Nav: Home

New method helps compare cholera vaccine costs

December 08, 2016

Every year around the world, up to 4 million people are diagnosed with cholera, an acute diarrheal disease that's usually spread through contaminated water in developing countries. In the long term, advances in water supply and sanitation are thought to be the ideal way to control the spread of the disease, but a handful of vaccines have also been developed--or are in development--to prevent cholera. Now, researchers have described, in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, a standardized method to analyze the full costs for the implementation and delivery of cholera vaccines in low and middle income countries. The approach, they hope, will be a boon to programs planning or reviewing vaccination efforts.

In the new work, Vittal Mogasale, of International Vaccine Institute, South Korea, and colleagues reviewed ten previous papers outlining cholera vaccine programs in low and middle income countries--those with a gross national income per capita of $4,035 or less. For each vaccine deployment, costs described in the previous papers were categorized into four groups: vaccination program preparation, vaccine administration, adverse events following immunization, and vaccine procurement. Within each group, costs for various subgroups were also tallied. The researchers presented overall vaccination program costs as the sum of all categories, and converted the numbers from local currencies to both 2014 US dollars and 2014 international dollars.

The researchers found a wide variability in costs between different cholera vaccination efforts. Vaccine delivery costs--the sum of preparation, administration, and adverse event costs--ranged from US$0.36 to US$6.32 per person vaccinated, while the vaccine procurement costs ranged from US$0.29 to US$29.70. Costs were varied even between different efforts in the same country, they found. The scale of vaccination efforts only partially explained differences. The study, offering numbers for those outlining the budgets of future efforts, was limited by the fact that the categories were not standardized from the outset and so some budget items could have been misclassified.

"Understanding the costs of cholera vaccination campaigns is of paramount importance in the economic evaluation as well as in planning future vaccination programs," the researchers conclude. "The categories described herein allow for a clear, comparative understanding of vaccination campaign costs that can better describe decision-making."
-end-
Please contact plosntds@plos.org if you would like more information about our content and specific topics of interest.

All works published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases are open access, which means that everything is immediately and freely available. Use this URL in your coverage to provide readers access to the paper upon publication:

http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0005124 (Link goes live upon article publication)

Citation: Mogasale V, Ramani E, Wee H, Kim JH (2016) Oral Cholera Vaccination Delivery Cost in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Analysis Based on Systematic Review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(12): e0005124. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005124

Funding: This work was conducted as part of the Delivering Oral Vaccine Effectively (DOVE) Initiative, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation through the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (Grant CHJOH05064-010). The International Vaccine Institute received funding support from the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Government of Sweden. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

PLOS

Related Cholera Articles:

Soft shelled turtles, food in China, likely spread cholera
The pathogen, Vibrio cholerae can colonize the surfaces, as well as the intestines of soft shelled turtles.
Drinking iced tea may boost cholera risk in endemic countries
After more than a decade of declining cholera incidence, Vietnam faced an increase in cases of the diarrheal disease during 2007-2010.
El Nino shifts geographic distribution of cholera cases in Africa
Cholera cases in East Africa increase by roughly 50,000 during El Niño, the cyclical weather occurrence that profoundly changes global weather patterns, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.
Cholera bacteria stab and poison enemies at predictable rates
Living systems that have dynamics about as predictable as a chemical reaction: Bacteria that stab and poison for defense and conquest are charted using math equations that apply to phase separation of metals.
Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection in animal models
Oral administration of a cocktail of three viruses, all of which specifically kill cholera bacteria, protects against infection and prevents cholera-like symptoms in animal model experiments.
Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
Princeton University researchers have discovered that the bacteria behind the life-threatening disease cholera initiates infection by coordinating a wave of mass shapeshifting that allows them to more effectively penetrate their victims' intestines.
New method helps compare cholera vaccine costs
Advances in water supply and sanitation are thought to be the ideal way to control the spread of cholera, but a handful of vaccines have also been developed -- or are in development -- to prevent the disease.
Cameroon's cholera outbreaks vary by climate region
For more than four decades, cholera has recurred in Cameroon, affecting tens of thousands of people a year.
Ancient strain of cholera likely present in Haiti since colonial era
A non-virulent variant of the deadly Vibrio cholerae O1 strain has likely been present in Haitian aquatic environments for several hundred years, with the potential to become virulent through gene transfer with the toxigenic strain introduced by UN peacekeepers, according to research published today by scientists at the University of Florida's Emerging Pathogens Institute.
Study may explain why people with type O blood more likely to die of cholera
People with blood type O often get more severely ill from cholera than people of other blood types.

Related Cholera Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Bias And Perception
How does bias distort our thinking, our listening, our beliefs... and even our search results? How can we fight it? This hour, TED speakers explore ideas about the unconscious biases that shape us. Guests include writer and broadcaster Yassmin Abdel-Magied, climatologist J. Marshall Shepherd, journalist Andreas Ekström, and experimental psychologist Tony Salvador.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#513 Dinosaur Tails
This week: dinosaurs! We're discussing dinosaur tails, bipedalism, paleontology public outreach, dinosaur MOOCs, and other neat dinosaur related things with Dr. Scott Persons from the University of Alberta, who is also the author of the book "Dinosaurs of the Alberta Badlands".