Popular Chromatin News and Current Events

Popular Chromatin News and Current Events, Chromatin News Articles.
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Unlocking the genome
A team led by Prof. Stein Aerts (VIB-KU Leuven) uncovers how access to relevant DNA regions is orchestrated in epithelial cells. These findings shed new light on the biological mechanisms of gene regulation and open up potential new avenues for cellular reprogramming. (2018-06-04)

Illuminating the genome
Development of a new molecular visualisation method, RNA-guided endonuclease -- in situ labelling (RGEN-ISL) for the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated labelling of genomic sequences in nuclei and chromosomes. (2019-03-08)

A protein that stem cells require could be a target in killing breast cancer cells
Researchers have identified a protein that must be present in order for mammary stem cells to perform their normal functions. When the researchers genetically removed or chemically inhibited the protein, called BPTF, stem cells could no longer maintain their 'renewing' state and began to take on the character of specialized breast cells, and soon died. Breast cancer cells with stem-like properties could have the same weakness. (2017-06-01)

Researchers are first to see DNA 'blink'
Northwestern University biomedical engineers have developed imaging technology that is the first to see DNA 'blink,' or fluoresce. The tool enables researchers to study individual biomolecules (DNA, chromatin, proteins) as well as important global patterns of gene expression, which could yield insights into cancer. Vadim Backman will discuss the technology and its applications -- including the new concept of macrogenomics, a technology aiming to regulate the global patterns of gene expression without gene editing -- at the 2017 AAAS annual meeting. (2017-02-17)

Insulin insights
Insulin triggers genome-wide changes in gene expression via an unexpected mechanism. The insulin receptor is transported from the cell surface to the cell nucleus, where it helps initiate the expression of thousands of genes. Targeted genes are involved in insulin-related functions and disease but surprisingly not carbohydrate metabolism. Findings outline a set of potential therapeutic targets for insulin-related diseases and establish a wide range of future avenues for the study of insulin signaling. (2019-04-04)

What social stress in monkeys can tell us about human health
A new University of Washington-led study examines one key stress-inducing circumstance -- the effects of social hierarchy -- and how cells respond to the hormones that are released in response to that stress. (2018-12-11)

Brain DNA 'remodeled' in alcoholism
Reshaping of the DNA scaffolding that supports and controls the expression of genes in the brain may play a major role in alcohol withdrawal symptoms, particularly anxiety, that makes it so difficult to stop using alcohol by alcoholics, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine and the Jesse Brown VA Medical Center report in a study in the April 2 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. (2008-04-01)

Packaging and unpacking of the genome
Single-cell techniques have been used to investigate histone replacement and chromatin remodeling in developing oocytes. (2015-11-06)

Uncovering a reversible master switch for development
In a paper published in Genes & Development, BWH principal investigator Mitzi Kuroda, PhD, and her team identified a reversible 'master switch' on most developmental genes. The team unearthed this biological insight through studies in the fruit fly -- a powerful model organism for studying how human genes are organized and function. (2017-11-13)

Cell cycle proteins help immune cells trap microbes with nets made of DNA
In your bloodstream, there are immune cells called neutrophils that, when faced with a pathogenic threat, will expel their DNA like a net to contain it. These DNA snares are called neutrophil extracellular traps or NETs. Researchers from Germany and the United States describe an important step in how these NETs are released and how they stop a fungus from establishing an infection in mice and human cells in the journal Developmental Cell. (2017-11-20)

Biologists unravel another mystery of what makes DNA go 'loopy'
The journal Science published the research by biologists at Emory University, showing that a process known as hemimethylation plays a role in looping DNA in a specific way. The researchers also demonstrated that hemimethylation is maintained deliberately -- not through random mistakes as previously thought -- and is passed down through human cell generations. (2018-03-15)

Discovery reveals mechanism that turns herpes virus on and off
New research from Dr. Luis M. Schang and his group at the Baker Institute for Animal Health has identified a new mechanism that plays a role in controlling how the herpes virus alternates between dormant and active stages of infection. (2019-11-14)

New key regulator of acquisition of immune tolerance to tumor cells in cancer patients
Researchers of the Chromatin and Disease Group from the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) in Barcelona have identified a distinctive epigenetic event in immune cells that differentiate in the tumoral microenvironment and make them tolerant to cancer cells. (2017-10-03)

Genome architecture caught in motion
Researchers at The Wistar Institute have uncovered new aspects of the three-dimensional organization of the genome, specifically how the genetic material is compacted and de-compacted in a timely fashion during the different phases of the cell cycle. (2017-10-09)

Potential new treatment for Fragile X targets one gene to affect many
Scientists found that inhibiting a regulatory protein alters the intricate signaling chemistry that is responsible for many of the disease's symptoms. The findings provide a path to possible therapeutics for disorders associated with Fragile X. (2017-11-03)

The rhythm of genes: How the circadian clock regulates 3-D chromatin structure
EPFL biologists and geneticists have uncovered how the circadian clock orchestrates the 24-hour cycle of gene expression by regulating the structure of chromatin, the tightly wound DNA-protein complex of the cell. The work is published in Genes & Development. (2018-03-26)

Suite of Monash papers shed light on decade-long stem cell mystery
A series of studies led by Monash University researcher Associate Professor Jose Polo have this week shed light on vital, yet previously unclear, aspects of cell reprogramming. (2017-12-07)

Molecular biology: Phaser neatly arranges nucleosomes
LMU researchers have, for the first time, systematically determined the positioning of the packing units of the fruit fly genome, and discovered a new protein that defines their relationship to the DNA sequence. (2018-11-02)

Genes that separate humans from fruit flies found
Genes which determine animal complexity -- or what makes humans so much more complex than a fruit fly or a sea urchin - have been identified for the first time. (2017-09-29)

A molecular garbage disposal complex has a role in packing the genome
New research from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology, to be published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry on Oct. 13, has found that the proteasome, an essential protein complex that breaks down proteins in cells, has another unexpected function: directly regulating the packing of DNA in the nucleus. (2017-10-10)

Stem cell research: (Re)-acquiring the potential to become everything
A new study in 'Nature Genetics' identifies a specific population of pluripotent embryonic stem cells that can reprogram to totipotent-like cells in culture. Moreover, the scientists of Helmholtz Zentrum München and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) have identified bottlenecks and drivers of this reprogramming. (2017-12-20)

Histone 1, the guardian of genome stability
Genomic instability is the main risk factor for tumor development in humans. Therefore understanding its origin and and exploring therapeutic targets is paramount. Histone 1 silences a region of the genome that causes irreparable DNA damage when translated and is lethal for the organism. (2017-08-18)

Chromatin usage in individual cells reveals developmental trajectories
Both cell type and developmental stage can be deduced from measurements of chromatin accessibility in thousands of single cells, researchers at EMBL and the University of Washington show. They used this approach to uncover how cells in developing embryos regulate their identity as they decide what kind of cell to become. Nature publishes the results on March 14. (2018-03-14)

How the genome sets its functional micro-architecture
EPFL scientists show how DNA is organized into specific regions, and that this depends on a combination of genomic distance and the presence of the CTCF protein. (2017-08-17)

Chromatin structure: Slip-sliding away...
The DNA in the cell nucleus is highly condensed, and genes must be rendered accessible before they can be activated. An LMU team has now described the action of a protein complex that serves as a yardstick to measure lengths of exposed DNA. (2018-09-04)

Supercoiling pushes molecular handcuffs along chromatin fibers
As it squeezes down the chromatin fiber, the cohesin protein complex extrudes a growing loop of DNA -- a bit like the quick-lacing system of trail-running shoes. But what is powering the movement of the protein? A team of SIB scientists has found that the driving force could be the supercoiling of upstream DNA. Their research, published in Nucleic Acids Research, is thereby adding a key piece to the puzzle of gene expression regulation. (2017-12-14)

Mapping the chromatin landscape of human cancer
By mapping the largely uncharted chromatin landscape of primary human cancers, researchers have revealed new insights into the regulation of different cancer-related genes. (2018-10-25)

Master switch for brain development
Scientists at the Institute of Molecular Biology in Mainz have unraveled a complex regulatory mechanism that explains how a single gene can drive the formation of brain cells. The research, published in The EMBO Journal, is an important step towards a better understanding of how the brain develops. It also harbors potential for regenerative medicine. (2015-11-18)

Brothers-in-arms: How P53 and telomeres work together to stave off cancer
New research from scientists at The Wistar Institute shows that p53 is able to suppress accumulated DNA damage at telomeres. This is the first time this particular function of p53 has ever been described and shows yet another benefit of this vital gene. (2016-01-15)

Stanford researchers identify genetic suspects in sporadic Lou Gehrig's disease
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have identified mutations in several new genes that might be associated with the development of spontaneously occurring cases of the neurodegenerative disease known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS. (2013-05-26)

Changes in the diet affect epigenetics via the microbiota
Researchers have known for some time that diet affects the balance of microbes in our bodies, but how that translates into an effect on the host has not been understood. Now, research in mice is showing that microbes communicate with their hosts by sending out metabolites that act on histones -- thus influencing gene transcription not only in the colon but also in tissues in other parts of the body. The findings publish in Molecular Cell. (2016-11-23)

Andalusian experts indicate new elements responsible for instability in chromosomes
The researchers state that RNA joins with DNA by chance or because of a disease, the structure of the chromatin, the protein envelope of the chromosomes is altered, causing breaks in the DNA. Gene mutations involved in the transcription and transport of RNA also cause damage in DNA, which they have shown is caused by changes in the chromatin. In these circumstances, the DNA cannot replicate itself naturally, generating replication stress, mutations and chromosome mutations. (2017-06-30)

Scientists create new technology and solve a key puzzle for cellular memory
With a new groundbreaking technique, researchers from University of Copenhagen have managed to identify a protein that is responsible for cellular memory being transmitted when cells divide. The finding is crucial for understanding development from one cell to a whole body. (2018-08-16)

Research offers new insights into malaria parasite
A team of researchers led by a University of California, Riverside, scientist has found that various stages of the development of human malaria parasites, including stages involved in malaria transmission, are linked to epigenetic features and how chromatin -- the complex of DNA and proteins within the nucleus -- is organized and structured in these parasites. (2018-05-18)

Cancer: A mutation that breaks gene interplay in 3D
EPFL scientists have discovered how a mutated gene can affect the three-dimensional interactions of genes in the cell, leading to various forms of cancer. (2019-01-28)

Research clarifies nuclear hormone receptor function in plants
A new study led by LI Chuanyou from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has revealed that Mediator, an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit coactivator complex whose activity is essential for Pol II-dependent gene transcription, directly links COI1 to Pol II and chromatin during jasmonate signaling. (2017-10-10)

Colon signaling pathway key to inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develops because of an uncontrolled immune response in the colon. Japanese research led by Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) showed that a signaling pathway underlies the differentiation of white blood cells into a population capable of inducing inflammation. This signaling pathway also enhanced the expression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators, opening up the possibility of developing drugs to target these mechanisms in IBD therapy. (2018-03-29)

Chromatin changes rapidly in response to low oxygen, study finds
A study by the University of Liverpool reveals new insights into how cells respond to oxygen deprivation. Published in the prestigious journal Science, the researchers found that chromatin, the complex of DNA and proteins where all genes reside, quickly changes in response to low oxygen. (2019-03-20)

Drug makes stem cells become 'embryonic' again
If you want to harness the full power of stem cells, all you might need is an eraser -- in the form of a drug that can erase the tiny labels that tell cells where to start reading their DNA. In a surprising new finding, scientists have shown that mouse stem cells treated with the drug reverted to an 'embryonic' state. (2016-03-17)

Cancer-causing virus HTLV-1 changes DNA loops to 'affect tens of thousands of genes'
A human virus that causes a rare form of leukaemia increases the risk of disease by changing the way DNA loops inside our cells. (2018-06-27)

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