Race and gender affect lung cancer clinical trial participation

December 12, 2005

A new study finds significant disparities by race and gender in the enrollment of patients into lung cancer clinical trials. Published in the January 15, 2006 issue of CANCER (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/cancer-newsroom), a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study indicates that women and African-Americans were least likely to enroll in treatment trials for lung cancer, and identifies a need to improve educational and outreach efforts to make clinical trials available to a wider range of patients.

While clinical trials are important because they test the efficacy of the next generation of potentially life-saving treatments, only five percent of cancer patients participate in clinical trials. Reports have demonstrated that systemic factors in the healthcare system, such as cost, patient education, and physician biases may explain the low accrual rates. But gender and racial inequalities also are apparent, forcing lawmakers in 1993 to direct the healthcare system to encourage women and minority participation. Not only does lack of participation by minorities and women shut them out of the next generation of potentially life-saving treatment, but it also makes it all the more difficult for clinicians to translate treatment benefits and risks found in a clinical trial to these under-represented patient populations.

To evaluate the enrollment rate and the factors predicting enrollment, Wei Du, Ph.D., and colleagues from Wayne State University reviewed data from 427 lung cancer patients (175 African-Americans and 252 from other races) who were eligible for clinical trials between 1994 and 1998 at one center, the Karmanos Cancer Institute in Detroit.

Of this group, 21 percent (91 patients) participated in a lung cancer treatment clinical trial. The researchers found that patients who did not participate were more likely to be African American (45 percent versus 25 percent of enrollees), female (43 percent versus 32 percent of enrollees), and over the age of 70 (24 percent versus 10 percent of enrollees). The researchers say their results should be viewed with caution given that the study looked at enrollment at a single medical center, and did not study other factors that may play a role in clinical trial participation. Those include a lack of trust in the medical establishment, lack of knowledge about clinical trials, and the effect of religious belief or spirituality on the willingness to participate.

Still, they conclude: "New recruitment strategies targeting specific patient subgroups might be helpful in ensuring equal representation of women and minority groups in cancer clinical trials."
-end-
Article: "Predictors of Enrollment in Lung Cancer Clinical Trials," Wei Du, Shirish M. Gadgeel, Michael S. Simon, CANCER; Published Online: December 12, 2005 (DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21638); Print Issue Date: January 15, 2006.

Wiley

Related Lung Cancer Articles from Brightsurf:

State-level lung cancer screening rates not aligned with lung cancer burden in the US
A new study reports that state-level lung cancer screening rates were not aligned with lung cancer burden.

The lung microbiome may affect lung cancer pathogenesis and prognosis
Enrichment of the lungs with oral commensal microbes was associated with advanced stage disease, worse prognosis, and tumor progression in patients with lung cancer, according to results from a study published in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

New analysis finds lung cancer screening reduces rates of lung cancer-specific death
Low-dose CT screening methods may prevent one death per 250 at-risk adults screened, according to a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled clinical trials of lung cancer screening.

'Social smokers' face disproportionate risk of death from lung disease and lung cancer
'Social smokers' are more than twice as likely to die of lung disease and more than eight times as likely to die of lung cancer than non-smokers, according to research presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress.

Lung cancer therapy may improve outcomes of metastatic brain cancer
A medication commonly used to treat non-small cell lung cancer that has spread, or metastasized, may have benefits for patients with metastatic brain cancers, suggests a new review and analysis led by researchers at St.

Cancer mortality continues steady decline, driven by progress against lung cancer
The cancer death rate declined by 29% from 1991 to 2017, including a 2.2% drop from 2016 to 2017, the largest single-year drop in cancer mortality ever reported.

Cancer-sniffing dogs 97% accurate in identifying lung cancer, according to study in JAOA
The next step will be to further fractionate the samples based on chemical and physical properties, presenting them back to the dogs until the specific biomarkers for each cancer are identified.

Lung transplant patients face elevated lung cancer risk
In an American Journal of Transplantation study, lung cancer risk was increased after lung transplantation, especially in the native (non-transplanted) lung of single lung transplant recipients.

Proposed cancer treatment may boost lung cancer stem cells, study warns
Epigenetic therapies -- targeting enzymes that alter what genes are turned on or off in a cell -- are of growing interest in the cancer field as a way of making a cancer less aggressive or less malignant.

Are you at risk for lung cancer?
This question isn't only for people who've smoked a lot.

Read More: Lung Cancer News and Lung Cancer Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.