Fetal Cell Research, Schadenfreude, Deer Disease. Dec 21, 2018, Part 2 from Science Friday

From Science Friday - The Trump administration is cracking down on federal scientists seeking fetal tissue for their work, while it conducts a "comprehensive review" of research involving fetal cells. One HIV research program that uses fetal tissue to create humanized mice has already been halted by the order. The Department of Health and Human Services said in a statement that it's performing the audit due to the "serious regulatory, moral, and ethical considerations involved" in this type of research. And a spokesperson for the HHS said the agency is "pro-life, pro-science." But what does that mean, exactly?  Schadenfreude, or deriving pleasure from someone else's misfortune (which you have not caused), may seem to be everywhere in the modern era of internet trolls, but the misunderstood emotion is not a modern phenomenon. The German word first appeared in English text back in 1852, although people in English-speaking countries were so scared of what it would mean to admit to feeling schadenfreude that they never came up with a comparable English word for it. Over the years people have tried to analyze why we feel schadenfreude—evolutionary psychologists say it's a way for us to assess risk and 19th-century Darwinian scholars suggested it was a behavior associated with "survival of the fittest"—but people have never really gotten comfortable with those academic explanations. You might outwardly protest that you don't feel joy in seeing another person suffer, before returning to "fail" videos on YouTube. But according to Tiffany Watt Smith, a cultural historian of emotions, you don't have to feel shame about feeling this way. Schadenfreude doesn't make us psychopaths, or internet trolls—it just makes us human. And if we are living through an "age of schadenfreude," as some have suggested, perhaps there's something useful to be learned from it.  You've heard of viruses, bacteria, and fungal infections. But what happens when disease is caused by misfolded proteins? Prion diseases, as they're called, infect the central nervous systems of animals all over the world, including sheep scrapie, Mad Cow Disease, and even a new one recently discovered in camels. In deer, the prion that causes Chronic Wasting Disease will stay undetected for years before a deer suddenly stops eating and begins to waste away. Always fatal, the infection spreads from deer to deer, and even lurks in soil—and it's reaching new parts of the U.S. and the world every year. Judd Aiken, a professor at the University of Alberta, explains how prions like those that cause CWD interact with different soil types to bind to minerals and become more infectious... or pass harmlessly through. He describes new research about how humic acid, a product of organic matter in soil, seems to degrade prions and reduce the infectivity of CWD.    
Fetal Cell Research, Schadenfreude, Deer Disease. Dec 21, 2018, Part 2
2018-12-21 13:58:08
The Trump administration is cracking down on federal scientists seeking fetal tissue for their work, while it conducts a "comprehensive review" of research involving fetal cells. One HIV research program that uses fetal tissue to create humanized mice has already been halted by the order. The Department of Health and Human Services said in a statement that it's performing the audit due to the "serious regulatory, moral, and ethical considerations involved" in this type of research. And a spokesperson for the HHS said the agency is "pro-life, pro-science." But what does that mean, exactly?  Schadenfreude, or deriving pleasure from someone else's misfortune (which you have not caused), may seem to be everywhere in the modern era of internet trolls, but the misunderstood emotion is not a modern phenomenon. The German word first appeared in English text back in 1852, although people in English-speaking countries were so scared of what it would mean to admit to feeling schadenfreude that they never came up with a comparable English word for it. Over the years people have tried to analyze why we feel schadenfreude—evolutionary psychologists say it's a way for us to assess risk and 19th-century Darwinian scholars suggested it was a behavior associated with "survival of the fittest"—but people have never really gotten comfortable with those academic explanations. You might outwardly protest that you don't feel joy in seeing another person suffer, before returning to "fail" videos on YouTube. But according to Tiffany Watt Smith, a cultural historian of emotions, you don't have to feel shame about feeling this way. Schadenfreude doesn't make us psychopaths, or internet trolls—it just makes us human. And if we are living through an "age of schadenfreude," as some have suggested, perhaps there's something useful to be learned from it.  You've heard of viruses, bacteria, and fungal infections. But what happens when disease is caused by misfolded proteins? Prion diseases, as they're called, infect the central nervous systems of animals all over the world, including sheep scrapie, Mad Cow Disease, and even a new one recently discovered in camels. In deer, the prion that causes Chronic Wasting Disease will stay undetected for years before a deer suddenly stops eating and begins to waste away. Always fatal, the infection spreads from deer to deer, and even lurks in soil—and it's reaching new parts of the U.S. and the world every year. Judd Aiken, a professor at the University of Alberta, explains how prions like those that cause CWD interact with different soil types to bind to minerals and become more infectious... or pass harmlessly through. He describes new research about how humic acid, a product of organic matter in soil, seems to degrade prions and reduce the infectivity of CWD.    

46 minutes, 41 seconds

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