Scientists use crabs to validate popular method to identify unknown human brain neurons

December 06, 2019

"Being crabby" might have a whole new meaning.

A crab's nervous system could help scientists learn what causes single neurons in the human brain to become "out of whack," which can contribute to the development of neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Knowing exactly how a single neuron operates among the billions housed in the human brain could one day help scientists design innovative ways to prevent and treat these diseases, such as targeted therapies.

The study, conducted by researchers at the University of Missouri, Brandeis University and the University of Texas at Austin, was published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Researchers worked to validate a popular research method called RNA sequencing used to identify unknown neurons in the brain and sort them into various subtypes. Neurons are a basic element of all animal nervous systems, allowing scientists to draw comparisons in animal models like crabs when studying the human nervous system.

"There are billions of neurons in the human brain, yet we still don't know how many distinct types there are," said David Schulz, a professor of biological sciences in the College of Arts and Science. "We are finally at a technological point where we can ask the incredibly complex question -- what are the brain's building blocks?"

Schulz believes the answer to that question will drive everything we know about diseases in the brain for the next 50 to 100 years. However, in order to answer that question he said we must first know how neurons are different from one another, and how healthy neurons differ from diseased ones.

Using a crab's nervous system as a model, the researchers compared and validated the results of previous human RNA sequencing methods. Since crabs have already identifiable subtypes of neurons, the researchers knew what they were looking for, so they were able to work backward from the published results and use the RNA sequencing method to validate those findings.

Schulz said he was both surprised and reassured by what they found.

"If you don't know what you are looking for in the complex human brain, then early efforts using RNA sequencing are going to need some refinement before we can answer this fundamental question," Schulz said. "This study is one of those refinements. Until we can understand each component, we can't expect to take the brain apart and put it back together again in order to figure out how it works."
-end-
The study, "Molecular profiling of single neurons of known identity in two ganglia from the crab Cancer borealis," was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Eve Marder of Brandeis University was a co-corresponding author. Other authors include Adam Northcutt, Daniel Kick, and Joseph Santin at MU; Adriane Otopalik of Brandeis University; and Hans Hofmann, Rayna Harris and Benjamin Goetz of the University of Texas at Austin.

Funding was provided by National Institutes of Health grants. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies.

University of Missouri-Columbia

Related Neurons Articles from Brightsurf:

Paying attention to the neurons behind our alertness
The neurons of layer 6 - the deepest layer of the cortex - were examined by researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University to uncover how they react to sensory stimulation in different behavioral states.

Trying to listen to the signal from neurons
Toyohashi University of Technology has developed a coaxial cable-inspired needle-electrode.

A mechanical way to stimulate neurons
Magnetic nanodiscs can be activated by an external magnetic field, providing a research tool for studying neural responses.

Extraordinary regeneration of neurons in zebrafish
Biologists from the University of Bayreuth have discovered a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish.

Dopamine neurons mull over your options
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba have found that dopamine neurons in the brain can represent the decision-making process when making economic choices.

Neurons thrive even when malnourished
When animal, insect or human embryos grow in a malnourished environment, their developing nervous systems get first pick of any available nutrients so that new neurons can be made.

The first 3D map of the heart's neurons
An interdisciplinary research team establishes a new technological pipeline to build a 3D map of the neurons in the heart, revealing foundational insight into their role in heart attacks and other cardiac conditions.

Mapping the neurons of the rat heart in 3D
A team of researchers has developed a virtual 3D heart, digitally showcasing the heart's unique network of neurons for the first time.

How to put neurons into cages
Football-shaped microscale cages have been created using special laser technologies.

A molecule that directs neurons
A research team coordinated by the University of Trento studied a mass of brain cells, the habenula, linked to disorders like autism, schizophrenia and depression.

Read More: Neurons News and Neurons Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.