Bone marrow-derived cells differentiate in the brain through mechanisms of plasticity

December 19, 2011

Tampa, Fla. (Dec, 19 2011) - Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDCs) have been recognized as a source for transplantation because they can contribute to different cell populations in a variety of organs under both normal and pathological conditions. Many BMDC studies have been aimed at repairing damaged brain tissue or helping to restore lost neural function, with much research focused on BMDC transplants to the cerebellum at the back of the brain. In a recent study, a research team from Spain has found that BMDCs, can contribute to a variety of neural cell types in other areas of the brain as well, including the olfactory bulb, because of a mechanism of "plasticity".

Their results are published in the current issue of Cell Transplantation (20:8) now freely available on-line at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/.

"To our knowledge, ours is the first work reporting the BMDC's contribution to the olfactory neurons," said study corresponding author Dr. Eduardo Weruaga of the University of Salamanca, Spain. "We have shown for the first time how BMDCs contribute to the central nervous system in different ways in the same animal depending on the region and cell-specific factors."

In this study, researchers grafted bone marrow cells into mutant mice suffering from the degeneration of specific neuronal populations at different ages, then compared them to similarly transplanted healthy controls. An increase in the number of BMDCs was found along the lifespan in both experimental groups. Six weeks after transplantation, however, more bone marrow-derived microglial cells were observed in the olfactory bulbs of the test animals where the degeneration of mitral cells was still in progress. The difference was not observed in the cerebellum where cell degeneration had been completed.

"Our findings demonstrate that the degree of neurodegenerative environment can foster the recruitment of neural elements derived from bone marrow," explained Dr. Weruaga. "But we also have provided the first evidence that BMDCs can contribute simultaneously to different encephalic areas through different mechanisms of plasticity - cell fusion for Purkinje cells - among the largest and most elaborately dendritic neurons in the human brain - and differentiation for olfactory bulb interneurons."

Dr. Weruaga noted that they confirmed that BMDCs fuse with Purkinje cells but, unexpectedly, they found that the neurodegenerative environment had no effect on the behavior of the BMDCs.

"Interestingly, the contribution of BMDCs occurred through these two different plasticity mechanisms, which strongly suggests that plasticity mechanisms may be modulated by region and cell type-specific factors," he said.
-end-
Contact: Dr. Eduardo Werunga, Labratorio de Plasticidad Neuronal y Neurorreparacion. Instituto de Neurosciencias de Castilla y Leon. Universidad de Salamanca. C/ Pinto Fernando Gallego, N 1. E-37007 Salamanca, Spain.
Tel. +34-923-294500, ext 5324
Fax. +34-923-294549
Email ewp@usal.es

Citation: Recio, J. S.; Álvarez-Dolado, M.; Díaz, D.; Baltanás, F. C.; Piquer-Gil, M.; Alonso, J. R.; Werunga, E. Bone Marrow Contributes Simultaneously to Different Neural Types in the Central Nervous System Through Different Mechanisms of Plasticity. Cell Transplant. 20(8):1179-1192; 2011.

"This study shows a potential new contribution of bone marrow derived cells following transplantation into the brain, making these cells highly versatile, in their ability to both differentiate into and fuse with endogenous neurons" said Dr. Paul R. Sanberg , coeditor-in-chief of CELL TRANSPLANTATION and distinguished professor of Neuroscience at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, University of South Florida.

The editorial offices for CELL TRANSPLANTATION are at the Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, College of Medicine, the University of South Florida and the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Contact, David Eve, PhD. at celltransplantation@gmail.com or Camillo Ricordi, MD at ricordi@miami.edu

Cell Transplantation Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair

Related Bone Marrow Articles from Brightsurf:

Researchers identify the mechanism behind bone marrow failure in Fanconi anaemia
Researchers at the University of Helsinki and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified the mechanism behind bone marrow failure developing in children that suffer from Fanconi anaemia.

Nanoparticles can turn off genes in bone marrow cells
Using specialized nanoparticles, MIT engineers have developed a way to turn off specific genes in cells of the bone marrow, which play an important role in producing blood cells.

How stress affects bone marrow
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) identified the protein CD86 as a novel marker of infection- and inflammation-induced hematopoietic responses.

3D atlas of the bone marrow -- in single cell resolution
Stem cells located in the bone marrow generate and control the production of blood and immune cells.

Dangerous bone marrow, organ transplant complication explained
Scientists have discovered the molecular mechanism behind how the common cytomegalovirus can wreak havoc on bone marrow and organ transplant patients, according to a paper published in the journal Cell & Host Microbe.

Viagra shows promise for use in bone marrow transplants
Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have demonstrated a new, rapid method to obtain donor stem cells for bone marrow transplants using a combination of Viagra and a second drug called Plerixafor.

Bone marrow may be the missing piece of the fertility puzzle
A woman's bone marrow may determine her ability to start and sustain a pregnancy, report Yale researchers in PLOS Biology.

Cells that make bone marrow also travel to the womb to help pregnancy
Bone marrow-derived cells play a role in changes to the mouse uterus before and during pregnancy, enabling implantation of the embryo and reducing pregnancy loss, according to research published Sept.

Uncovering secrets of bone marrow cells and how they differentiate
Researchers mapped distinct bone marrow niche populations and their differentiation paths for the bone marrow factory that starts from mesenchymal stromal cells and ends with three types of cells -- fat cells, bone-making cells and cartilage-making cells.

Zebrafish help researchers explore alternatives to bone marrow donation
UC San Diego researchers discover new role for epidermal growth factor receptor in blood stem cell development, a crucial key to being able to generate them in the laboratory, and circumvent the need for bone marrow donation.

Read More: Bone Marrow News and Bone Marrow Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.