information available from many different sources on diagnosing and managing mild to moderate asthma in adults and summarized them.

Read More: Asthma News and Asthma Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.