Kidney failure on the rise in Australians under 50 with type 2 diabetes

December 19, 2018

A study of more than 1.3 million Australians with diabetes has found that kidney failure is increasing in people with type 2 diabetes aged under 50 years, leading to reduced quality of life and placing growing demand on the country's kidney dialysis and transplantation services.

The study, led by researchers from the Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, calls for urgent attention to reduce the progression of kidney disease in Australia and highlights the importance of aggressive risk factor treatment in people with younger-onset type 2 diabetes.

The registry study examined the trends in end-stage kidney disease (defined as kidney transplantation or the commencement of dialysis) within the Australian population with diabetes from 2002 to 2013.

The most concerning finding was the progressive rise in in end-stage kidney disease seen in people with type 2 diabetes aged under 50, while it remained stable for those with type 1 diabetes and for type 2 diabetes aged 50-80.

This finding is also supported by other similar studies.The study, published in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, also found the incidence of end-stage kidney disease was higher in men than women; those living in the most disadvantaged areas; in Indigenous people compared to non-Indigenous people and those living in remote areas compared to major cities.

End-stage kidney disease occurs when chronic kidney disease -- the gradual loss of kidney function -- reaches an advanced state and the kidneys are no longer able to filter wastes and excess fluids from the blood, which should be excreted in the urine. When kidneys lose these capabilities, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up, requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant to stay alive.

In most developed countries, diabetes is now the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease and is responsible for over 40 per cent of new cases of kidney failure. Patients can experience symptoms from nausea and loss of appetite, to fatigue, sleep problems and muscle cramps.

Senior author, diabetes researcher and endocrinologist at the Baker Institute, Professor Jonathan Shaw said the increasing prevalence of diabetes coupled with the rising risk of end-stage kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes suggested the future demand for kidney dialysis and transplantation would place an enormous burden on Australia's healthcare system.

"We've known for a long time that the total number of people requiring kidney dialysis or transplantation in Australia was going up but we thought that was mainly due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes," Professor Shaw said.

"The main concern is the increasing rate in the under 50s," he said. "This is a really troubling finding but hopefully by improving medical care, by aggressively managing blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in addition to blood sugar control, we can start to turn this around."

Professor Shaw said it was uncertain whether rising rates of kidney disease were a reflection of less aggressive medical therapy in Australia over the past 12 years in people with type 2 diabetes along with changes in management of kidney disease, or the result of a more aggressive form of the disease now emerging. He said more research in this area was urgently needed.
-end-


Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute

Related Diabetes Articles from Brightsurf:

New diabetes medication reduced heart event risk in those with diabetes and kidney disease
Sotagliflozin - a type of medication known as an SGLT2 inhibitor primarily prescribed for Type 2 diabetes - reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events for patients with diabetes and kidney disease.

Diabetes drug boosts survival in patients with type 2 diabetes and COVID-19 pneumonia
Sitagliptin, a drug to lower blood sugar in type 2 diabetes, also improves survival in diabetic patients hospitalized with COVID-19, suggests a multicenter observational study in Italy.

Making sense of diabetes
Throughout her 38-year nursing career, Laurel Despins has progressed from a bedside nurse to a clinical nurse specialist and has worked in medical, surgical and cardiac intensive care units.

Helping teens with type 1 diabetes improve diabetes control with MyDiaText
Adolescence is a difficult period of development, made more complex for those with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Diabetes-in-a-dish model uncovers new insights into the cause of type 2 diabetes
Researchers have developed a novel 'disease-in-a-dish' model to study the basic molecular factors that lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, uncovering the potential existence of major signaling defects both inside and outside of the classical insulin signaling cascade, and providing new perspectives on the mechanisms behind insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and possibly opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics for the disease.

Tele-diabetes to manage new-onset diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic
Two new case studies highlight the use of tele-diabetes to manage new-onset type 1 diabetes in an adult and an infant during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Genetic profile may predict type 2 diabetes risk among women with gestational diabetes
Women who go on to develop type 2 diabetes after having gestational, or pregnancy-related, diabetes are more likely to have particular genetic profiles, suggests an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions.

Maternal gestational diabetes linked to diabetes in children
Children and youth of mothers who had gestational diabetes during pregnancy are at increased risk of diabetes themselves, according to new research published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Two diabetes medications don't slow progression of type 2 diabetes in youth
In youth with impaired glucose tolerance or recent-onset type 2 diabetes, neither initial treatment with long-acting insulin followed by the drug metformin, nor metformin alone preserved the body's ability to make insulin, according to results published online June 25 in Diabetes Care.

People with diabetes visit the dentist less frequently despite link between diabetes, oral health
Adults with diabetes are less likely to visit the dentist than people with prediabetes or without diabetes, finds a new study led by researchers at NYU Rory Meyers College of Nursing and East Carolina University's Brody School of Medicine.

Read More: Diabetes News and Diabetes Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.