Popular Amino Acid News and Current Events

Popular Amino Acid News and Current Events, Amino Acid News Articles.
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Not silent at all
The so-called 'silent' or 'synonymous' genetic alterations do not result in altered proteins. But they can nevertheless influence numerous functions of the cell and thus also disease processes. Scientists from the German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, and the University of Freiburg have now created a comprehensive database of all synonymous mutations ever found in cancer. This is a 'reference book' that provides cancer researchers with all available information on each of these supposedly 'silent' mutations at a glance. (2019-06-12)

Drip by drip
How do crystals grow? The answer given in current textbooks is: Layer by layer atoms or molecules settle on an existing crystal surface. The research team Physical Chemistry at the University of Konstanz has now observed a preliminary stage of this crystal growth in glutamic acid that contradicts this classical principal of growth. Not individual atoms settle on an existing crystal surface, but nano-drips that already contain building blocks for growth. (2017-06-21)

From sea to lab
With its vast numbers of different lifeforms, the sea is a largely unexplored source of natural products that could be starting points for new pharmaceuticals, such as the antitumor drugs trabectedin and lurbinectedin. Because only tiny amounts can be obtained from sea organisms, synthetic production is necessary. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, scientists have introduced a new, efficient synthetic route for these two drugs. A key step is the light-controlled activation of a carbon-hydrogen bond. (2019-02-18)

B cells continue to work against SARS-CoV-2 months after infection, but do not recognize mutant
A new analysis of B cells and more than 1,000 different monoclonal antibodies from 8 patients with COVID-19 shows that, contrary to previous hypotheses, protective B cell responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein remain stable and continue to evolve over a 5-month period, many months after the initial period of active viral replication. (2021-02-23)

Are vitamin supplements used before or during pregnancy associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder?
The use of folic acid and multivitamin supplements by women before and during pregnancy was associated with a lower likelihood of autism spectrum disorder in children but this finding  needs to be interpreted with caution because other factors could explain it. (2018-01-03)

Nutritional supplements and diets not always protective, WVU research suggests
Do the nutritional supplements people take or the diets they adhere to actually protect them against cardiovascular problems and death? Maybe not, suggests a new umbrella review of meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials by Safi Khan, an assistant professor in the West Virginia University School of Medicine. (2019-07-08)

New innovations in cell-free biotechnology
Professor Michael Jewett's new platform to conduct cell-free protein synthesis could lead to improved quality of manufactured protein therapeutics and biomaterials. (2018-03-23)

Oncotarget: Researchers identify a potential molecular trigger for invasiveness in prostate cancer cells
A small protein modification can trigger the aggressive migratory and invasive properties of prostate cancer cells, according to new research published on the cover of Oncotarget. The findings give greater insight into how cancers can move from one location in the body to another, and could help develop more effective therapies in the future. Editorial by Xin Ye and Robert A. Weinberg can be found online. (2017-11-20)

Zebrafish study provides new insights into autism spectrum disorder research
Exposure to a compound used to treat migraines and seizures causes characteristics associated with autism, groundbreaking research with zebrafish has demonstrated. (2018-01-24)

Folding revolution
A Harvard Medical School scientist has used a form of artificial intelligence known as deep learning to predict the 3D structure of effectively any protein based on its amino acid sequence. This new approach for computationally determining protein structure achieves accuracy comparable to current state-of-the-art methods but at speeds upward of a million times faster. (2019-04-17)

Tipping the scales
Human cells have a sophisticated regulatory system at their disposal: labeling proteins with the small molecule ubiquitin. In a first, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has succeeded in marking proteins with ubiquitin in a targeted manner, in test tubes as well as in living cells. The procedure opens the door to exploring the inner workings of this vital regulatory system. (2019-04-03)

Stress may protect -- at least in bacteria
Antibiotics harm bacteria and stress them. Trimethoprim, an antibiotic, inhibits the growth of the bacterium Escherichia coli and induces a stress response. This response also protects the bacterium from subsequent deadly damage from acid. Antibiotics can therefore increase the survival chances of bacteria under certain conditions. This is shown in a study by researchers at IST Austria (Karin Mitosch, Georg Rieckh and Tobias Bollenbach), which was published in the journal Cell Systems. (2017-03-23)

Study shows high phenolic acid intake -- associated with a healthy diet -- is associated with reduced breast cancer risk
New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Glasgow, Scotland (April 28-May 1) shows that a high intake of phenolic acids -- associated with a healthy diet -- is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The study is by Andrea Romanos Nanclares, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain, and colleagues. (2019-04-30)

Exploring electrolysis for energy storage
A research team at Kyushu University's International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER) developed a flow-type polymer electrolyte cell for power storage. The cell reduces oxalic acid (OX) to glycolic acid, which has a higher volumetric energy-storage capacity than hydrogen gas. Newly fabricated TiO2 cathode enhanced the speed and efficiency of OX reduction. This competitive energy-storage device could be used to balance out the fluctuations in renewable power supplies. (2018-01-02)

A new view of the immune system
Pathogen epitopes are fragments of bacterial or viral proteins. Nearly a third of all existing human epitopes consist of two different fragments. Known as 'spliced epitopes', these types of epitopes have long been regarded as rare. The fact that they are so highly prevalent might, among other things, explain why the immune system is so highly flexible. Results from this study have been published in the current issue of the journal Science.* (2016-10-21)

Texas A&M AgriLife study shows BPA risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease
A recent study in a preclinical model of inflammatory bowel disease shows dietary exposure to bisphenol-A, or BPA, found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, can increase mortality and worsen its symptoms. (2018-07-05)

How the enzyme lipoxygenase drives heart failure after heart attacks
Heart failure after a heart attack is a global epidemic leading to heart failure pathology. Ganesh Halade, Ph.D., is seeking ways to delay or reverse this heart failure, which comes from non-resolved chronic inflammation. In a study in Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, Halade and colleagues detail the profound lipidomic and metabolic signatures and the modified leukocyte profiling that delay heart failure progression and provide improved survival in 12/15 lipoxygenase-deficient mice. (2019-05-31)

Whole eggs better for muscle building and repair than egg whites, researchers find
People who consume 18 grams of protein from whole eggs or from egg whites after engaging in resistance exercise differ dramatically in how their muscles build protein, a process called protein synthesis, during the post-workout period, researchers report in a new study. Specifically, the post-workout muscle-building response in those eating whole eggs is 40 percent greater than in those consuming an equivalent amount of protein from egg whites, the team found. (2017-12-20)

Maternal inflammation boosts serotonin and impairs fetal brain development in mice
Fighting the flu during pregnancy sickens a pregnant woman, but it may also put the fetus at a slightly increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders like autism later in life. A new study in pregnant mice, published June 1 in The Journal of Neuroscience, offers a potential mechanism explaining why: Inflammation alters neurotransmitters and impairs growth of nerve cells in the developing fetal brain. (2016-05-31)

Alpha-ray missile therapy: tumor cells attacked from intracellular region
Researchers from Osaka University have innovated a technique of irradiating cancer from within. They tagged α-methyl-L-tyrosine with 211Astatine, an α-emitter, to prepare 211At-AAMT; this radiopharmaceutical was effectively conveyed into cancer cells by the amino acid transporter LAT1. Alpha radiation combines high linear energy transfer with minimal tissue penetration, damaging cancer cells lethally while sparing surrounding normal tissue. This strategy may prove a breakthrough in the management of intractable or advanced cancers. (2021-01-04)

Rational protein engineering can improve effectiveness of mRNA therapies
mRNA drugs offer a promising new approach to deliver therapeutic replacement proteins, and novel strategies designed to engineer more stable and active proteins are further enhancing the potential of mRNA therapies. (2018-03-30)

Genetically boosting the nutritional value of corn could benefit millions
Rutgers scientists have found an efficient way to enhance the nutritional value of corn -- the world's largest commodity crop -- by inserting a bacterial gene that causes it to produce a key nutrient called methionine, according to a new study. (2017-10-09)

New link between gut bacteria and obesity
Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have discovered a new link between gut bacteria and obesity. They found that certain amino acids in our blood can be connected to both obesity and the composition of the gut microbiome. (2018-02-23)

'Invisible' bacteria dupe the human immune system
Scientists at the University of York have characterized an important new step in the mechanism used by bacteria to evade our immune system. (2008-02-19)

Sweat, bleach and gym air quality
One sweaty, huffing, exercising person emits as many chemicals from their body as up to five sedentary people, according to a new University of Colorado Boulder study. And notably, those human emissions, including amino acids from sweat or acetone from breath, chemically combine with bleach cleaners to form new airborne chemicals with unknown impacts to indoor air quality. (2021-01-05)

Breaking up amino acids with radiation
A new experimental and theoretical study published in EPJ D has shown how the ions formed when electrons collide with one amino acid, glutamine, differ according to the energy of the colliding electrons. This has implications for improving radiotherapy for cancer and understanding the origin of life. (2020-02-05)

Blood pressure diet improves gout blood marker
A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy and reduced in fats and saturated fats (the DASH diet), designed decades ago to reduce high blood pressure, also appears to significantly lower uric acid, the causative agent of gout. Further, the effect was so strong in some participants that it was nearly comparable to that achieved with drugs specifically prescribed to treat gout, a new study led by Johns Hopkins researchers shows. (2016-08-15)

Biophysics: Bacterial adhesion in vitro and in silico
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet in Munich researchers have characterized the physical mechanism that enables a widespread bacterial pathogen to adhere to the tissues of its human host. (2018-03-29)

Obtaining of silicon nanowires becomes eco-friendly
Scientists from the Faculty of Physics, the Lomonosov Moscow State University have devised a technique of silicon nanowires synthesis. They have managed to do this with the help of metal-assisted etching, where safer and more eco-friendly ammonium fluoride is used instead of hydrofluoric acid. The research results have been published in Nanoscale Research Letters journal. (2016-10-18)

Russian chemists discovered a surprising effect of a well-known leukemia drug
Researchers from RUDN University and Institute of Biomedical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences have identified an alternative mechanism for the effective antitumor drug -- an enzyme called L-asparaginase. Some isoenzymes of L-asparaginase block the growth of telomeres (region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome) on DNA molecules, and this limits the number of divisions of a cancer cell. This effect is reported in the Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (2017-11-10)

Interrogating proteins
Scientists from the University of Bristol have designed a new protein structure, and are using it to understand how protein structures are stabilized. (2017-05-22)

How do neural support cells affect nerve function?
Glial cells may modulate the release of neurotransmitters -- chemicals that relay signals between nerve cells -- by increasing the acidity of the extracellular environment. (2018-02-21)

New form of autism found
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect around one percent of the world's population and are characterized by a range of difficulties in social interaction and communication. In a new study published in Cell today, a team of researchers led by Gaia Novarino, Professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), has identified a new genetic cause of ASD. (2016-12-01)

'Tricking' bacteria into hydroxylating benzene
Researchers at Nagoya University used bacteria to convert benzene into phenol. They developed 'decoy' molecules -- modified amino acids -- mimicking the native substrates of a genetically expressed oxygenase enzyme. When absorbed by live E.coli cells, the decoys were misrecognized as substrates of the oxygenase, which became activated. The bacteria then oxidized a supplied benzene source, needing only glucose as fuel. (2018-06-11)

Ancient proteins studied in detail
How did protein interactions arise and how have they developed? In a new study, researchers have looked at two proteins which began co-evolving between 400 and 600 million years ago. What did they look like? How did they work, and how have they changed over time? The findings, published in eLife, show how a combination of changes in the proteins' properties created better conditions for the regulation of a cellular process. (2017-05-08)

Choose Omega-3s from fish over flax for cancer prevention, study finds
Omega-3s from fish pack a stronger punch than flaxseed and other oils when it comes to cancer prevention, according to a first-ever University of Guelph study. (2018-01-26)

Vitamin C in the body can be tracked by fluorescence
A Japanese research team led by The University of Tokyo's Institute of Industrial Science bio-imaged vitamin C in mice. A probe chemical emitted red fluorescent light after reacting with vitamin C in the mice's bloodstream. When a dose of exogenous vitamin C was injected, it accumulated in vital organs. This is the first bioimaging of vitamin C in living tissue, showing high sensitivity and good selectivity, paving the way toward the use of this vitamin to treat cancer. (2018-01-24)

Camelina oil improves blood lipid profile
The use of camelina oil reduces overall and LDL cholesterol levels in persons with impaired glucose metabolism, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. The findings were published in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. (2018-01-08)

Metabolism gives a boost to understanding plant and animal nutrient evolution
In the advanced online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, authors Maurino, et. al., explore the evolution of a family of enzymes, called 2-hydroxy acid oxidase, or 2-HAOX, that break down fats in both plant and animals. Their results show how plants and animals have adapted differently to similar environmental conditions in order to meet their energy needs. (2014-02-14)

A unique amino acid for brain cancer therapy
Researchers discover potential application of amino acid taurine in photodynamic therapy for brain cancer. (2017-06-23)

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