Popular Adaptive News and Current Events

Popular Adaptive News and Current Events, Adaptive News Articles.
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DNA exchange among species is major contributor to diversity in Heliconius butterflies
Exchange of genetic material among species played a major role in the wide diversity of Heliconius butterflies, according to a new study, results of which inform a centuries-long debate about the value of hybridization to species evolution. (2019-10-31)

Astronomers find possible elusive star behind supernova
Astronomers may have finally found a doomed star that seemed to have avoided detection before its explosive death. (2018-11-15)

Climate change affects fish reproductive phenology in plateau area: Study
The Research Group of Biological Invasion and Adaptive Evolution (BIAE; PI: CHEN Yifeng) at Institute of Hydrobiology (IHB) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently answered how reproductive phenology of Gymnocypris selincuoensis, an endemic fish in Lake Selicuo in Tibetan Plateau, associated with climate changes. (2018-01-19)

Passenger pigeon case study: How even large, stable populations may be at risk for extinction
A new study on passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) genomics suggests that even species with large and stable populations can be at risk of extinction if there's a sudden environmental change. (2017-11-16)

Leadership and adaptive reserve are not associated with blood pressure control
Primary care leadership and practice resilience can strengthen organizational culture. In small primary care practices, however, practice adaptive reserve and leadership capability are not associated with baseline blood pressure control. (2018-04-09)

COVID-19 unmasked: math model suggests optimal treatment strategies
For older patients with COVID-19 infections, the clot-preventing drug heparin and immunity-enhancing drugs may improve outcomes. Patients with conditions such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure may benefit from anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs used to control blood pressure and vascular resistance. (2021-01-05)

Unique pattern of brain inflammation may explain neurocognitive impairment in HIV patients on antiretroviral drugs
Almost half of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated HIV patients experience some degree of neurocognitive impairment (neuroHIV). To search for underlying pathology, scientists analyzed the brains of monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) then treated with cART. As reported in a new study in The American Journal of Pathology, the majority of the SIV-infected macaque brains showed signs of unusual lymphocyte-dominant inflammation, suggesting that persistent neuroinflammation may underlie cognitive problems in cART-treated HIV patients. (2017-12-08)

New insights into how the brain adapts to stress
New research led by the University of Bristol has found that genes in the brain that play a crucial role in behavioural adaptation to stressful challenges are controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. (2016-04-11)

Evading detection by an infrared camera, octopus style
Inspired by organisms that can change the nature of their skin, such as octopuses, researchers have developed a device with tunable infrared reflectivity. The advancement could help hide objects from infrared (heat-sensing) cameras, among other applications. (2018-03-29)

Pea plants demonstrate ability to 'gamble' -- a first in plants
An international team of scientists from Oxford University, UK, and Tel-Hai College, Israel, has shown that pea plants can demonstrate sensitivity to risk -- namely, that they can make adaptive choices that take into account environmental variance, an ability previously unknown outside the animal kingdom. In the study, published in the journal Current Biology, pea plants were grown with their roots split between two pots, thus facing the decision of which pot to prioritize. (2016-06-30)

New regulator of liver metabolism discovered
Researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have identified an enzyme that has a major effect on glucose utilization in liver cells. The enzyme, retinol saturase, helps these cells adapt to variations in glucose levels. However, when glucose levels are consistently too high, retinol saturase appears to exert a damaging effect on cells. Results from this study have been published in the journal Nature Communications*. (2017-09-29)

Adaptive human immunity depends on the factor responsible for the formation of white blood cells
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)has a significant regulatory effect not only on innate, but also on adaptive immunity. That's what scientists from the IKBFU and Research Institute of Fundamental and Clinical Immunology have found. (2019-10-31)

Mathematics pushes innovation in 4-D printing
New mathematical results will provide a potential breakthrough in the design and the fabrication of the next generation of morphable materials. (2018-02-07)

Researchers combine metalens with an artificial muscle
Inspired by the human eye, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an adaptive metalens, that is essentially a flat, electronically controlled artificial eye. The adaptive metalens simultaneously controls for three of the major contributors to blurry images: focus, astigmatism, and image shift. (2018-02-23)

Older drivers adapt their thinking to improve road hazard detection
A recent study finds older drivers adapt their responses in heavy traffic to better identify road hazards. (2017-09-26)

Artificial intelligence helps soldiers learn many times faster in combat
New technology allows US soldiers to learn 13 times faster than conventional methods and Army researchers said this may help save lives. (2018-04-27)

Warming temperatures may cause birds to shrink
Biologists have known for a long time that animals living in colder climates tend to have larger bodies, supposedly as an adaptation to reduce heat loss. However, a new study of European House Sparrows in Australia and New Zealand shows that this trend in birds might actually be due to the effects of high temperatures during development -- raising new alarms about how populations might be affected by global warming. (2018-01-24)

A novel positioning algorithm based on self-adaptive algorithm
Much attention has been paid to the Taylor series expansion (TSE) method these years, which has been extensively used for solving nonlinear equations for its good robustness and accuracy of positioning. An early Taylor-series expansion location algorithm based on the RBF neural network (RBF-TSE) is proposed as the performance of TSE highly depends on the initial estimation. (2017-02-20)

Hospital ownership of practice may reduce physician burnout
Among staff in small- to medium-sized primary care practices, hospital ownership is associated with positive perceptions of work environment and lower burnout. (2018-04-09)

CD4 T cells, xenobiotic transporters, and metabolites in inflammatory bowel diseases
Few studies have investigated the interaction between intestinal T cells with metabolites. Researchers have now shown in mice CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells upregulate the protein Mdr1 in the ileum to maintain homeostasis in the presence of the metabolite bile acid. Mice lacking Mdr1 display mucosal dysfunction and induce Crohn's disease-like ileitis. Their findings suggest that T cell adaptation to enterohepatic bile acid circulation in the ileum safeguards intestinal homeostasis. (2017-12-26)

Food cue-related brain activity linked to obesity?
A unique pattern of gene expression observed in rats may be linked to a conditioned desire for food and excessive food intake, an article published today in BMC Biology suggests. (2007-04-26)

Study finds humans and others exposed to prenatal stress have high stress levels after birth
Vertebrate species, including humans, exposed to stress prenatally tend to have higher stress hormones after birth, according to a new Dartmouth-led study published in Scientific Reports. While previous research has reported examples of maternal stress experience predicting offspring stress hormones in different species, this study is the first to empirically demonstrate the impact of prenatal stress on offspring stress hormone levels using data from all known studies across vertebrates. (2018-04-10)

Study examines the impact of climate change on freshwater species
How might climate change affect the distribution of freshwater species living in rivers, ponds, and lakes? Investigators examined the capacity of species to shift their distributions in response to climate change using modeled projections of 527 freshwater species in New South Wales, Australia. (2016-12-05)

Using whole genome analysis to home in on racing pigeon performance
A scientific team led by Malgorzata Anna Gazda and Miguel Carneiro, performed the first whole genome sequencing of 10 racing pigeons as well as data from 35 different breeds, and has now identified new clues in racing pigeons that may help enhance their performance. The study also including looking at gene expression differences (using RNA sequencing expression data) in the brains and muscle tissue of racing pigeons versus other breeds. (2018-03-13)

Which skills will help patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex psychological condition, and those who suffer from it experience severe reduction in their quality of life. A new study in Springer's journal Cognitive Therapy and Research now shows that OCD sufferers need to adopt adaptive coping skills rather than the maladaptive strategies often used such as repetitive, compulsive actions or creating emotional distance from a situation, in order to effectively manage their condition. (2018-03-16)

Gene which decreases risk of social network-related stress, increases finance-related stress risk
Researchers have discovered that the same gene which increases your risk of depression following financial stress as you grow older also reduces your chance of depression associated with friendship and relationships stresses when young- your social network. This may have implications for treatment, but also offers a possible answer to a question which has puzzled scientists: why has depression survived through evolution? This work is presented at the ECNP Congress in Barcelona. (2018-10-06)

Coral reefs are in trouble -- how can people adapt?
An international team of scientists has developed a strategy to boost people's ability to adapt to climate change. (2018-01-30)

New microscope reveals biological life as you've never seen it before
Astronomers developed a 'guide star' adaptive optics technique to obtain the most crystal-clear and precise telescopic images of distant galaxies, stars and planets. Now a team of scientists are borrowing the very same trick. They've combined it with lattice light-sheet to create a new microscope to capture unprecedented images of biology. The work -- a collaboration between researchers at Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School -- is detailed in a new paper in Science. (2018-04-20)

Virtual contact lenses for radar satellites
Radar satellites supply the data used to map sea level and ocean currents. However, up until now the radar's 'eyes' have been blind where the oceans are covered by ice. Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now developed a new analysis method to solve this problem. (2018-04-16)

Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection
The HIV virus increases the potency of the tuberculosis bacterium (Mtb) by affecting a central function of the immune system. This is the conclusion of a study carried out by researchers at Linköping University in Sweden. The discovery helps to explain why infection with HIV greatly increases the risk that infection by Mtb will progress to active tuberculosis. (2016-10-18)

Pregnancy leads to changes in the mother's brain
A study directed by researchers from the UAB and IMIM are the first to reveal how pregnancy causes long-lasting alterations in brain structure, probably related to improving the mother's ability to protect and interact with the child. The research was published in Nature Neuroscience. (2016-12-19)

Social rejection is painful and can lead to violence. Mindfulness may provide a solution.
People who have greater levels of mindfulness -- or the tendency to maintain attention on and awareness of the present moment -- are better able to cope with the pain of being rejected by others, according to a new study led by a team of Virginia Commonwealth University researchers. (2018-06-14)

An understanding of pigmentation that is more than just skin deep
In an effort to better understand genes affecting skin pigmentation, scientists have generated one of the largest and most comprehensive datasets to date -- by sequencing the genomes of 2,092 ethnically and genetically diverse Africans living in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Botswana. (2017-10-12)

Natural selection is not the only process that drives evolution
Why have some of our genes evolved rapidly? It is widely believed that Darwinian natural selection is responsible, but research led by a group at Uppsala University, suggests that a separate neutral (nonadaptive) process has made a significant contribution to human evolution. Their results have been published today in the journal PLoS Biology. (2009-01-26)

5.5 million-year-old fossil turtle species sheds light on invasive modern relatives
A University of Pennsylvania paleontologist has described a 5.5 million-year-old fossil species of turtle from eastern Tennessee. It represents a new species of the genus Trachemys, commonly known as sliders, which are frequently kept as pets today. (2018-02-26)

University of Utah biologists experimentally trigger adaptive radiation
Using host-specific parasites isolated on individual pigeon 'islands,' the scientists showed that descendants of a single population of feather lice adapted rapidly in response to preening. They found that preening drives rapid and divergent camouflage in feather lice transferred to different colored rock pigeons. Over four years and 60 generations, the lice evolved heritable color differences that spanned the full color range of the lice genus found on 300 bird species worldwide. (2019-03-05)

How to manage forest pests in the Anthropocene? Bring theory.
A survivor's guide to why forests around the world are being impacted by invasive pests and what can be done about it in an era of overwhelming human activity and climate change. (2017-11-13)

Research identifies 'evolutionary rescue' areas for animals threatened by climate change
As winters arrive later and snow melts earlier, the worldwide decrease in snow cover already may have dramatic impacts on animals that change coat colors with the seasons. An international scientific team led by University of Montana Professor L. Scott Mills has set out to discover whether adaptive evolution can rescue these animals in the face of rapidly changing climate. (2018-02-15)

Passenger pigeon genome shows effects of natural selection in a huge population
The passenger pigeon is famous for the enormity of its historical population and for its rapid extinction in the face of mass slaughter by humans. Yet it remains a mystery why the species wasn't able to survive in a few small populations. One theory, consistent with the findings of a new study published in Science, suggests that passenger pigeons were well adapted to living in huge flocks, but poorly adapted to living in smaller groups. (2017-11-16)

New strategy expands the benefits of Internet-delivered CBT
Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have experimented with a new adaptive treatment strategy for Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) that identifies patients within the first month who face a major risk of treatment failure. Published in the scientific journal American Journal of Psychiatry, the results also suggest that such patients may nevertheless benefit if their treatment is adjusted to accommodate their specific needs and challenges. (2019-01-30)

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