Benefits of higher oxygen, breathing device persist after infancy

December 26, 2012

By the time they reached toddlerhood, very preterm infants originally treated with higher oxygen levels continued to show benefits when compared to a group treated with lower oxygen levels, according to a follow-up study by a research network of the National Institutes of Health that confirms earlier network findings. Moreover, infants treated with a respiratory therapy commonly prescribed for adults with obstructive sleep apnea fared as well as those who received the traditional therapy for infant respiratory difficulties, the new study found.

In the original 2010 study, of infants born between 24 to 27 weeks of gestation, investigators in the Neonatal Research Network found:For the current study, the researchers checked on the children's progress, comparing the groups' survival rates and cognitive and motor development 18 to 22 months after they were originally due to be born. The re-evaluation of the original study treatment groups examined: The researchers compiled the results of their analysis in terms of a combined primary outcome. This primary outcome took into account two possibilities: whether an infant either died in the first or second year of life or had a neurodevelopmental impairment--any of a number of conditions affecting the nervous system. These included cerebral palsy, blindness, hearing loss or low scores on tests of infant mental and motor development. The researchers selected this outcome because infants who died before 18 months of age could not be classified as having a neurodevelopmental impairment.

In terms of the primary outcome, the researchers found no differences between the groups.

When the researchers looked at outcome measures separately, however, they did observe differences. The researchers documented higher survival rates among children who received oxygen with higher saturation rates. The study's original findings showed that survivors in this group also had a greater risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity, an eye condition that can impair vision or cause blindness. Although those receiving higher oxygen levels were more likely to have had corrective eye surgery, by the time the children reached 18 to 22 months corrected age -- their age had they been born at the approximate time they were due. The researchers found that there was no difference in the rate of vision problems between the two groups.

"CPAP for infants has been available since the 1970s. This is the first study to compare surfactant treatment to CPAP in a large group of infants, and these results reassure us that CPAP is as good a choice in the first hour of life as traditional methods for very preterm babies who need help breathing," said senior author Rosemary D. Higgins, M.D., of the Pregnancy and Perinatology Branch of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), one of two NIH institutes supporting the study. "We've also confirmed that higher oxygen targets improve survival and don't appear to threaten survivors' vision in the longer term."

The study also received funding from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.

Their findings appear in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The research was conducted at hospitals affiliated with the NICHD-funded Neonatal Research Network.

More than 1,300 preterm infants born between 2005 and 2009 were included in the study. Between 18 and 22 months after the infants' original due date, researchers assessed whether the children had cerebral palsy and evaluated their vision, hearing, physical mobility and cognitive development.

The researchers found that 60 percent of the children showed typical physical and cognitive development for their age."Although these findings can give delivery room practitioners confidence in a suitable approach, they can't help predict how these children will grow or how well they'll do in school," Dr. Higgins said. "Our group will continue to monitor the health of a subset of these children through childhood, to determine if there are any major differences between the groups."
-end-
About the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD):

The NICHD sponsors research on development, before and after birth; maternal, child, and family health; reproductive biology and population issues; and medical rehabilitation. For more information, visit the Institute's website at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH):

NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.

NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Related Obstructive Sleep Apnea Articles from Brightsurf:

Obstructive sleep apnea risk varies in patients with different types of epilepsy
People with generalized epilepsy who have seizures arising from both sides of the brain simultaneously, have a higher risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to patients who have focal epilepsy where seizures emanate from one area of the brain, according to a Rutgers study.

Obstructive sleep apnoea: Mandibular advancement device helps against daytime sleepiness
Obstructive sleep apnoea: mandibular advancement device helps against daytime sleepiness In obstructive sleep apnoea, wearing a plastic splint in the mouth at night to keep the airways open mechanically is about as effective as positive airway pressure therapy with a sleep mask.

Study suggests women may be undertreated for obstructive sleep apnea
Here, we begin to drill down to understand how sleep apnea may differ and how common scoring approaches may underestimate sleep apnea in women.''

Obstructive sleep apnea may be one reason depression treatment doesn't work
When someone is depressed and having suicidal thoughts or their depression treatment just isn't working, their caregivers might want to check to see if they have obstructive sleep apnea, investigators say.

PET/CT detects cardiovascular disease risk factors in obstructive sleep apnea patients
Research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging's 2019 Annual Meeting draws a strong link between severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and impaired coronary flow reserve, which is an early sign of the heart disease atherosclerosis.

New evidence on the association of shortened sleep time and obstructive sleep apnea with sleepiness and cardiometabolic risk factors
A new study in the journal CHEST® may change the way we think about sleep disorders.

Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease in women
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease in Women In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (Special Issue on Women's Cardiovascular Health, Volume 3, Number 4, 2019, Guest Editor Gladys P.

Obstructive sleep apnea linked to inflammation, organ dysfunction
In the study, 'Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Inflammation: Proof of Concept Based on Two Illustrative Cytokines,' published recently in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, researchers examined the link between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and inflammation and the ensuing damage caused to organs.

Obstructive sleep apnea linked with higher risk of gout
New research reveals that people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a higher risk of developing gout, even beyond the first years after being diagnosed with the sleep disorder.

Blood biomarkers as a diagnostic tool for obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition causing daytime tiredness which can significantly impact a patient's quality of life and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Read More: Obstructive Sleep Apnea News and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Current Events
Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.