Popular Aip Publishing News and Current Events

Popular Aip Publishing News and Current Events, Aip Publishing News Articles.
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Low-level jets create winds of change for turbines
Global wind power capacity has increased more than fivefold over the past decade, leading to larger turbines, but low-level jets are one cause for concern. The effects of these strong, energetic wind flows depend on how high the wind flows are in relation to the turbines. In the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, researchers considered three different scenarios in which the LLJs were above, below, and in the middle of the turbine rotors. (2021-02-23)

Simply speaking while infected can potentially spread COVID-19
COVID-19 can spread from asymptomatic but infected people through small aerosol droplets in their exhaled breath. Most studies of the flow of exhaled air have focused on coughing or sneezing; however, speaking while near one another is also risky. In Physics of Fluids, scientists used smoke and laser light to study the flow of expelled breath near and around two people conversing in various relative postures commonly found in the service industry. (2021-02-23)

Measuring hemoglobin levels with AI microscope, microfluidic chips
A complete blood count can help ascertain the health of a patient and typically includes an estimate of the hemoglobin concentration, which can indicate several conditions, including anemia, polycythemia, and pulmonary fibrosis. In AIP Advances, researchers describe a AI-powered imaging-based tool to estimate hemoglobin levels. The setup was developed in conjunction with a microfluidic chip and an AI-powered automated microscope that was designed for deriving the total as well as differential counts of blood cells. (2021-02-23)

Understanding stars: How tornado-shaped flow in a dynamo strengthens the magnetic field
A new simulation based on the von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) dynamo experiment takes a closer look at how the liquid vortex created by the device generates a magnetic field. Researchers investigated the effects of fluid resistivity and turbulence on the collimation of the magnetic field, where the vortex becomes a focused stream. They report their findings this week in the journal Physics of Fluids. (2017-05-23)

Ultrasound imaging of the brain and liver
Ultrasound is commonly used in diagnostic imaging of the body's soft tissues, including muscles, joints, tendons and internal organs. A technology called high-intensity focused ultrasound is also being explored for therapeutic uses including the removal of uterine fibroids and the destruction of tumors. A suite of noninvasive, adaptive focusing techniques -- that allow ultrasonic beams to be focused through the rib cage and skull -- will be described during Acoustics '17 Boston. (2017-06-26)

Mapping the path of climate change
Predicting a major transition, such as climate change, is extremely difficult, but the probabilistic framework developed by the authors is the first step in identifying the path between a shift in two environmental states. (2020-01-22)

Why stress doesn't always cause depression
Rats susceptible to anhedonia, a core symptom of depression, possess more serotonin neurons after being exposed to chronic stress, but the effect can be reversed through amygdala activation, according to new research in JNeurosci. (2019-12-02)

Hearing hybrid and electric vehicles while quieting noise pollution
Low-emission vehicles are considered too quiet for hearing-impaired pedestrians, so the European Union is mandating that they be equipped with acoustic vehicle alerting systems. With these alert systems would come a marked increase in the amount of noise on the roads across Europe. During the 174th ASA Meeting, Dec. 4-8, 2017, in New Orleans, researchers will present their work assessing the effectiveness of acoustic vehicle alerting systems and their downsides. (2017-12-05)

How stress remodels the brain
Stress restructures the brain by halting the production of crucial ion channel proteins, according to research in mice recently published in JNeurosci. (2020-03-30)

Soft magnetic material characterizations get a harder look
In motors, generators and similar electric machines, the electrical current that powers them generates magnetic fields that magnetize some of the metallic components. Choosing the right magnetic material is crucial for designing efficient machines, so researchers analyzed the existing system for characterizing soft magnetic materials. To identify a better system, they looked at several factors that can affect the uncertainty inherent in the measurement of magnetic properties. Their results are in this week's AIP Advances. (2017-11-14)

Designing diamonds for medical imaging technologies
Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. This brings the new technology one step closer to enhancing biosensing applications, such as magnetic brain imaging. The advantages of this layered, sandwichlike, diamond structure are described in a recent issue of Applied Physics Letters. (2018-03-19)

How synaptic changes translate to behavior changes
Learning changes behavior by altering many connections between brain cells in a variety of ways all at the same time, according to a study of sea slugs recently published in JNeurosci. The findings offer insight into how human learning can impact widespread brain areas. (2020-05-04)

Hybrid electrolyte enhances supercapacitance in vertical graphene nanosheets
Supercapacitors can store more energy than and are preferable to batteries because they are able to charge faster, mainly due to the vertical graphene nanosheets that are larger and positioned closer together. Using VGNs as the material for supercapacitor electrodes offers advantages that can be enhanced depending on how the material is grown, treated and prepared to work with electrolytes. In this week's Journal of Applied Physics, researchers discuss ways to improve the material's properties. (2017-12-05)

Potential biomarker for autism
A study of young children with autism spectrum disorder published in JNeurosci reveals altered brain waves compared to typically developing children during a motor control task. The non-invasive neuroimaging technique used in this study could be employed to detect autism symptoms as early as infancy. (2018-08-13)

The brain's favorite type of music
People prefer songs with only a moderate amount of uncertainty and unpredictability, according to research recently published in JNeurosci. (2019-10-21)

Overlapping mechanisms in HIV cognitive disorders and Alzheimer's disease
A protein involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be a promising target for treating neurological disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, suggests a study published in JNeurosci of rat neurons and brain tissue from deceased humans. The research shows that the two conditions may damage neurons in similar ways. (2018-04-09)

Physics can predict wealth inequality
The 2016 election year highlighted the growing problem of wealth inequality and finding ways to help the people who are falling behind. This human urge of compassion isn't new, but the big question that remains to be addressed is why inequality is so difficult to erase. This inspired Adrian Bejan at Duke University, who in 1996 discovered the Constructal Law, to provide an answer. (2017-03-28)

Chicken embryo illuminates role of thyroid hormone in brain development
A thyroid hormone transporter is essential for the earliest stages of brain development, according to a JNeurosci study of a region of the developing chicken brain with a layered structure similar to the human cerebral cortex. (2017-11-06)

New portable blood analyzer could improve anemia detection worldwide
To reduce the burden of anemia, health officials need a better picture of the disease's global impact, an understanding made viable by a portable and affordable way to analyze blood. Researchers at the University of Washington developed a device smaller than a toaster that can detect the level of hemoglobin in whole blood samples using optical absorbance. The work is published this week in AIP Advances. (2017-10-03)

Tiny probe could produce big improvements in batteries and fuel cells
The key to needed improvements in the quest for better batteries and fuels cells likely lies in the nanoscale, a realm so tiny that the movement of a few atoms or molecules can shift the landscape. A team of American and Chinese researchers has built a new window into this world to help scientists better understand how batteries really work. They describe their nanoscale probe in the Journal of Applied Physics. (2016-05-31)

Exploring the thermoelectric properties of tin selenide nanostructures
Single crystal tin selenide is a semiconductor and an ideal thermoelectric material; it can directly convert waste heat to electrical energy or be used for cooling. When a group of researchers from Case Western Reserve University saw the graphenelike layered crystal structure of SnSe, they had one of those magical 'aha!' moments. The group reports in the Journal of Applied Physics that they immediately recognized this material's potential to be fabricated in nanostructure forms. (2018-03-27)

The perils of publishing location data for endangered species
While the increasing accessibility of data from scientific studies creates many benefits -- and represents a process that should be broadly embraced -- in the context of conserving endangered species it can actually be problematic, write David Lindenmayer and Ben Scheele in this Essay. (2017-05-25)

Alaskan microgrids offer energy resilience and independence
The electrical grid in the contiguous United States is a behemoth of interconnected systems; if one section fails, millions could be without power. Remote villages in Alaska provide an example of how safeguards could build resilience into a larger electrical grid. These communities rely on microgrids -- small, local power stations that operate autonomously. Recent articles in the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy provide reviews of energy technologies and costs for microgrids in Alaska. (2017-12-26)

Is there a musical method for interpreting speech?
Vocoded speech, or distorted speech that imitates voice transduction by a cochlear implant, is used throughout acoustic and auditory research to explore speech comprehension under various conditions. Researchers evaluated whether musicians had an advantage in understanding and reciting degraded speech as compared to nonmusicians, and they will present their work on the effect of musical experience on the ability to understand vocoded speech at the 174th ASA Meeting, Dec. 4-8, 2017. (2017-12-07)

The dawn of gallium oxide microelectronics
Pushing semiconductor technology to its full potential requires smaller designs at higher energy density, and transparent conductive oxides are a key emerging material, offering the unlikely combination of conductivity and transparency over the visual spectrum. One conductive oxide has unique properties that allow it to function well in power switching: gallium oxide, a material with an incredibly large bandgap. In this week's Applied Physics Letters, researchers outline a case for producing microelectronics using gallium oxide. (2018-02-06)

Optical generation of ultrasound via photoacoustic effect
Limitations of the piezoelectric array technologies conventionally used for ultrasonics inspired researchers to explore an alternative mechanism for generating ultrasound via light (the photoacoustic effect). Coupling this with 3-D printing, the group was able to generate sounds fields with specific shapes for potential use in biological cell manipulation and drug delivery. As the group reports in this week's Applied Physics Letters, their work focuses on using the photoacoustic effect to control ultrasound fields in 3-D. (2017-02-28)

How serious is binge drinking among college students with disabilities?
A new study finds that college students with disabilities binge drink more often than their non-disabled student peers. The study, providing the first picture of alcohol use and binge drinking by US college students with disabilities, is out today in Public Health Reports, a SAGE Publishing journal and the official journal of the Office of the US Surgeon General and the US Public Health Service. (2017-06-22)

Diamonds show promise for spintronic devices
Recently, researchers have been exploring the potential for a new technology, called spintronics, that relies on detecting and controlling a particle's spin. This technology could lead to new types of more efficient and powerful devices. In a paper published in Applied Physics Letters, researchers measured how strongly a charge carrier's spin interacts with a magnetic field in diamond. This crucial property shows diamond as a promising material for spintronic devices. (2018-01-29)

Diamond-based circuits can take the heat for advanced applications
When power generators transfer electricity, they lose almost 10 percent of the generated power. To address this, scientists are researching new diamond semiconductor circuits to make power conversion systems more efficient. Researchers in Japan successfully fabricated a key circuit in power conversion systems using hydrogenated diamond. These circuits can be used in diamond-based electronic devices that are smaller, lighter and more efficient than silicon-based devices. They report their findings in this week's Applied Physics Letters. (2018-04-10)

How education may stave off cognitive decline
Prefrontal brain regions linked to higher educational attainment are characterized by increased expression of genes involved in neurotransmission and immunity, finds a study of healthy older adults published in JNeurosci. The identified genes and molecular pathways could provide insight into factors that help keep the brain sharp in old age. (2019-04-08)

Novel use of NMR sheds light on easy-to-make electropolymerized catalysts
In the world of catalytic reactions, polymers created through electropolymerization are attracting renewed attention. A group of Chinese researchers recently provided the first detailed characterization of the electrochemical properties of polyaniline and polyaspartic acid (PASP) thin films. In AIP Advances, the team used a wide range of tests to characterize the polymers, especially their capacity for catalyzing the oxidation of popularly used materials, hydroquinone and catechol. (2018-10-05)

New link between obesity and body temperature
Reduced ability to maintain body temperature in colder environments may contribute to the development of obesity in adulthood, suggests a new study in mice published in JNeurosci. (2018-03-12)

Material can turn sunlight, heat and movement into electricity -- all at once
Many forms of energy surround you: sunlight, the heat in your room and even your own movements. All that energy -- normally wasted -- can potentially help power your portable and wearable gadgets, from biometric sensors to smart watches. Now, researchers from the University of Oulu in Finland have found that a mineral with the perovskite crystal structure has the right properties to extract energy from multiple sources at the same time. (2017-02-07)

Creating higher energy density lithium-ion batteries for renewable energy applications
Lithium-ion batteries that function as high-performance power sources for renewable applications, such as electric vehicles and consumer electronics, require electrodes that deliver high energy density without compromising cell lifetimes. In the Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, researchers investigate the origins of degradation in high energy density LIB cathode materials and develop strategies for mitigating those degradation mechanisms and improving LIB performance. (2020-11-24)

Locating the precise reaction path: Methane dissociation on platinum
So far, the search for catalysts even better than transition metals has been largely based on trial and error, and on the assumption that catalyzed reactions take place on step edges and other atomic defect sites of the metal crystals. An international research team has combined experiments using advanced infrared techniques with quantum theory to explore methane dissociation reactions in minute detail. They report their findings this week in The Journal of Chemical Physics. (2018-01-02)

Optical and electrical bistability study sheds light on next-gen high speed data transfer
Today, electrical bistable devices are the foundation of digital electronics, but the bandwidth of these electronic computers is limited by the signal delay of time constants important to electronic logic operations. In an attempt to mitigate these problems, scientists have considered the development of an optical digital computer. This week, in the Journal of Applied Physics, researchers present their findings regarding the optical and electrical bistability of a single transistor operated at room temperature. (2017-09-18)

How teens learn about others
Despite their intense interest in other people, adolescents are slower to learn about the preferences of their peers than adults, according to results from a new approach to studying social development published in JNeurosci. (2017-12-18)

The inner lives of molecules
Researchers from Canada, the UK and Germany have developed a new experimental technique to take 3-D images of molecules in action. This tool can help scientists better understand the quantum mechanics underlying bigger and more complex molecules. They describe their work in this week's The Journal of Chemical Physics. (2017-04-04)

Three's company: New alloy sets magnetism benchmark
Spintronics leverages electron spins to enhance solid-state devices by prolonging battery life. Spintronic developments, however, are increasingly running up against the Slater-Pauling limit, the maximum for how tightly a material can pack its magnetization. Now, a new thin film is poised to break through this decades-old benchmark. Researchers discuss their work constructing a stable thin film made from iron, cobalt and manganese that may push past the Slater-Pauling limit, in this week's Applied Physics Letters. (2018-02-13)

Shining light on low-energy electrons
The classic method for studying how electrons interact with matter is by analyzing their scattering through thin layers of a known substance. This happens by directing a stream of electrons at the layer and analyzing the subsequent deviations in the electrons' trajectories. But researchers in Switzerland have devised a way to examine the movement of low-energy electrons that can adversely impact electronic systems and biological tissue, discussed in this week's The Journal of Chemical Physics. (2017-06-13)

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