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New ALS-associated gene identified using innovative strategy
Using an innovative exome sequencing strategy, a team of international scientists led by John Landers, Ph.D., at the University of Massachusetts Medical School has shown that TUBA4A, the gene encoding the Tubulin Alpha 4A protein, is associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal neurological disorder also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. (2014-10-22)

New interferon shows promise against hepatitis B in cell culture, and animal model
Hepatitis B is notoriously difficult to eradicate with currently available agents. Now, in a new study, a novel form of 'pegylated' interferon-β has reduced hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in experimental human-derived cells and in mice more effectively than the conventional pegylated interferon-α2a, suggesting that it could lead to improved treatment for hepatitis B infection in humans. (2017-04-03)

Healthy foods more important than type of diet to reduce heart disease risk
In a study published in the International Journal of Cardiology, researchers at BIDMC examined the effects of three healthy diets emphasizing different macronutrients -- carbohydrates, proteins, or unsaturated fats -- on a biomarker that directly reflects heart injury. (2019-08-28)

New research gives further evidence that autoimmunity plays a role in Parkinson's disease
A new study co-led by scientists at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) adds increasing evidence that Parkinson's disease is partly an autoimmune disease. In fact, the researchers report that signs of autoimmunity can appear in Parkinson's disease patients years before their official diagnosis. (2020-04-20)

Princeton release: High social rank comes at a price, researchers find
Being at the very top of a social hierarchy may be more costly than previously thought, according to a new study of wild baboons led by a Princeton University ecologist. The findings have implications in the study of social hierarchies and of the impact of social dominance on health and well-being, a subject of interest among researchers who study human and other animal populations. (2011-07-14)

Human Metabolite Of Taxol Synthesized In The Laboratory
A doctoral student in chemistry at Virginia Tech, has synthesized the major human metabolite of Taxol -- 6-alpha- hydroxypaclitaxel, the first time the metabolite has been synthesized in the laboratory. (1998-04-01)

Stem cells police themselves to reduce scarring, Stanford study finds
Treating mice with a compound that increases the expression of an inactive protein helped them heal from injury with less scarring, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (2016-11-28)

One form of vitamin E appears beneficial in reducing bladder cancer risk
One form of vitamin E appears to offer protection against development of bladder cancer, while a second form has no beneficial effect, say a team of researchers led by The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. These findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. (2004-03-30)

A new target for the treatment of breast cancer
The active ingredient in a drug currently being tested to treat rheumatoid arthritis might also one day serve as an effective means of treating one of the deadliest forms of breast cancer. Berkeley Lab researchers have demonstrated that inhibiting the activity of the protease enzyme known as TACE can deprive tumor cells of a key factor needed for their proliferation. TACE is strongly present in a form of breast cancer which responds poorly to current therapies. (2007-01-11)

Alpha-1 project commissions UMass Medical School to develop Alpha-1 protein antibody
Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Medical School have been commissioned by the Alpha-1 Project to develop a PiZ antibody. The antibody will be used to track the presence of mutant alpha-1 PiZ protein in human blood serum, an essential tool in testing potential therapies for Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. (2014-01-09)

Alcohol increases hepatitis C virus in human cells
A team of NIH-supported researchers today report that alcohol increases replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human cells and, by so doing, may contribute to the rapid course of HCV infection. (2003-06-26)

Ancient symbiosis between animals and bacteria discovered
Marine shallow water sandy bottoms on the surface appear desert-like and empty, but in the interstitial space between the sand grains a diverse fauna flourishes. One of the strangest members of this interstitial fauna is Paracatenula, a several millimeters long, mouth and gut-less flatworm, which is found from tropical oceans to the Mediterranean. These worms are the focus of the research project of Harald Gruber-Vodicka of the University of Vienna. (2011-06-27)

Nickel nanoparticles may contribute to lung cancer
Lab experiments find that nickel particles with diameters billionths of a meter wide can trigger a cellular pathway that promotes cancer growth. (2011-08-23)

Investigating unusual three-ribbon solar flares with extreme high resolution
The 1.6 meter telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) in California has given researchers unparalleled capability for investigating phenomena such as solar flares. Operated by New Jersey Institute of Technology, the BBSO instrument is the most powerful ground-based telescope dedicated to studying the star closest to Earth. (2014-06-03)

Highly charged ions
Why can't neodymium be more like tin? Well it can, if you ionize it enough. Why strip atoms of a dozen or more electrons? To make them more amenable for use in atomic clocks and quantum computers. (2014-07-18)

Measurements at CERN help to re-evaluate the element of life
Geneva, 13 January 2005. Results from experiments at CERN and the Jyväskylä Accelerator Laboratory in Finland, reported in Nature today, cast new light on the primary reaction that creates carbon in stars. (2005-01-13)

Valley Foundation awards Parkinson's Institute $1M
The Parkinson's Institute announces a $1 million grant from the Valley Foundation to support the Institute's STOP PD research program, and to assist its relocation to a new facility. (2007-06-27)

Common treatment for chronic prostatitis fails to reduce symptoms
Alfuzosin, a drug commonly prescribed for men with chronic prostatitis, a painful disorder of the prostate and surrounding pelvic area, failed to significantly reduce symptoms in recently diagnosed men who had not been previously treated with this drug, according to a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health. (2008-12-18)

Pre-clinical study suggests Parkinson's could start in gut endocrine cells
Duke University researchers have identified a potential new mechanism in both mice and human endocrine cells that populate the small intestines. Inside these cells is a protein called alpha-synuclein, which is known to go awry and lead to damaging clumps in the brains of Parkinson's patients, as well as those with Alzheimer's disease. (2017-06-15)

Surprise! TESS shows ancient north star undergoes eclipses
NASA's TESS satellite has shown that the bright star Alpha Draconis and its fainter, previously known companion actually undergo mutual eclipses: a complete surprise. (2020-01-06)

Glassy protein solution may cause eyesight deterioration
Long-sightedness caused by age could be due to proteins in the lens of the eye that are converted from a fluid solution to a solid, glassy state. This has been shown in a study by researchers from institutions including Lund University. (2014-11-26)

The first stage of the cascade
G proteins are molecular switches on the insides of cell membranes. They convey important signals to the inner workings of the cells. The associated receptors are targeted by all kinds of medications. Scientists at the Technical University of Munich are now shedding light on precisely how the individual amino acids of the G protein move during the switching process. The discovered mechanism signposts new approaches to the design of new active agents. (2016-08-19)

A better delivery system for chemotherapy drugs
Professor Daniel Wreschner of Tel Aviv University is developing new antibodies that bind to and kill off cancer cells exclusively. These antibodies have the potential to be used as a more efficient and effective method of delivering chemotherapy drugs directly to their targets. (2012-05-30)

Duke surgeon: use of common clotting agent should be restricted
A substance derived from cow blood and used to control bleeding in more than 500,000 surgeries each year appears to stimulate an abnormal immune response that puts patients at greater risk of suffering from complications, especially if that agent is used in subsequent operations, according to Duke University Medical Center investigators. (2001-10-31)

Yale discovery may open door to drug that cuts appetite and boosts energy
In a major advance in obesity and diabetes research, Yale School of Medicine scientists have found that reducing levels of a key enzyme in the brain decreased appetites and increased energy levels. (2009-07-20)

Why there are bad learners: EEG activity predicts learning success
The reason why some people are worse at learning than others has been revealed by a research team from Berlin, Bochum, and Leipzig, operating within the framework of the Germany-wide network (2013-02-13)

MCG student receives national medical honor society research fellowship
A student at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Health Sciences University is among 47 recipients of the 2012 Carolyn L. Kuckein Student Research Fellowship from the national medical honor society Alpha Omega Alpha. (2012-07-18)

Drug for urination difficulties linked with complications after cataract surgery
Use of the medication tamsulosin to treat male urination difficulties within two weeks of cataract surgery is associated with an increased risk of serious postoperative ophthalmic adverse events such as retinal detachment or lost lens, according to a study in the May 20 issue of JAMA. (2009-05-19)

Rong Li Lab identifies new role of inflammatory protein in PKD and a possible treatment
The Stowers Institute's Rong Li Lab has discovered that a protein previously shown to have a role in inflammation may also have a role in the formation of cysts in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease -- one of the most common life-threatening genetic diseases -- and has shown that a drug inhibiting the protein can slow the disease in mice. (2008-06-16)

Diverse amyloid structures and dynamics revealed by high-speed atomic force microscopy
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in ACS Nano a high-speed atomic-force microscopy study of the formation of protein fibrils (amyloids) associated with pathologies in collaborated research with Showa University. Mixing different variants of a single protein and changing the acidity of its environment is shown to result in significant variations in amyloid structure and elongation rates. (2020-08-03)

Preoperative statins reduce mortality in coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Research presented at this year's Euroanaesthesia exploring the protective effect of various heart medications that patients are taking before undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery concludes that statins reduce the risk of death by two thirds, or 67 percent, while no consistent effects were seen for other medications. (2015-05-31)

Nicotine drives cell invasion that contributes to plaque formation in coronary arteries
Research on human and rat vascular smooth muscle cells provides evidence of a link between nicotine and atherosclerosis, major cause of heart attacks. (2013-12-15)

Estrogen receptor-{alpha} antisense decreases brain estrogen receptor levels and affects ventilation in male and female rats
From the Journal of Applied Physiology... (2001-10-17)

How cells know when to stop wound-healing
Researchers have found that an integrin -- a protein that helps cells stick to surfaces -- also tells cells when they should stop healing a wound and settle down. (2001-04-30)

Altered protein shapes may explain differences in some brain diseases
It only takes one bad apple to spoil the bunch, and the same may be true of certain proteins in the brain. Studies have suggested that just one rogue protein can act as a seed, leading to the misfolding of nearby proteins. According to an NIH-funded study, various forms of these seeds -- originating from the same protein -- may lead to different patterns of misfolding that result in neurological disorders with unique sets of symptoms. (2013-07-03)

Brain network signatures track and predict response to general anesthesia
The complex pattern of 'chatter' between different areas of an individual's brain while they are awake could help doctors better track and even predict their response to general anesthesia -- and better identify the amount of anesthetic necessary -- according to new research published in PLOS Computational Biology. (2016-01-14)

How mice and humans differ immunologically
New research, to be published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, indicates the reason that humans and rodents respond differently to a molecule that is being developed to treat allergic diseases. Specifically, the molecule, which triggers the protein TLR9, induces production of the soluble factor TNF-alpha only in rodents. (2009-08-10)

Low doses of radiation in nature may pose more risk
Radiation can trigger widespread mutations in living cells at much lower doses than the amount scientists previously believed could do such damage, according to findings from a study by Columbia researchers. The research may help public health officials reconsider what levels of radiation in nature should be deemed safe. (2001-12-11)

Is transforming growth factor-beta involved in intestinal wound healing?
A research group from Germany investigated the effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on the differentiation of colonic lamina propria fibroblasts (CLPF) into myofibroblasts in vitro. They found that TGF-beta 1 potently stimulates the production of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in CLPF and therefore their differentiation into myofibroblasts as a result of long-term contact. (2009-03-30)

High alpha-carotene levels associated with longer life
High blood levels of the antioxidant alpha-carotene appear to be associated with a reduced risk of dying over a 14-year period, according to a report posted online today that will be published in the March 28 print issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (2010-11-22)

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