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Green material for refrigeration identified
Researchers from the UK and Spain have identified an eco-friendly solid that could replace the inefficient and polluting gases used in most refrigerators and air conditioners. (2019-04-18)

In California, large-scale water cycles impact quakes a little
In California, seasonal changes in large-scale water cycles modestly influence small-scale quake activity, a new study reports. (2017-06-15)

Study: Older workers bring valuable knowledge to the job
In the workplace, age matters -- but hiring or promoting based on age-related mental abilities can be a minefield, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association. (2015-04-01)

One step closer to reality: Devices that convert heat into electricity
The same researchers who pioneered the use of a quantum mechanical effect to convert heat into electricity have figured out how to make their technique work in a form more suitable to industry. (2017-01-03)

An emergency method for measuring strontium levels in milk can be used in routine studies
The UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country's Nuclear and Radiological Safety research group is participating in validations of methods proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. In a recently published study, this group has tested the viability of a method proposed by the international agency to measure radioactive strontium in milk, developed for cases of nuclear emergency, so that it can be incorporated into routine radiological monitoring measurements. (2017-09-08)

Surgery in space
With renewed public interest in manned space exploration comes the potential need to diagnose and treat medical issues encountered by future space travelers. (2018-06-20)

Supercomputers use graphics processors to solve longstanding turbulence question
Advanced simulations have solved a problem in turbulent fluid flow that could lead to more efficient turbines and engines. (2019-07-25)

Studies provide new insights on mosquito-borne chikungunya virus infection
The frequency of chronic joint pain after infection with chikungunya in a large Latin-American cohort was 25 percent at a median of 20-months post-infection. (2017-12-20)

Shakedown in Oklahoma: To cut the number of bigger earthquakes, inject less saltwater
In Oklahoma, reducing the amount of saltwater (highly brackish water produced during oil and gas recovery) pumped into the ground seems to be decreasing the number of small fluid-triggered earthquakes. But a new study shows why it wasn't enough to ease bigger earthquakes. The study, led by Ryan M. Pollyea of Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Va., was published online ahead of print in Geology this week. (2018-01-04)

Can we imitate organisms' abilities to decode water patterns for new technologies?
The shape of water. Can it tell us about what drives romance? Among fish, it might. Eva Kanso, a professor of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering studies fluid flows and almost like a forensic expert, Kanso, along with her team, is studying how aquatic signals are transported through the water. (2018-04-05)

New materials for sustainable, low-cost batteries
A new conductor material and a new electrode material could pave the way for inexpensive batteries and therefore the large-scale storage of renewable energies. (2018-04-30)

Illinois researchers develop new surface design inspired by snake skin
Seok Kim, assistant professor of mechanical science and engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and graduate students Zining Yang and Jun Kyu Park have developed a design construct inspired in part by the surface of butterflies and snakes, where flexible skins are fully covered by rigid, discrete scales. (2018-02-02)

Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have found that vitamin D2 is equally as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining 25-hydroxyvitamin D status. The study appears online in the December 2007 issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. (2008-01-02)

Even modest oil exposure can harm coastal and marine birds
Many birds and other wildlife die following an oil spill, but there are also other potential long-terms effects of oil exposure on animals. (2017-10-12)

Saline use on the decline at Vanderbilt following landmark studies
Vanderbilt University Medical Center is encouraging its medical providers to stop using saline as intravenous fluid therapy for most patients, a change provoked by two companion landmark studies released today that are anticipated to improve survival and decrease kidney complications. (2018-02-27)

Women who attempt suicide exhibit different protein levels years after the attempt
Women with a history of suicide attempts exhibit different levels of a specific protein in their bloodstream than those with no history of suicide attempts, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University of New York. (2017-12-05)

All in the family: Relatives of Zika virus may cause birth defects
Relatives of Zika virus can damage developing fetuses in mice and were able to replicate in human maternal and fetal tissues, researchers report. (2018-01-31)

Immune cell target that may prevent or delay heart failure after pressure overload
Researchers have identified a therapeutic target to prevent or delay heart failure from pressure overload of the heart, and a potential biomarker for the same. They say their animal studies carry clinical and translational potential. Mouse-model experiments showed that preventing the early infiltration of CCR2+ macrophages into the heart, after experimental pressure overload, significantly lessened the heart's enlargement and reduced pumping ability that leads to later heart failure. (2018-03-19)

Counting tumor cells in blood predicts treatment benefit in prostate cancer
Counting the number of tumor cells circulating in the bloodstream of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer can accurately predict how well they are responding to treatment, new results show. At the ESMO Conference Lugano organized by the European Society for Medical Oncology, researchers showed that changes in the number of circulating tumor cells predicted the outcome after chemotherapy in this hard to treat cancer. (2008-07-06)

Falling faster: The surprising leap of Felix Baumgartner
Five years ago the Austrian daredevil Felix Baumgartner broke the sound barrier during his free fall from an altitude of almost 39 kilometers. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich have analyzed the fluid dynamics of his descent. The surprising result: Baumgartner, with his irregularly shaped equipment, fell faster than a smooth, symmetrical body would have. (2017-12-14)

New directions found in understanding, fighting glaucoma
Two distinctive handfuls of short molecules that regulate gene expression have been found in the eye fluid of patients with two distinct types of vision degenerating glaucoma. (2018-02-26)

Cancer cells send out 'drones' to battle immune system from afar
Checkpoint inhibitor therapies have made metastatic melanoma and other cancers a survivable condition for 20 to 30 percent of treated patients, but clinicians have had very limited ways of knowing which patients will respond. Researchers have uncovered a novel mechanism by which tumors suppress the immune system. Their findings also usher in the possibility that a straightforward blood test could predict and monitor cancer patients' response to immunotherapy. (2018-08-08)

Study advances gene therapy for glaucoma
In a study published today in the scientific journal Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Kaufman and Curtis Brandt, a fellow professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences at UW-Madison, showed an improved tactic for delivering new genes into the eye's fluid drain, called the trabecular meshwork. It could lead to a treatment for glaucoma. (2018-01-16)

Endothelial regenerative capacity and aging: Influence of diet, exercise and obesity
This review will discuss the effects of advancing age on endothelial health and vascular regenerative capacity, as well as the influence of diet, exercise, and obesity on these cells, the mechanistic links and the subsequent impact on cardiovascular health. (2018-12-27)

Tampering with cellular fats holds great promise
Researchers have found a way to engineer the lipid composition of cell membranes. The method described in Science makes it easier to investigate how cells are regulated by their membrane composition. This could lead to optimized cell factories and better understanding of the role of lipids in metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. (2018-10-26)

MIT solves 100-year-old engineering problem
As a car accelerates down a hill then slows to follow a hairpin turn, the airflow around it cannot keep up and detaches from the vehicle. This aerodynamic separation creates drag that slows the car. The same phenomenon affects airplanes, boats, and submarines. Now, in work that could lead to controlling the effect with potential impacts on fuel efficiency and more, MIT scientists report new work for predicting where that aerodynamic separation will occur. (2008-09-25)

Thyroid treatment no 'quick fix' for weight loss in children
Parents of overweight children often desire a 'quick fix' for the problem and request thyroid tests, but, unfortunately, screening for hypothyroidism is not the answer, says a new study. (2008-01-03)

Diamonds from the deep: Study suggests water may exist in Earth's lower mantle
A new study, which included experiments at Berkeley Lab, suggests that water may be more common than expected at extreme depths approaching 400 miles and possibly beyond -- within Earth's lower mantle. The study explored microscopic pockets of a trapped form of crystallized water molecules in a sampling of diamonds. (2018-03-15)

RNA molecules predict adverse heart growth and function that can lead to atrial fibrillation
The new study, conducted by researchers at the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute in Salt Lake City, is the first time this association has been connected to the human heart in a clinical setting. (2018-05-11)

Women who get frequent UTIs may reduce risk by drinking plenty of water
Women who suffer from recurrent urinary tract infections may reduce their risk by drinking more water, according to an IDWeek 2017 study. (2017-10-05)

New assay may help predict which pancreatic lesions may become cancerous
A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, describes a new simple molecular test to detect chromosomal abnormalities -- biomarkers known as telomere fusions -- in pancreatic tumor specimens and pancreatic cyst fluids. This assay may help predict the presence of high-grade or invasive pancreatic cancers requiring surgical intervention. (2017-12-08)

Improved capture of cancer cells could aid in disease tracking
In the journal Clinical Cancer Research, researchers reported that by forcing cancer cells to slow down and developing stronger molecular traps for them, they could identify large numbers of the cells in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. (2018-03-15)

Blood test developed to predict spontaneous preterm birth
Results from a multicenter study show that five circulating microparticle proteins found in first-trimester blood samples may provide important clues about risk of spontaneous preterm birth. (2019-03-01)

No assembly required: University of Toronto Engineering researchers automate microrobotic designs
University of Toronto Engineering researchers have developed an automated approach that significantly cuts down on, and expands, the types of microrobots they can manufacture. Their findings were published today in Science Robotics. (2019-04-24)

Blocking one receptor could halt rheumatoid arthritis
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have shown for the first time how the activation of a receptor provokes the inflammation and bone degradation of rheumatoid arthritis -- and that activation of this one receptor, found on cells in the fluid of arthritic joints, is all that is required. (2014-09-10)

'Heat not burn' smokeless tobacco product may not be as harm free as claimed
iQOS, one of the first 'heat not burn' smokeless tobacco products marketed as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, may not be as harm free as its manufacturer claims, suggests research published online in the journal Tobacco Control. (2018-03-13)

Study finds biomarker that predicts who responds best to common diabetic complication
Researchers at St. Michael's Hospital have found a biomarker from fluid in the eye that predicts which patients will respond best to current treatments for diabetic macular edema, one of the most common complications of diabetes. (2018-03-08)

Development of egg white-based strong hydrogel via ordered protein condensation
How to Cook Egg to Tough Material: Egg white-based strong hydrogel was created. The fluid material containing orderly condensed egg white proteins at regular intervals was produced by the mixing of both anionic and cationic surfactant to unpurified egg white proteins. This fluid material was gelled by heating and showed high mechanical properties. The maximum compressive fracture strength was <150-fold higher than that of usual boiled egg white. (2018-01-31)

Why cancer drugs can't take the pressure
A major reason why cancer drugs fail is that they cannot penetrate the high-pressure environment of solid tumors. A study published May 10 in Biophysical Journal reveals that hyaluronic acid is primarily responsible for generating elevated gel-fluid pressures in tumors. In a mouse model of pancreatic cancer, treatment with an enzyme that breaks down hyaluronic acid normalized fluid pressure in tumors and allowed vessels to re-expand, thereby overcoming a major barrier to drug delivery. (2016-05-10)

Protein active in life-threatening allergic reactions is a promising target for therapy
In a recently published study supported by Food Allergy Research & Education, researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center have described a signaling pathway that can contribute to the dangerous circulatory and respiratory symptoms of anaphylaxis. The pathway, which promotes fluid loss from blood vessels into surrounding tissues, includes the interleukin-4 receptor, a protein that is targeted by a drug already approved to treat moderate to severe eczema. These findings hold promise for a treatment to make anaphylaxis less deadly. (2018-02-22)

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