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Financial incentives may increase breastfeeding rates

December 11, 2017

  • Breastfeeding increased in areas where shopping vouchers were offered to mothers
  • 46 per cent of all eligible mothers signed up to the scheme and over 40 per cent claimed at least one voucher for breastfeeding
  • Women reported that the vouchers were an incentive to continue breastfeeding
Offering new mothers financial incentives may significantly increase low breastfeeding rates, new research from the University of Sheffield and the University of Dundee has found.

More than 10,000 new mothers across South Yorkshire, Derbyshire and North Nottinghamshire were involved in the ground breaking study which offered shopping vouchers worth up to £120 if their babies received breastmilk (breastfeeding or expressed milk) at two days, 10 days and six weeks old. A further £80 of vouchers was available if their babies continued to receive breastmilk up to six months.

Breastfeeding levels in the UK are some of the lowest in the world - in some areas just 12 per cent of six to eight week-old babies are breastfed. The trial, funded by the National Prevention Research Initiative and Public Health England, saw an increase of six percentage points in the areas where the scheme was offered, compared with those areas where the scheme was not available.

Principal investigator Dr Clare Relton, from the University of Sheffield's School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), said: "Our scheme offered vouchers to mothers as a way of acknowledging the value of breastfeeding to babies and mothers and the work involved in breastfeeding.

"As the scheme was tested in areas with low breastfeeding rates (just 28 per cent of babies were receiving any breastmilk at six-eight weeks), we were delighted that 46 per cent of all eligible mothers signed up to the scheme and over 40 per cent claimed at least one voucher. The trial found a significant increase in breastfeeding rates in areas where the scheme was offered.

"Eight out of 10 mothers in the UK who start to breastfeed stop before they really want to. It seems that the voucher scheme helped mothers to breastfeed for longer. Mothers reported they felt rewarded for breastfeeding."

The study used the routine method of collecting information on breastfeeding; an assessment by healthcare professionals who already discuss feeding, along with the baby's general health, during routine visits.

Mother Fiona Sutcliffe, 29, from Sheffield who took part in the scheme with her baby girl said: "Breastfeeding is quite difficult in the beginning. The scheme is a really good way of keeping going - keeping motivated to stay on track rather than giving up and going for the bottle. It provides little milestones, little stepping stones and helps you get breastfeeding established."

Breastfeeding has a wide range of benefits for both mothers and babies. It helps to prevent short and long-term illnesses in children and in mothers2 and also reduces health costs to the National Health Service2 (NHS). It is estimated that the NHS would save a minimum of £17 million every year in hospital admissions and GP visits2 if more women could be supported in order to breastfeed for longer.

Anahi Wheeldon, a community midwife from Eckington in Sheffield, said: "The vouchers really lifted mums and gave them recognition and acceptance.

"The scheme has really helped changed the culture and attitude towards breastfeeding. Particularly with young mums you used to be the odd one out if you breastfed, but now they know people who've breastfed, there is a network between mums, so it's become more normal."

Co-author of the study Mary Renfrew, Professor of Mother and Infant Health at the University of Dundee, said: "This is the first large-scale study to show an increase in breastfeeding in communities where rates have been low for generations, and where it can be particularly difficult for women to breastfeed without strong family and community support, because of strong societal barriers.

"In the UK these barriers include the difficulty some women encounter when breastfeeding in public, widespread misleading marketing that formula is equivalent to breastfeeding, a lack of high quality services to prevent and treat any problems if they arise, a lack of community support, a lack of education about breastfeeding for young children, and lack of support for women to breastfeed in the workplace.

"The incentive scheme was designed together with local women and staff to make sure it was feasible and appropriate, and breastfeeding support services were widely available in all the areas where the trial took place. Thanks to all the mothers and staff who supported this study, we now know much more about what might work to help new mothers to breastfeed."

The five year NOurishing Start for Health (NOSH) study was funded by the National Prevention Research Initiative (NPRI). The NPRI was a national initiative made up of government departments, research councils and major medical charities that worked together to encourage and support research into chronic disease prevention.

Its core aim was to develop and implement successful, cost-effective interventions that reduce people's risk of developing major diseases by influencing their health behaviours. A review of the NPRI fed into the recently-launched UK Prevention Research Partnership.

Dr Gavin Malloch, programme manager for public health partnerships at the Medical Research Council which led the NPRI collaboration, said: "There is a wealth of evidence about the importance of breastfeeding for a child's health and also the health of mothers. We also know that being breastfed as a baby has benefits for health later in life, reducing the risk of conditions such as diabetes which place an enormous pressure on the NHS.

"Breastfeeding rates in the UK are some of the lowest in the world. This study shows that vouchers might significantly improve rates in areas where they are below the national average. It will also help inform discussions around this issue at a global level."

The trial findings are published in JAMA Pediatrics.
-end-
To view the full paper please visit: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/10.1001/jamape diatrics.2017.4523

(Please note the link will only be live after the embargo lifts at 16:00 (GMT) 11 December 2017)

For further information please contact: Amy Huxtable, Media Relations Officer, University of Sheffield, 0114 222 9859

Notes to editors

1 Research has shown that breastfeeding has a wide range of short and long-term health benefits for both mothers and babies.

Breastfed babies have:
  • Less chance of diarrhoea and vomiting
  • Fewer chest and ear infections and having to go to hospital as a result
  • Less chance of becoming obese
  • Less chance of diabetes in later life
  • Less chance of leukaemia
  • Less chance of developing eczema.
  • Less chance of being constipated
Health benefits for mother include:
  • Reduces risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer
  • Reduced risk of metabolic syndrome
  • Helps mother and baby bond
  • Naturally uses up to 500 calories a day
For more information please visit NHS Choices Breastfeeding: the first few days.

2 Potential savings to the NHS

If mothers breastfed more and for longer, then the NHS could save a minimum of £17 million every year just for avoiding the costs of treating four acute diseases in infants (GI infections, URTI infections, Otitis Media and NEC). For more information please visit: NHS Choices More breastfeeding 'would save the NHS millions', UNICEF Breastfeeding in the UK and UNICEF Commissioning Guidance for Infant Feeding Financial incentives have been shown to be effective in promoting positive health behaviours. For example, financial incentives for breastfeeding have been routinely provided in the Quebec region of Canada since the mid-1990s.

NOSH

The NOurishing Start for Health project (NOSH) research costs were funded by the National Prevention Research Initiative (NPRI). The vouchers were supported by Public Health England (PHE). The components of the scheme were determined through work with local midwives, health visitors and mothers. Participants did not get the full payments straight away and payments did not affect welfare payments.

National Prevention Research Initiative

The National Prevention Research Initiative (NPRI) was a national initiative made up of government departments, research councils and major medical charities working together to encourage and support research into chronic disease prevention. The initiative was co-ordinated by the Medical Research Council and the award for this study was supported by the following organisations: Alzheimer's Research Trust; Alzheimer's Society; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council; British Heart Foundation; Cancer Research UK; Chief Scientist Office, Scottish Government Health Directorate; Department of Health; Diabetes UK; Economic and Social Research Council; Health and Social Care Research and Development Division of the Public Health Agency (HSC R&D Division); Medical Research Council; The Stroke Association; Wellcome Trust; Welsh Assembly Government; and World Cancer Research Fund.

Public Health England

Public Health England exists to protect and improve the nation's health and wellbeing, and reduce health inequalities.

It does this through world-class science, knowledge and intelligence, advocacy, partnerships and the delivery of specialist public health services. PHE is an operationally autonomous executive agency of the Department of Health.

The University of Sheffield

With almost 27,000 of the brightest students from over 140 countries, learning alongside over 1,200 of the best academics from across the globe, the University of Sheffield is one of the world's leading universities.

A member of the UK's prestigious Russell Group of leading research-led institutions, Sheffield offers world-class teaching and research excellence across a wide range of disciplines.

Unified by the power of discovery and understanding, staff and students at the university are committed to finding new ways to transform the world we live in.

Sheffield is the only university to feature in The Sunday Times 100 Best Not-For-Profit Organisations to Work For 2017 and was voted number one university in the UK for Student Satisfaction by Times Higher Education in 2014. In the last decade it has won four Queen's Anniversary Prizes in recognition of the outstanding contribution to the United Kingdom's intellectual, economic, cultural and social life.

Sheffield has six Nobel Prize winners among former staff and students and its alumni go on to hold positions of great responsibility and influence all over the world, making significant contributions in their chosen fields.

Global research partners and clients include Boeing, Rolls-Royce, Unilever, AstraZeneca, Glaxo SmithKline, Siemens and Airbus, as well as many UK and overseas government agencies and charitable foundations.

For further information, please visit http://www.sheffield.ac.uk

To read other news releases about the University of Sheffield, visit http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/news

The University of Dundee has a core mission to transform lives, locally and globally.

Dundee holds a Gold award for Teaching Excellence and is internationally renowned for its research strengths, particularly across the biomedical and healthcare disciplines. We were the only UK university ranked in the top 50 of Nature's Innovation Index in 2017 and Reuters ranked Dundee 5th in the UK among their `Most Innovative Universities in Europe'.

Dundee performs consistently well in the major student surveys, with Times Higher Education's analysis of the 2017 National Student Survey placing us in their `Top tier' universities.

The University has been central to the city's development in recent years, including attracting the V&A Museum of Design, which opens in 2018 on Dundee's waterfront. Dundee is also the UK's only UNESCO City of Design.

The University is home to over 16,000 students, with more than a quarter of them coming from outside the UK. All of this has helped make Dundee one of the world's top 200 universities (Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2018).

See http://www.dundee.ac.uk for further details.

The Medical Research Council is at the forefront of scientific discovery to improve human health. Founded in 1913 to tackle tuberculosis, the MRC now invests taxpayers' money in some of the best medical research in the world across every area of health. Thirty-two MRC-funded researchers have won Nobel prizes in a wide range of disciplines, and MRC scientists have been behind such diverse discoveries as vitamins, the structure of DNA and the link between smoking and cancer, as well as achievements such as pioneering the use of randomised controlled trials, the invention of MRI scanning, and the development of a group of antibodies used in the making of some of the most successful drugs ever developed. Today, MRC-funded scientists tackle some of the greatest health problems facing humanity in the 21st century, from the rising tide of chronic diseases associated with ageing to the threats posed by rapidly mutating micro-organisms. http://www.mrc.ac.uk.

University of Sheffield

Related Breastfeeding Articles:

What causes women to stop breastfeeding early?
A recent systematic literature review has investigated potential sociodemographic, physical, mental, and social factors that may cause breastfeeding mothers to stop breastfeeding before infants reach 6 months of age.
Breastfeeding may protect against chronic pain after Caesarean section
Breastfeeding after a Caesarean section (C-section) may help manage pain, with mothers who breastfed their babies for at least two months after the operation three times less likely to experience persistent pain compared to those who breastfed for less than two months, according to new research being presented at this year's Euroanaesthesia Congress in Geneva (June 3-5).
Can breastfeeding reduce a woman's risk of metabolic syndrome?
A new study shows that women who spend a longer time breastfeeding during their lifetimes may be able to lower their risk of metabolic syndrome and related disorders included elevated blood pressure, glucose, and triglyceride levels.
Post-breastfeeding tissue remodeling explained by new research
A groundbreaking study into the changes that occur in a woman's breast, from growing into one that provides milk for a newborn, and then back to its normal state, has discovered that milk-producing cells are, in effect, cannibalized by other cells following the period of breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding associated with better brain development and neurocognitive outcomes
A new study, which followed 180 pre-term infants from birth to age seven, found that babies who were fed more breast milk within the first 28 days of life had had larger volumes of certain regions of the brain at term equivalent and had better IQs, academic achievement, working memory, and motor function.
Breastfeeding gaps between white, black, and Hispanic mothers in the US
Chapman University has published research on how breastfeeding rates differ among white, black and Hispanic mothers.
Breastfeeding, antibiotics before weaning and BMI in later childhood
Breastfeeding in children who had received no antibiotics before weaning was associated with a decreased number of antibiotic courses after weaning and a decreased body mass index (BMI) later in childhood, according to an article published online by JAMA Pediatrics.
Breastfeeding is good for yet another reason, researchers discover
A mother's breast milk supports immune responses in her newborn that help the infant's gut become a healthy home to a mix of bacterial species, thanks in part to newly identified antibodies from the mother, according to a study by UC Berkeley researchers.
Victims of violence stop breastfeeding sooner
One in four women who have been victims of violence as adults are at risk of stopping breastfeeding before their baby is four months old.
Children breastfeeding after first birthday should take vitamin D supplements, study says
Children who are breastfeeding after their first birthday should take a vitamin D supplement to prevent health problems such as rickets, new research suggests.

Related Breastfeeding Reading:

The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding: Completely Revised and Updated 8th Edition
by Diane Wiessinger (Author), Diana West (Author), Teresa Pitman (Author)

Latch: A Handbook for Breastfeeding with Confidence at Every Stage
by Robin Kaplan M.Ed. IBCLC (Author), Abby Theuring (Foreword)

Work. Pump. Repeat.: The New Mom's Survival Guide to Breastfeeding and Going Back to Work
by Jessica Shortall (Author)

Breastfeeding Made Simple: Seven Natural Laws for Nursing Mothers
by Nancy Mohrbacher (Author), Kathleen Kendall-Tackett PhD IBCLC (Author), Jack Newman MD (Foreword)

Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, Enhanced Fifth Edition
by Karen Wambach (Author), Jan Riordan (Author)

The Breastfeeding Mother's Guide to Making More Milk: Foreword by Martha Sears, RN
by Diana West (Author), Lisa Marasco (Author)

Great Expectations: The Essential Guide to Breastfeeding
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Ina May's Guide to Breastfeeding: From the Nation's Leading Midwife
by Ina May Gaskin (Author)

The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding
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The Nursing Mother's Companion, 7th Edition, with New Illustrations: The Breastfeeding Book Mothers Trust, from Pregnancy Through Weaning
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