Nav: Home

Interfering with interferon boosts antiretroviral efficacy in HIV-infected mice

December 12, 2016

Although combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) can help HIV-1-positive patients effectively manage their infection, some individuals experience ongoing activation of the immune system that can exacerbate disease progression. This chronic activation has been attributed to persistent signaling by type I interferons (IFN-I), proteins that bind to IFN receptors to regulate the immune system. Two studies published this week in the JCI have demonstrated that antibodies targeting IFN-I signaling can enhance the effectiveness of cART in humanized mouse models of HIV-1 infection. In work led by Scott Kitchen at UCLA, researchers treated HIV-1-infected mice with an antibody to block human IFN receptor 2. They observed reduced signs of T cell exhaustion and viral load, indicating a decrease in chronic immune activation and improved infection management, respectively. Lishan Su's lab at the University of North Carolina developed a different antibody targeting the human IFNα/β receptor and observed that it, too, reversed immune hyperactivation in the mouse model. In both studies, blockade of IFN-I signaling synergized with cART treatment, leading to better outcomes compared to HIV-1-infected mice treated with cART alone. The results of these two studies provide strong support for further evaluation of IFN-I blockade as a supplement to cART.
-end-
TITLE: Targeting type I interferon-mediated activation restores immune function in chronic HIV infection
AUTHOR CONTACT: Scott Kitchen
UCLA
skitchen@ucla.edu
View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/89488?key=31fcd8bace14c113ed91

TITLE: Blocking type I interferon signaling enhances T cell recovery and reduces HIV-1 reservoirs
AUTHOR CONTACT: Lishan Su
The University of North Carolina
lsu@med.unc.edu
View this article at: http://www.jci.org/articles/view/90745?key=dbe584e12b0d764eb202

COMMENTARY: The interferon paradox: can inhibiting an antiviral mechanism advance an HIV cure?
AUTHOR CONTACT: Steven G. Deeks
University of California, San Francisco
Steven.Deeks@ucsf.edu
View this article at:http://www.jci.org/articles/view/91916?key=1d3abb819a13734402a6

JCI Journals

Related Immune System Articles:

The immune system may explain skepticism towards immigrants
There is a strong correlation between our fear of infection and our skepticism towards immigrants.
New insights on how pathogens escape the immune system
The bacterium Salmonella enterica causes gastroenteritis in humans and is one of the leading causes of food-borne infectious diseases.
Understanding how HIV evades the immune system
Monash University (Australia) and Cardiff University (UK) researchers have come a step further in understanding how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) evades the immune system.
Carbs during workouts help immune system recovery
Eating carbohydrates during intense exercise helps to minimise exercise-induced immune disturbances and can aid the body's recovery, QUT research has found.
A new model for activation of the immune system
By studying a large protein (the C1 protein) with X-rays and electron microscopy, researchers from Aarhus University in Denmark have established a new model for how an important part of the innate immune system is activated.
Guards of the human immune system unraveled
Dendritic cells represent an important component of the immune system: they recognize and engulf invaders, which subsequently triggers a pathogen-specific immune response.
How our immune system targets TB
Researchers have seen, for the very first time, how the human immune system recognizes tuberculosis (TB).
How a fungus inhibits the immune system of plants
A newly discovered protein from a fungus is able to suppress the innate immune system of plants.
A new view of the immune system
Pathogen epitopes are fragments of bacterial or viral proteins. Nearly a third of all existing human epitopes consist of two different fragments.
TB tricks the body's immune system to allow it to spread
Tuberculosis tricks the immune system into attacking the body's lung tissue so the bacteria are allowed to spread to other people, new research from the University of Southampton suggests.

Related Immune System Reading:

Best Science Podcasts 2019

We have hand picked the best science podcasts for 2019. Sit back and enjoy new science podcasts updated daily from your favorite science news services and scientists.
Now Playing: TED Radio Hour

Anthropomorphic
Do animals grieve? Do they have language or consciousness? For a long time, scientists resisted the urge to look for human qualities in animals. This hour, TED speakers explore how that is changing. Guests include biological anthropologist Barbara King, dolphin researcher Denise Herzing, primatologist Frans de Waal, and ecologist Carl Safina.
Now Playing: Science for the People

#532 A Class Conversation
This week we take a look at the sociology of class. What factors create and impact class? How do we try and study it? How does class play out differently in different countries like the US and the UK? How does it impact the political system? We talk with Daniel Laurison, Assistant Professor of Sociology at Swarthmore College and coauthor of the book "The Class Ceiling: Why it Pays to be Privileged", about class and its impacts on people and our systems.