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What happens when you overdose? (video)
Your body is a delicately balanced chemical system, and if you take too much of a drug you destroy that balance. That's what happens when you overdose. This week on Reactions, learn how to spot an overdose and the ways different types of drugs wreak havoc in your brain: https://youtu.be/xLSz3wEgwJ8. (2019-07-25)

Nanoparticles can grow in cubic shape
Use of nanoparticles in many applications, e.g. for catalysis, relies on the surface area of the particles. Now scientists show how originally spherical nucleus can transform into cube with high surface-to-volume ratio. These nanocubes are available to be used in practice, and may interest many designers of new materials. The research has recently been reported in ACS Nano. (2016-04-04)

No guts no glory: Harvesting the microbiome of athletes
Scientists have tapped into the microbiome of elite runners and rowers, and have identified particular bacteria that may aid athletic performance. The goal is to develop probiotic supplements that may help athletes -- and even amateur fitness enthusiasts -- recover from a tough workout or more efficiently convert nutrients to energy. The researchers will present their work today at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society. (2017-08-20)

Cleaning up aquatic pollution with mussels
Scientists and activists alike have been looking for a solution to the problem of aquatic nutrient pollution. Now one group reports in Environmental Science & Technology that ribbed mussels are up to the clean-up challenge. (2017-11-08)

The explosive consequences of cow burps (video)
Cows burp up more gas than you might think possible when they're digesting grass. Most of that gas is methane, a potent greenhouse gas, which is bad news for the planet. This video from Reactions explains why the chemistry of cow guts is such a busy area of study. (2018-03-22)

A genetic trigger adds branches to plants, could boost crop yields
When it comes to agriculture from branched plants, such as apple trees, the more branches that bear fruit, the better. But in the real world, there's a limit to the number of branches that plants make -- a gene tends to put the brakes on this splitting process called shoot branching. Today in ACS Central Science, researchers reveal a chemical that can reverse this limitation, possibly leading to improved crop production. (2018-02-07)

Even without the clean power plan, US can achieve Paris Agreement emissions reductions
Carnegie Mellon University researchers have calculated that the US can meet -- or even beat -- the near-term carbon dioxide emission reductions required by the United Nations Paris Agreement, despite the Trump Administration's withdrawal of the Clean Power Plan (CPP). (2018-02-16)

Pulling valuable metals from e-waste makes financial sense
Electronic waste -- including discarded televisions, computers and mobile phones -- is one of the fastest-growing waste categories worldwide. For years, recyclers have gleaned usable parts, including metals, from this waste stream. That makes sense from a sustainability perspective, but it's been unclear whether it's reasonable from an economic viewpoint. Now researchers report in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology that recovering gold, copper and other metals from e-waste is cheaper than obtaining these metals from mines. (2018-04-04)

Creating surfaces that repel water and control its flow (video)
To prevent water and ice from making our shoes soggy, frosting our car windows and weighing down power lines with icicles, scientists have been exploring new coatings that can repel water. Now one team has developed a way to direct where the water goes when it's pushed away. Their report appears in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. (2017-12-13)

Pulling iron out of waste printer toner
Someday, left-over toner in discarded printer cartridges could have a second life as bridge or building components instead of as trash, wasting away in landfills and potentially harming the environment. One group reports in ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering that they have devised a method to recycle the residual powder in 'empty' cartridges into iron using temperatures that are compatible with existing industrial processes. (2017-11-15)

Three-dimensional nanomagnets for the computer of tomorrow
Since the late 60's electronic devices have stored and transmitted information (bits) in two-dimensional circuits. Now, researchers at the University of Cambridge have been able to break this barrier by creating a nanoscale magnetic circuit capable of moving information along the three dimensions of space. This breakthrough could lead to an important increase in storage and processing capacities of electronic devices over those used today. (2017-11-15)

How cats and dogs are consuming and processing parabens
Many households can claim at least one four-legged friend as part of the family. But pets that primarily stay indoors can have increased rates of diseases, such as diabetes, kidney diseases and hypothyroidism compared with those that stay exclusively outside. Some scientists propose that chemical substances in the home could contribute to these illnesses. One group has examined how pets could be exposed to parabens, as reported in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology. (2018-03-07)

Who should be on the $10 and $20 bills? How race, gender, and politics shape public opinion
Race, gender, political affiliation, and the prejudices and biases associated with them (racism, sexism, and political ideology) seem to be at the forefront of citizen's minds when it comes to preferences for US currency -- specifically, who should be on the $10 and $20 bills. (2018-06-06)

New med-tech zinc sensor developed
A new zinc sensor has been developed by researchers, which will allow for a deeper understanding of the dynamic roles that metal ions play in regulating health and disease in the living body. The research, published in the journal ACS Omega reports that the newly designed chemical sensor can detect and measure zinc levels in cells. It also has the functionality and portability to take continuous or repeated measurements within a single biological sample. (2017-09-29)

How exercise could help fight drug addiction
The siren call of addictive drugs can be hard to resist, and returning to the environment where drugs were previously taken can make resistance that much harder. However, addicts who exercise appear to be less vulnerable to the impact of these environmental cues. Now, research with mice suggests that exercise might strengthen a drug user's resolve by altering the production of peptides in the brain, according to a study in the journal ACS Omega. (2018-11-14)

Paper-based tuberculosis test could boost diagnoses in developing countries
Diagnosing tuberculosis early can allow patients to receive the medicine they need and also help prevent the disease from spreading. But in resource-limited areas, equipment requirements and long wait times for results are obstacles to diagnosis and treatment. To tackle this problem, scientists report in ACS Sensors the development of a fast, paper-based tuberculosis test that can be read with a smartphone. (2017-09-13)

Nanospears deliver genetic material to cells with pinpoint accuracy
In a step toward accelerating the production of new gene therapies, scientists report in ACS Nano that they have developed remote-controlled, needle-like nanospears capable of piercing membrane walls and delivering DNA into selected cells. They say the new technique, which can ferry biological materials to cells with pinpoint accuracy, overcomes many of the existing barriers to effective gene modification. (2018-03-14)

Polymer reversibly glows white when stretched
Polymers that change their appearance in response to mechanical forces can warn of damage developing in a material before the stress causes structural failure. Researchers now report in ACS Central Science that they've developed a first-of-its-kind elastic polymer blend that displays white fluorescence when deformed and then goes dark after relaxing back to its original shape. (2019-04-24)

Rethinking dual antiplatelet guidelines in acute coronary syndrome? (CHANGE-DAPT)
New research presented at ESC Congress today1 suggests that for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients who require percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), treatment according to contemporary guidelines for dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) could be less preferable than sticking to older guidelines. (2017-08-29)

Vine compound starves cancer cells
Researchers from W├╝rzburg and Toyama have discovered that a compound isolated from tropical rainforest vines inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in the lab. (2018-11-16)

The only video you'll ever need to watch about gluten (video)
Bakers on TV are always talking about whether their goodies have enough gluten. But the masses on Twitter act like gluten is some kind of monster hiding in your bread. So what gives? Is gluten good, or is it bad? This video from Reactions explains what gluten is, how it leads to tasty bread, and the health risks it holds for certain groups of people: https://youtu.be/-JVO62Vzhqc. (2018-01-16)

The chemistry behind kibble (video)
Have you ever thought about how strange it is that dogs eat these dry, weird-smelling bits of food for their entire lives and never get sick of them? There are many different dog food formulas on the market, designed for such things as weight loss, long shelf life or a balanced diet. This week on Reactions, you'll learn what's behind the chemistry used to make the perfect dog food kibble: https://youtu.be/_UJWctZyguY. (2019-03-08)

How Xanax works (video)
Whether or not you have anxiety, you've probably heard of Xanax. But what's in this popular and widely prescribed drug, and how does it work? This new video from Reactions describes how Xanax works in the anxious brain: https://youtu.be/Kq6oNcd3d-U. (2017-12-05)

Company-sponsored CRISPR clinical trials set to start in 2018
This year could be a defining one for CRISPR, the gene editing technique, which has been hailed as an important breakthrough in laboratory research. That's because the first company-sponsored clinical studies will be conducted to see if it can help treat diseases in humans, according to an article in Chemical & Engineering News, the weekly news magazine of the American Chemical Society. (2018-01-10)

Lighting the way: Sensors show drug uptake
When designing and characterizing new drugs, a key aspect is making sure the drug actually goes where it is intended to. But current tests for drug uptake monitor the process under unrealistic conditions and do not provide information on the amounts of drugs that cross into a cell. Now, one group reports in ACS Sensors that fluorescent detector proteins can overcome these challenges. (2017-08-02)

With a TENG, solar cells could work come rain or shine
Despite the numerous advances in solar cells, one thing remains constant: cloudy, rainy conditions put a damper on the amount of electricity created. Now researchers reporting in the journal ACS Nano have developed hybrid solar cells that can generate power from raindrops. (2018-03-07)

An eco-friendly alternative to recycling e-waste
As consumers toss aside old cell phones, tablets and laptops to keep up with the latest technology, landfills are becoming full of the old devices. To address this buildup, scientists are attempting to recover valuable plastics from this electronic waste, or 'e-waste.' Now, one group reports in ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering that they have found an eco-friendly alternative to current methods. (2018-03-14)

An overlooked source of carbon emissions
Nations that pledged to carry out the Paris climate agreement have moved forward to find practical ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including efforts to ban hydrofluorocarbons and set stricter fuel-efficiency standards. Now scientists report in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology that one source of carbon dioxide, a primary greenhouse gas, has been overlooked: wastewater treatment plants. Based on their findings, they recommend actions that could curb emissions from this source. (2016-11-02)

What might Trump mean for chemistry? (video)
Donald Trump is now the 45th president of the US. While much was said about a variety of topics during the presidential campaign, little was said about science. The latest Speaking of Chemistry video, produced by ACS' weekly newsmagazine Chemical & Engineering News, takes on this uncertainty by looking into how the emerging Trump administration policies will impact research funding, trade policy and chemistry, the central science. (2017-01-20)

Biomarker tests could someday help improve outcomes for organ transplant patients
Organ transplants save lives, but the story doesn't end when a patient emerges from the operating room. Rejection episodes, in which the immune system rallies against the new organ, can occur. According to an article in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, researchers are turning to biomarkers to help them get a better idea of which patients are more likely to have an episode. (2018-01-31)

Fighting MRSA with new membrane-busting compounds
Public health officials are increasingly concerned over methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The bacteria have developed resistance to a number of treatments, even antibiotics of last resort in some cases. Now researchers report in ACS' journal Bioconjugate Chemistry that a new class of compounds can treat MRSA skin infections in mice with no signs of acute toxicity, and no signs that the bacteria would develop resistance to them after many applications. (2017-03-15)

Preventing and treating acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell disease
Acute chest syndrome (ACS), a potentially severe lung complication of sickle cell disease, increases a child's risk of respiratory failure, chronic lung disease, and prolonged hospitalization if not recognized early and treated effectively. (2018-01-05)

Salty snow could affect air pollution in the Arctic
In pictures, the Arctic appears pristine and timeless with its barren lands and icy landscape. In reality, the area is rapidly changing. Scientists are working to understand the chemistry behind these changes to better predict what could happen to the region in the future. One team reports in ACS' Journal of Physical Chemistry A that sea salt could play a larger role in the formation of local atmospheric pollutants than previously thought. (2016-10-12)

Hacking the human brain -- lab-made synapses for artificial intelligence
One of the greatest challenges facing artificial intelligence development is understanding the human brain and figuring out how to mimic it. Now, one group reports in ACS Nano that they have developed an artificial synapse capable of simulating a fundamental function of our nervous system -- the release of inhibitory and stimulatory signals from the same 'pre-synaptic' terminal. (2017-06-28)

Researchers invent light-emitting nanoantennas
Scientists from ITMO University developed new effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. Such nanosources are based on subwavelength nanoparticles serving both as emitters and nanoantennas and allow enhancing light emission inherently without additional devices. Moreover, perovskite enables tuning of emission spectra throughout the visible range by varying the composition of the material. This makes the new nanoparticles a promising platform for creating compact optoelectronic devices such as optical chips, light-emitting diodes, or sensors. The results were published in Nano Letters. (2018-02-20)

The chemistry of olive oil (video)
Whether you have it with bread or use it to cook, olive oil is awesome. But a lot of chemistry can make or break a product. Extra virgin olive oil is the most expensive (and most delicious) variety, in part thanks to its low acidity. And peppery notes are thanks to antioxidants that contribute to olive oil's healthy reputation. Check out the latest Reactions video for more olive oil chemistry: https://youtu.be/lg1Jy9kx1Kk. (2017-06-20)

Computer system finds 'recipes' for producing materials
System could pore through millions of research papers to extract 'recipes' for producing materials. (2017-11-06)

The chemistry of redheads (video)
The thing that sets redheads apart from the crowd is pigmentation. Most humans produce the brown-black eumelanin while redheads have a genetic variant making more reddish pheomelanin. How red hair is produced by redheads' cells might also explain why they have different sensation to pain. Watch the latest Reactions video here: https://youtu.be/Ylt_p2zzONw. (2017-03-14)

New biosensor could monitor glucose levels in tears and sweat
Constantly tracking a person's glucose levels through their tears or sweat could be one step closer to providing people with diabetes an improved monitoring tool. Researchers report in the journal ACS Nano the development of an ultra-thin, flexible sensor that could be incorporated into contact lenses or on the backs of watches for real-time glucose tracking. (2018-01-24)

Fun with Lego (molecules)
A great childhood pleasure is playing with Legos® and marveling at the variety of structures you can create from a small number of basic elements. Such control and variety of superstructures is a goal of polymer chemists, but it is hard to regulate their specific size and how the pieces fit together. This week in ACS Central Science, researchers report a simple system to make different nano-architectures with precision. (2016-01-27)

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