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Popular Chromatin News and Current Events, Chromatin News Articles.
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Cancer-causing virus HTLV-1 changes DNA loops to 'affect tens of thousands of genes'
A human virus that causes a rare form of leukaemia increases the risk of disease by changing the way DNA loops inside our cells. (2018-06-27)

Probing RNA epigenetics and chromatin structures to predict drug resistance in leukemia
A University of Chicago based research team has begun to unravel the role of RNA epigenetics and chromatin structure in the regulation of 5-azacytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent in certain leukemias. The results could lead to novel strategies and biomarkers that could reduce the risk of drug resistance. (2018-03-22)

A new energy source within the cells
Scientists at the Centre for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona, Spain, find evidence of a new energy source within cell nucleus. Their results, which are published in Science, shed light on how in exceptional situations cells can reprogram gene expression and point at a new player for targeted cancer medicine. (2016-06-02)

An evolutionary breakpoint in cell division
Japanese researchers from Osaka University have discovered that the interaction between two proteins, M18BP1/KNL2 and CENP-A, is essential for cell division in various species except for mammals including humans. (2017-07-30)

MSU-based molecular biologists compared human and yeast FACT
Today, scientists extensively study FACT -- a protein complex that plays a role in DNA packing within a nucleus, as well as in oncogenesis. A team of scientists from MSU working in cooperation with foreign colleagues found out similarities between the work of this complex in humans and yeast. This discovery helped predict the existence of a new protein that assists the FACT complex in humans. (2018-05-25)

Multiple sclerosis: Discovery of a mechanism responsible for chronic inflammation
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease. The defense system that usually protects patients from external aggression turns on its own cells and attacks them for reasons that are not yet known. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur have shown that ancient viruses are involved in the acute inflammatory defense response that may contribute to the disease. (2019-05-10)

Cryo-electron microscopy reveals shape of heterochromatin
Scientists from Waseda University, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology and the National Institute for Basic Biology became the first to successfully visualize the structure of heterochromatin, thanks to high-contrast imaging in cryo-electron microscopy. Their study demonstrates Japan's international competitiveness in structural biology research using this technique. (2018-01-16)

A moderate dose of novel form of stress promotes longevity
A newly described form of stress called chromatin architectural defect, or chromatin stress, triggers in cells a response that leads to a longer life. (2019-07-10)

Repurposing inhibitors may provide new treatment approach for ovarian cancer
Wistar researchers have found rationale for repurposing a class of antitumor compounds called HDAC inhibitors as a new therapeutic option for ovarian cancer with mutations in the ARID1A gene. (2018-03-27)

The human genome: A complex orchestra
A team of Swiss geneticists from the University of Geneva, the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, and the University of Lausanne discovered that genetic variation has the potential to affect the state of the genome at many, seemingly separated, positions and thus modulate gene activity, much like a conductor directing the performers of a musical ensemble to play in harmony. (2015-08-20)

Structural protein found essential to X chromosome inactivation
A Massachusetts General Hospital research team has identified the essential role of a structural protein in the silencing of the inactive X chromosome, a process that prevents both copies of the same gene from being expressed in female mammals, which carry two copies of the X chromosome. (2018-06-07)

New, rapid and robust method for single cell profiling
Hope for better understanding of the inner works of cancer and other serious diseases. (2018-12-17)

Study: Autism's social deficits are reversed by an anti-cancer drug
New research at the University at Buffalo reveals the first evidence that it may be possible to use a single compound to alleviate the behavioral symptoms of autism spectrum disorder by targeting sets of genes involved in the disease. (2018-03-12)

AgriLife scientists uncover a new face of a famous protein, SWI2/SNF2 ATPase
A team of Texas A&M and Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientists now have a deeper understanding of a large switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) protein complex that plays a pivotal role in plant and human gene expression that causes life-threatening diseases such as cancer. (2018-05-17)

The nanoscopic structure that locks up our genes
For decades, scientists could only speculate about the shape of heterochromatin. (2018-01-11)

Mechanism identified behind enzyme involved in liver and other human cancers
To understand what has gone wrong when cancer occurs and to create new possibilities for treatment, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms behind what is happening at the cellular level. New research, which is now published in the journal Molecular Cell, explains how the motor of an enzyme in DNA damage repair is switched on and off and how these processes might go awry in cancer. (2017-12-07)

Researchers discover how three-dimensional organization of the genome regulates cell differentiation
A new study from the University of Minnesota Medical School clarifies how the three-dimensional organization of the genome is regulated at the onset of skeletal muscle formation. (2019-05-24)

Rong Li Lab demonstrates the process of mammalian egg maturation
The Rong Li lab team has answered an important question about how mammalian eggs undergo maturation through an intricate process of asymmetric cell division. The team discovered a novel pathway by which chromatin exerts command on the cell membrane to produce a specialized machinery used for cell division. (2007-02-05)

Scientists confirm that chromosomes are formed by stacked layers
A new study based on electron microscopy techniques at low temperatures demonstrates that, during mitosis, chromosome DNA is packed in stacked layers of chromatin. The research, published in EMBO Journal, confirms a surprising structure proposed by UAB researchers over a decade ago, but criticized due to the limitations of the technique used. (2019-01-08)

Study points to possible treatment target for aggressive liver cancer in kids
A protein in the cell nucleus already targeted therapeutically for several types of cancer has now been linked to an aggressive form of pediatric liver cancer called hepatoblastoma (HBL), according to a study published in the Nature journal Communications Biology. Scientists at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center report that laboratory testing indicates the protein, PARP1, may be an effective treatment target for the cancer, but emphasize additional research is needed to verify this. (2018-06-11)

A study suggests that epigenetic treatments could trigger the development of aggressive tumours
A team headed by ICREA researchers Salvador Aznar Benitah and Fran Supek concludes that care should be taken with drugs that inhibit epigenetic factors. Published in Nature Cell Biology, the study is a collaboration between a biomedical lab and a computational lab at IRB Barcelona. (2018-11-20)

DNA methylation affects superiority of hybrid plants
Hybrid vigor refers to when a crossbreed plant or animal shows superior traits compared to its parents. A research group has discovered that a gene involved in maintaining DNA methylation is closely connected to hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis thaliana. This has potential applications for other cruciferous vegetables such as Chinese cabbage, and could lead to more efficient breeding of high-yield vegetables. (2016-10-30)

Scientists decipher mechanisms underlying the biology of aging
Scientists have helped decipher the dynamics that control how our cells age, and with it implications for extending human longevity. The group employed a combination of technologies to analyze molecular processes that influence aging. Using cutting-edge computational and experimental approaches the scientists discovered that a complete loss of chromatin silencing leads to accelerated cell aging and death. However, the researchers similarly found that continuous chromatin silencing also leads cells to a shortened lifespan. (2017-11-02)

Your immune system holds the line against repeat invaders, thanks to this molecule
his new insight may allow researchers to design drugs that improve immune responses to vaccines. (2018-04-17)

Genome's gyrations fit right into Rice University model
Computer models developed at Rice University show that energy landscape theory can predict not only the form of DNA contained in a cell's nucleus during interphase, but also its dynamic behavior. The model also revealed DADs -- chromatin domains that behave coherently. (2018-07-09)

New strategy improves efficiency of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing
The efficiency of CRISPR genome editing tools targeted to the site of interest by Cas9 nucleases varies considerably and a new CMP-fusion strategy, called CRISPR-chrom, enhances the activity up to several-fold. (2019-02-21)

A master switch controls aggressive breast cancer
A team at the Salk Institute has identified a master switch that appears to control the dynamic behavior of tumor cells that makes some aggressive cancers so difficult to treat. The gene Sox10 directly controls the growth and invasion of a significant fraction of hard-to-treat triple-negative breast cancers. (2018-08-30)

Gene transcription machinery constrains DNA movements, study suggests
Researchers in Japan have discovered that the DNA inside human cells moves around less when its genes are active. The study, which will be published March 1 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that RNA polymerase II -- the key enzyme required to produce messenger RNA molecules from active genes -- restricts the movement of DNA by organizing it into a network of interconnected domains. (2019-03-01)

Scientists tackle the aberrant epigenetic programming underlying childhood cancers
Researchers at UFRGS and the US NIH have targeted proteins that regulate chromatin in Ewing sarcoma cells, hindering malignant tumor growth. They induced chromatic relaxation by treating the cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors, reducing expression of the EWSR1-FLI-1 oncogene and other pluripotency/cell viability genes, while impairing sarcoma cell survival and growth. Decreased survival of stem-like cancer cells and re-expression of a neuronal differentiation marker were also observed. (2018-02-20)

Epigenetics study helps focus search for autism risk factors
Researchers at Washington State University and elsewhere have associated more than 2,000 DNA regions that control gene expression and are strongly associated with autism. Further study within one of those regions revealed a genetic mutation that is associated with increased risk of developing autism. (2018-01-16)

RUDN biochemists found a way to stop the immortality of cancer cells with oligonucleotides
RUDN biochemists found a way to reduce the activity of telomerase (the enzyme of cell immortality) 10 times. (2019-02-11)

Scientists detail how chromosomes reorganize after cell division
Researchers have discovered key mechanisms and structural details of a fundamental biological process--how a cell nucleus and its chromosomal material reorganizes itself after cell division. The new findings in chromosomal architecture and function may offer important insights into human health and disease. (2019-12-04)

Updated brain cell map connects various brain diseases to specific cell types
Researchers have developed new single-cell sequencing methods that could be used to map the cell origins of various brain disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. By analyzing individual nuclei of cells from adult human brains, researchers have identified 35 different subtypes of neurons and glial cells and discovered which of these subtypes are most susceptible to common risk factors for different brain diseases. (2017-12-11)

Chromosome organization emerges from 1-D patterns
Researchers at Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have developed a method to predict how a human chromosome folds based solely on the epigenetic marks that decorate chromatin inside cells. (2017-10-31)

New therapy for aggressive blood cancer discovered
Researchers at Vetmeduni Vienna and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Cancer Research have identified a new therapeutic strategy for Acute Myeloid Leukemia. They found that the activity of the mutated oncogenic protein C/EBPα is dependent on MLL1 histone methyltransferase complex. Laboratory tests showed that functional perturbation of MLL1 complex led to death of AML cells with C/EBPα mutations. Inhibitor treatment released the differentiation block of cancer cells and restored normal maturation of blood cells. (2019-02-13)

Finding a cure for cancer: The holy grail of science
To find a cure for cancer, the modern-day plague of our society -- is synonymous to finding the holy grail of science. At a recent EuroDYNA conference in Brno, Czech Republic, scientists from around Europe came together to share their research carried out in the field of genetics and cell nucleus architecture. A greater understanding of the body's building blocks might ultimately lead to a better understanding of human disease. (2006-11-21)

Temple scientists ID new targets to treat fibrosis -- a feature of many chronic diseases
When it comes to repairing injured tissue, specialized cells in the body known as fibroblasts are called into action. Fibroblasts give rise to healing cells called myofibroblasts, which generally is good in the short term -- but bad when myofibroblast activation gets out of hand. Now, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University researchers show how fibroblast activation and myofibroblast formation occurs, providing clues for how to target fibrosis -- which impacts several chronic diseases. (2019-10-04)

Turning off growth to make flowers grow
Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) report the final epigenetic events that terminate stem cell growth for proper flower development. They show the series of steps the binding of the transcription factor KNUCKLES initiates to suppress the gene expression of WUSCHEL in Arabidopsis. The ability to control flower growth has implications on seed productivity and food technology. (2019-05-13)

Only half of a chromosome is DNA, 3-D imaging study shows
DNA makes up only half of the material inside chromosomes -- far less than was previously thought -- a study has revealed. (2016-11-21)

A non-coding RNA lasso catches proteins in breast cancer cells
A Danish-German research team has shown that not only the where and when of long non-coding RNA expression is important for their function but also the how. The results can have a big impact on our understanding of dynamic regulation of gene expression in biological processes. (2018-04-24)

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