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Researchers show how plants tell the time
BBSRC-funded scientists from the University of Cambridge Department of Plant Sciences are studying how plants are able to set and maintain this internal clock. They have found that the sugars produced by plants are key to timekeeping. (2013-10-23)

Benefits to timing chemotherapy to body's 'awake' time
Not a morning person? Neither are your kidneys. Research from the Washington State University College of Pharmacy suggests there may be benefits to timing chemotherapy in cancer patients to the time of day the body is 'most awake.' (2016-06-07)

Weekday sleep changes may raise risk of diabetes, heart disease
Monday mornings could be harmful to your health. Even routine sleep changes such as waking up early for work during the week may raise the risk of developing metabolic problems such as diabetes and heart disease, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. (2015-11-18)

Armed with AEDs, police save lives by cutting response time
In communities where police are equipped with automated external defibrillators (AEDs), people who have a sudden cardiac arrest have a better chance at survival. (2002-08-12)

Using data to fight malaria
The University of California, Riverside announced today that it is a Grand Challenges Explorations winner, an initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Yanping Chen will pursue an innovative global health and development research project, titled (2013-11-21)

Sleep starts later as teens age, but school still starts early
By following dozens of younger and older adolescents for more than two years, researchers in a new study were able to determine that the children fell asleep later and their circadian rhythms shifted later as they grew older. But early school start times interfere with their tendency to sleep later, reducing their total sleep. The study bolsters new recommendations for later school start times. (2014-11-07)

How cannabis causes 'cognitive chaos' in the brain
Cannabis use is associated with disturbances in concentration and memory. New research by neuroscientists at the University of Bristol, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, has found that brain activity becomes uncoordinated and inaccurate during these altered states of mind, leading to neurophysiological and behavioral impairments reminiscent of those seen in schizophrenia. (2011-10-25)

Researchers identify key step in cocaine-induced heart enlargement, sudden death
Cocaine, in concentrations commonly sold on the street, causes the abnormal buildup of primitive proteins in heart muscle -- a process that can ultimately lead to sudden death, a new study reports. (2006-09-07)

PNAS highlights for the week of April 25-29
This week's highlights include research on birds and colored vision; chestnuts' circadian clock; fungus and bacterial energy. (2005-04-25)

Circadian gene mutation increases self-administration of cocaine in mice
University of Pittsburgh researchers reveal a molecular basis for the deep and fundamental connection between the disruption in circadian rhythms and predisposition to substance abuse. (2020-12-02)

Fish oils in heart cells can block dangerous heart rhythms
Eating oily fish like salmon, tuna or bluefish at least twice a week can prevent sudden cardiac death because fatty acids in the fish block dangerous irregular heart rhythms, experts say in a review article in today's of Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association. (2003-05-26)

Several experiments on rats prove that chronic melatonine consumption fights obesity and diabetes
Scientists at the University of Granada, in collaboration with La Paz University Hospital in Madrid and the University of Texas, San Antonio in the US have demonstrated through several experiments conducted on Zucker obese rats that chronic consumption of melatonine helps combat obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. (2014-10-03)

Feeling sleepy? Might be the melatonin
Melatonin supplements are commonly used as sleep aids; however, our bodies also make melatonin naturally, and until a recent Caltech study using zebrafish, no one knew how -- or even if -- this melatonin contributed to our natural sleep. The new work suggests that even in the absence of a supplement, naturally occurring melatonin may help us fall and stay asleep. (2015-03-06)

Molecule helps pupils respond to light
Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers are reporting progress in understanding whether a second light-sensing pathway in mammals indeed contributes to the detection of ambient light for controlling body functions. The researchers report that the molecule melanopsin is necessary in order for the pupil to constrict properly in response to light, a function termed the pupillary light reflex. (2003-01-09)

Maternal smoking may alter the arousal process of infants, increasing their risk for SIDS
A study in the April 1 issue of the journal Sleep shows that maternal smoking is associated with an impaired infant arousal process that may increase the risk for sudden infant death syndrome. The authors suggest that maternal smoking has replaced stomach sleeping as the greatest modifiable risk factor for SIDS. (2009-04-01)

Scientists create compounds that dramatically alter biological clock and lead to weight loss
Scientists from the Florida campus of the Scripps Research Institute have synthesized a pair of small molecules that dramatically alter the core biological clock in animal models, highlighting the compounds' potential effectiveness in treating a remarkable range of disorders -- including obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and serious sleep disorders. (2012-03-29)

Body clock drugs could ease psychiatric disorders and jet lag
Researchers funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and the Medical Research Council have successfully used a drug to reset and restart the natural 24 hour body clock of mice in the lab. The ability to do this in a mammal opens up the possibility of dealing with a range of human difficulties including some psychiatric disorders, jet lag and the health impacts of shift work. (2010-08-23)

Burning off a little heart muscle stops rapid heart beats in infants
A treatment that corrects rapid heart beats by burning away small amounts of heart tissue is equally as effective and safe in infants as it is in older pediatric patients, researchers report in today's Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association. (2001-12-03)

The fly's time
The Drosophila, the so-called fruit fly, attends all day long to its activities. It flutters, has naps, lays its eggs or emerges from the pupa, the stage of metamorphosis preceding maturity. At the University of Geneva, Switzerland, the team of the researcher in biology Emi Nagoshi is closely interested in this insect, used as a model organism for the study of circadian rhythms in the animal kingdom. (2015-06-01)

NYU dental professor discovers biological clock linking tooth growth to other metabolic processes
NYU dental professor Dr. Timothy Bromage discovered the rhythm while observing incremental growth lines in tooth enamel, which appear much like the annual rings on a tree. He also observed a related pattern of incremental growth in skeletal bone tissue -- the first time such an incremental rhythm has ever been observed in bone. (2008-04-05)

Investigational drug improves sleep disorder among the blind
An investigational new drug significantly improved a common and debilitating circadian rhythm sleep disorder that frequently affects people who are completely blind, a multicenter study finds. The results were presented Monday at The Endocrine Society's Annual Meeting in San Francisco. (2013-06-17)

Study shows key factors for reducing brain damage from cardiac arrest
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) can improve blood flow to the brain after cardiac arrest and preserve neurological function. However, factors predicting who benefits from ECPR are unclear. In a multicenter clinical study, called CRITICAL and led by Osaka University, researchers found that shorter time between standard CPR and ECPR, as well as responsiveness to defibrillation, are associated with improved neurological outcomes. The findings may help improve international guidelines on resuscitation following cardiac arrest. (2020-03-24)

Does missing gene point to nocturnal existence for early mammals?
A gene that makes cells in the eye receptive to light is missing in humans, researchers have discovered. (2006-10-11)

NYU biologists develop better way to 'silence' neurons
Biologists at New York University have discovered a new method of (2002-05-17)

New therapy found to prevent heart failure
A landmark study has successfully demonstrated a 29 percent reduction in heart failure or death in patients with heart disease who received an implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy device with defibrillator (CRT-D) vs. patients who received only an implanted cardiac defibrillator (ICD-only). (2009-06-23)

AED may effectively detect heart rhythm disturbances in children
An automated external defibrillator (AED) - an electronic device that recognizes and restores normal heartbeat rhythm through electric shock - is as accurate in recognizing rhythm abnormalities in children as in adults. (2001-05-20)

Brain Structures Control Direct Effect Of Light On Behavior
The biological clock reminds us to go to sleep every 24 hours, but under certain lighting conditions another internal regulator may be telling us to take a nap. University of Wisconsin Medical School researchers have pinpointed two connected brain structures that control the way light affects rodent sleep activity that's separate from the biological clock. (1998-07-22)

ASAA's SleepHealth mobile study app grows along with Apple
Today, the American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA) announced that its SleepHealth app takes advantage of improvements in Apple iOS 9.3 by being the first ResearchKit app to incorporate the new Night Shift mode into its study and wellness tool. Night Shift automatically shifts the colors in one's display to the warmer end of the spectrum in conjunction with sunset based on the user's time and location. In the morning, it returns the display to its regular settings. (2016-03-22)

Rats' and bats' brains work differently on the move
A new study of brain rhythms in bats and rats challenges a widely-used model -- based on rodent studies -- of how animals navigate their environment. To get a clearer picture of processes in the mammal brain during spatial navigation, neuroscientists must study more species, say the two University of Maryland College Park scientists involved in the study. (2013-04-18)

Melatonin makes old bones stronger
Faleh Tamimi, a professor in McGill's School of Dentistry, is the leader of a research team that has just discovered that melatonin supplements make bones stronger in elderly rats and therefore, potentially, in elderly humans too. (2014-05-26)

Women with arrhythmias may also benefit from an ICD
A small study of patients with heart failure not caused by blocked arteries indicates that women, as well as men, may benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD). (2004-11-09)

The biological clock: What really makes us tick
From sleep patterns to health conditions, biological clocks get down to what makes us tick. The University of Houston is home to one of the world's leading centers for biological rhythms research. With five laboratories and a team of more than 30 scholars led by five tenured faculty members, the UH Biological Clocks Program studies an array of issues with far-reaching human implications. (2004-03-25)

Differing structures underlie differing brain rhythms in healthy and ill
Virtual brains modeling epilepsy and schizophrenia display less complexity among functional connections, and other differences compared to healthy brain models, researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine report. The researchers worked backward from brain rhythms - the oscillating patterns of electrical activity in the brain recorded on electroencephalograms - from both healthy and ill individuals. (2011-10-13)

Cryptochrome protein helps birds navigate via magnetic field
Researchers have found one one possible explanation for some birds' ability to sense the earth's magnetic field and use it to orient themselves: a magnetically sensitive protein called cryptochrome that mediates circadian rhythms in plants and animals. (2015-02-27)

Lung tumors hijack metabolic processes in the liver, UCI study finds
University of California, Irvine scientists who study how circadian rhythms -- our own body clocks -- control liver function have discovered that cancerous lung tumors can hijack this process and profoundly alter metabolism. Their research, published online in Cell, is the first showing that lung adenocarcinoma can affect the body clock's sway over lipid metabolism and sensitivity to insulin and glucose. (2016-05-05)

Light at night and working the graveyard shift linked to increased risk of breast cancer
Women who work the graveyard shift may face an up to 60 percent increased risk of breast cancer, according to a Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center study (2001-10-16)

Study links primary insomnia to a neurochemical abnormality in young and middle-aged adults
A study in the Nov. 1 issue of the journal Sleep is the first demonstration of a specific neurochemical abnormality in adults with primary insomnia, providing greater insight to the limited understanding of the condition's pathology (2008-11-01)

Role of thyroid hormones in slumber under investigation at Rutgers
While the thyroid has long been linked to metabolism, cutting-edge research underway at Rutgers University-Camden is investigating the possibility that thyroid hormones have an important role in sleep regulation. (2007-08-07)

Science news from Harvard Stem Cell Institute
May brought a major advancement in the science of aging when two Harvard Stem Cell Institute researchers announced their discovery of a protein circulating in the blood of mice and humans that shows potential to be a treatment for age-related heart failure. The protein, called GDF-11, reduced the size and thickness of the heart walls when injected into old mice. (2013-05-29)

Salk discovery may lead to safer treatments for asthma, allergies and arthritis
Scientists have discovered a missing link between the body's biological clock and sugar metabolism system, a finding that may help avoid the serious side effects of drugs used for treating asthma, allergies and arthritis. (2011-12-19)

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