Screening chest x-ray detects early-stage lung cancers at high rates, study results show

December 20, 2005

Almost half of lung cancers detected by a chest x-ray were early-stage cancers, according to baseline results of a large, randomized clinical trial that is testing the efficacy of a chest x-ray as a screening test for lung cancer. The study results are published in the December 21 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Lung cancer causes one million deaths worldwide every year. When patients begin to experience symptoms of lung cancer, the cancers are often advanced and treatment is rarely successful; 90% of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients die within 2 years of diagnosis.

In 1992, The National Cancer Institute launched the still-ongoing Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial to evaluate screening tests for each of the four cancers. The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial is the largest trial ever conducted in the United States. The 155,000 men and women enrolled in the study were asked about past and present smoking habits, medical history of themselves and their families, and personal characteristics. For the lung cancer portion of the trial, participants were randomly assigned to a control group or to a screening group that received a single-view, posterior-anterior chest x-ray.

According to the baseline results of the 77,465 patients in the screening group, reported by Martin M. Oken, M.D., of the Hubert H. Humphrey Cancer Center in Robbinsdale, Minn., and colleagues from the PLCO Project Team, 5991 (8.9%) participants had a test result that was suspicious for cancer, and after further follow-up and medical tests, 126 participants were diagnosed with lung cancer. Forty-four percent of the cancers found were diagnosed as stage I cancers. Chest x-ray detected 6.3 lung cancers per 1000 current smokers, 4.9 lung cancers per 1000 former smokers who had smoked in the past 15 years, 1.1 lung cancers per 1000 former smokers who had not smoked within the past 15 years, and 0.4 lung cancers per 1000 never-smokers. Chest x-ray found cancer at a higher rate in men than in women.

"The data suggest a high rate of early detection and possibly important differences between screening for lung cancer in women and in men," write the authors. "The answer to the important question of reduction in lung cancer mortality must await analysis of the two study arms as these data mature."
-end-
Contact: Robert Prevost, Public Relations Manager, North Memorial Medical Center, 763-520-5062, robert.prevost@northmemorial.com

Citation: Oken MM, Marcus PM, Hu P, Beck TM, Hocking W, Kvale PA, et al. Baseline Chest Radiograph for Lung Cancer Detection in the Randomized Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:1832-9.

Note: The Journal of the National Cancer Institute is published by Oxford University Press and is not affiliated with the National Cancer Institute. Attribution to the Journal of the National Cancer Institute is requested in all news coverage. Visit the Journal online at http://jncicancerspectrum.oxfordjournals.org/.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

Related Lung Cancer Articles from Brightsurf:

State-level lung cancer screening rates not aligned with lung cancer burden in the US
A new study reports that state-level lung cancer screening rates were not aligned with lung cancer burden.

The lung microbiome may affect lung cancer pathogenesis and prognosis
Enrichment of the lungs with oral commensal microbes was associated with advanced stage disease, worse prognosis, and tumor progression in patients with lung cancer, according to results from a study published in Cancer Discovery, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

New analysis finds lung cancer screening reduces rates of lung cancer-specific death
Low-dose CT screening methods may prevent one death per 250 at-risk adults screened, according to a meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled clinical trials of lung cancer screening.

'Social smokers' face disproportionate risk of death from lung disease and lung cancer
'Social smokers' are more than twice as likely to die of lung disease and more than eight times as likely to die of lung cancer than non-smokers, according to research presented at the European Respiratory Society International Congress.

Lung cancer therapy may improve outcomes of metastatic brain cancer
A medication commonly used to treat non-small cell lung cancer that has spread, or metastasized, may have benefits for patients with metastatic brain cancers, suggests a new review and analysis led by researchers at St.

Cancer mortality continues steady decline, driven by progress against lung cancer
The cancer death rate declined by 29% from 1991 to 2017, including a 2.2% drop from 2016 to 2017, the largest single-year drop in cancer mortality ever reported.

Cancer-sniffing dogs 97% accurate in identifying lung cancer, according to study in JAOA
The next step will be to further fractionate the samples based on chemical and physical properties, presenting them back to the dogs until the specific biomarkers for each cancer are identified.

Lung transplant patients face elevated lung cancer risk
In an American Journal of Transplantation study, lung cancer risk was increased after lung transplantation, especially in the native (non-transplanted) lung of single lung transplant recipients.

Proposed cancer treatment may boost lung cancer stem cells, study warns
Epigenetic therapies -- targeting enzymes that alter what genes are turned on or off in a cell -- are of growing interest in the cancer field as a way of making a cancer less aggressive or less malignant.

Are you at risk for lung cancer?
This question isn't only for people who've smoked a lot.

Read More: Lung Cancer News and Lung Cancer Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.