Popular Genomes News and Current Events

Popular Genomes News and Current Events, Genomes News Articles.
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DNA exchange among species is major contributor to diversity in Heliconius butterflies
Exchange of genetic material among species played a major role in the wide diversity of Heliconius butterflies, according to a new study, results of which inform a centuries-long debate about the value of hybridization to species evolution. (2019-10-31)

Illuminating the genome
Development of a new molecular visualisation method, RNA-guided endonuclease -- in situ labelling (RGEN-ISL) for the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated labelling of genomic sequences in nuclei and chromosomes. (2019-03-08)

Viral fossils reveal how our ancestors may have eliminated an ancient infection
Scientists have uncovered how our ancestors may have wiped out an ancient retrovirus around 11 million years ago. (2017-04-11)

Purest yet liver-like cells generated from induced pluripotent stem cells
A team of researchers from the Medical University of South Carolina and elsewhere has found a better way to purify liver cells made from induced pluripotent stem cells. This new methodology could facilitate progress toward an important clinical goal: the treatment of patients with disease-causing mutations in their livers by transplant of unmutated liver cells derived from their own stem cells. (2016-08-29)

Paleogenomics -- the prehistory of modern dogs
An international team of scientists has used ancient DNA samples to elucidate the population history of dogs. The results show that dogs had already diverged into at least five distinct lineages by about 11,000 years ago and that their early population history only partially reflects that of human groups. (2020-11-06)

Autism often associated with multiple new mutations
Most autism cases are in families with no previous history of the disorder. New mutations, that occur in offspring but not in their parents, might play a role. These mutations have now been found, not just in protein-coding genome areas, but also in regulatory regions. Many are in areas that influence gene activity in the brain's striatum, which coordinates motivation, planning and other aspects of cognition. (2017-10-12)

Solving Darwin's 'abominable mystery': How flowering plants conquered the world
In a study publishing on Jan. 11 in the open access journal PLOS Biology, researchers found that flowering plants have small cells relative to other major plant groups, made possible by a greatly reduced genome size, and this may explain how they became dominant so rapidly in ecosystems across the world. (2018-01-11)

Penn team shows how seemingly acute viral infections can persist
Led by Carolina López of the University of Pennsylvania, a multi-disciplinary research team has resolved a paradox of viral infection. They've identified how a viral product can both trigger an immune response aimed at eliminating the virus or, conversely, allow the virus to survive and persist. (2017-10-06)

Passenger pigeon case study: How even large, stable populations may be at risk for extinction
A new study on passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) genomics suggests that even species with large and stable populations can be at risk of extinction if there's a sudden environmental change. (2017-11-16)

The evolution of Dark-fly
On Nov. 11, 1954, Syuiti Mori turned out the lights on a small group of fruit flies. More than 60 years later, the descendants of those flies have adapted to life without light. These flies -- a variety known as 'Dark-fly' -- outcompete their light-loving cousins when they live together in constant darkness, according to research reported in G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics. Re-playing the evolution of Dark-fly identified the genomic regions that contribute to its success in the dark. (2016-02-04)

Novel experiment documents evolution of genome in near-real time
UCSD bioengineers report in the November issue of Nature Genetics rapid evolutionary changes in a bacterial genome, observed in near-real time over a few days. Scientists have previously published static (2006-11-05)

Autism Speaks MSSNG study expands understanding of autism's complex genetics
A new study from Autism Speaks' MSSNG program expands understanding of autism's complex causes and may hold clues for the future development of targeted treatments. (2016-08-04)

The Down's syndrome 'super genome'
Only 20 percent of foetuses with trisomy 21 reach full term. But how do they manage to survive the first trimester of pregnancy despite this heavy handicap? Researchers from UNIGE and UNIL have found that children born with Down's syndrome have an excellent genome - better than the average genome of people without the genetic abnormality. It is possible that this genome offsets the disabilities caused by the extra chromosome, helping the foetus to survive. (2018-01-19)

Modern humans interbred with Denisovans twice in history
Modern humans co-existed and interbred not only with Neanderthals, but also with another species of archaic humans, the mysterious Denisovans. Research published March 15 in Cell describes how, while developing a new genome-analysis method for comparing whole genomes between modern human and Denisovan populations, researchers unexpectedly discovered two distinct episodes of Denisovan genetic intermixing, or admixing, between the two. This suggests a more diverse genetic history than previously thought between the Denisovans and modern humans. (2018-03-15)

Learning to look
A team led by JGI scientists has overhauled the perception of inovirus diversity. Using machine learning, they identified more than 10,000 inovirus-like sequences compared to the 56 previously known genomes of these filamentous viruses. The results revealed inoviruses are in every major microbial habitat -- including soil, water, and humans -- around the world. (2019-07-22)

Accelerating genome analysis
An international team of scientists, led by researchers from A*STAR's Genome Institute of Singapore and the Bioinformatics Institute, have developed SIFT 4G (SIFT for Genomes) -- a software that can lead to faster genome analysis. This development was published in the scientific journal Nature Protocols. (2016-02-22)

Revealing Aspergillus diversity for industrial applications
In a Feb. 14, 2017 study published in Genome Biology, an international team report sequencing the genomes of 10 novel Aspergillus species, which were compared with the eight other sequenced Aspergillus species. With this first ever genus-wide view, the international consortium found that Aspergillus has a greater genomic and functional diversity than previously understood, broadening the range of potential applications for the fungi considered one of the most important workhorses in the biotechnology. (2017-03-03)

Why are there so many types of lizards?
Researchers from Arizona State University School of Life Sciences and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute have sequenced the complete genetic code -- the genome -- of several vertebrate species from Panama. They found that changes in genes involved in the interbrain (the site of the pineal gland and other endocrine glands), for color vision, hormones and the colorful dewlap that males bob to attract females, may contribute to the formation of boundaries between species. Genes regulating limb development also evolved especially quickly. (2018-02-23)

A close look into the barley genome
An international consortium, with the participation of the Helmholtz Zentrum München, Plant Genome and Systems Biology Department (PGSB), has published methodologically significant data on the barley genome. Their findings are contributing to the development of resistant varieties. The publication appeared in Nature. (2017-04-27)

New insights into the late history of Neandertals
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have sequenced the genomes of five Neandertals that lived between 39,000 and 47,000 years ago. These late Neandertals are all more closely related to the Neandertals that contributed DNA to modern human ancestors than an older Neandertal from the Altai Mountains that was previously sequenced. Their genomes also provide evidence for a turnover in the Neandertal population towards the end of Neandertal history. (2018-03-21)

Fern-tastic! Crowdfunded fern genomes published in Nature Plants
With crowdfunded support, researchers have sequenced the first two fern genomes ever. Their results, including the discovery of an ancient gene transfer and novel symbiosis mechanisms, appear this month in Nature Plants. (2018-07-02)

When did flowers originate?
Flowering plants likely originated between 149 and 256 million years ago according to new UCL-led research. (2018-02-04)

Despite odds, fish species that bypasses sexual reproduction is thriving
An international team of scientists has sequenced the genome of the Amazon molly, a fish that reproduces asexually. The researchers expected that the asexual organism would be at a genetic disadvantage, but the Amazon molly is thriving. (2018-02-12)

All in the family: Focused genomic comparisons
Aspergillus fungi are pathogens, decomposers, and important sources of biotechnologically-important enzymes. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a team led by researchers at the Technical University of Denmark, the DOE Joint Genome Institute and the Joint BioEnergy Institute report the first outcome from the large-scale sequencing of 300+ Aspergillus species. These findings are a proof of concept of novel methods to functionally annotate genomes to more quickly identify genes of interest. (2018-01-11)

Metabolism gives a boost to understanding plant and animal nutrient evolution
In the advanced online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, authors Maurino, et. al., explore the evolution of a family of enzymes, called 2-hydroxy acid oxidase, or 2-HAOX, that break down fats in both plant and animals. Their results show how plants and animals have adapted differently to similar environmental conditions in order to meet their energy needs. (2014-02-14)

Plague likely a Stone Age arrival to central Europe
A team of researchers led by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has sequenced the first six European genomes of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis dating from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (4,800 to 3,700 years ago). Analysis of these samples, published in Current Biology, suggests that the Stone Age Plague entered Europe during the Neolithic with a large-scale migration of people from the Eurasian steppe. (2017-11-22)

Fungi have enormous potential for new antibiotics
Fungi are a potential goldmine for the production of pharmaceuticals. This is shown by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, who have developed a method for finding new antibiotics from nature's own resources. The findings -- which could prove very useful in the battle against antibiotic resistance -- were recently published in the journal, Nature Microbiology. (2017-04-20)

First 'non-gene' mutations behind neurodevelopmental disorders discovered
In the largest study of its kind, genetic changes causing neurodevelopmental disorders have been discovered by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators. The study of almost 8,000 families, published today in Nature, found for the first time that mutations outside of genes can cause rare developmental disorders of the central nervous system. The study is a positive step towards providing an explanation for children with undiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. (2018-03-21)

Viruses can evolve in parallel in related species
Viruses are more likely to evolve in similar ways in related species -- raising the risk that they will 'jump' from one species to another, new research shows. (2018-04-12)

Genome sleuthing tracks the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
esearchers tracked the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during a one-year period in the East of England, and observed evidence for transmission of the bacteria in the community resulting from clinically unrecognized episodes. (2017-10-25)

Northern European population history revealed by ancient human genomes
An international team of scientists, led by researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, analyzed ancient human genomes from 38 northern Europeans dating from approximately 7,500 to 500 BCE. The study, published today in Nature Communications, found that Scandinavia was initially settled via a southern and a northern route and that the arrival of agriculture in northern Europe was facilitated by movements of farmers and pastoralists into the region. (2018-01-30)

The blue whale genome reveals the animals' extraordinary evolutionary history
For the first time, scientists of the German Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Center, Goethe University and the University of Lund in Sweden have deciphered the complete genome of the blue whale and three other rorquals. Surprisingly, the genomes show that rorquals have been hybridizing during their evolutionary history. In addition, rorquals seem to have separated into different species in the absence of geographical barriers. This phenomenon, called sympatric speciation, is very rare in animals. The study has just been published in (2018-04-06)

Mapping the 'dark matter' of human DNA
Researchers from ERIBA, Radboud UMC, XJTU, Saarland University, CWI and UMC Utrecht have made a big step towards a better understanding of the human genome. By identifying large DNA variants in 250 Dutch families, the researchers have clarified part of the 'dark matter,' the great unknown, of the human genome. These new data enable researchers from all over the world to study the DNA variants and use the results to better understand genetic diseases. (2016-10-07)

International team sequences first Amazon molly fish genome
No species is immune from the suffering of unrequited love, but scientists expect to learn volumes about the biological basis of sex from the newly sequenced genome of an all-female, asexual Texas native -- the Amazon molly -- that has thrived as a master of male manipulation over millennia. (2018-02-12)

Hundreds of thousands of genomes shed light on psychiatric disorders
A massive undertaking by the Brainstorm Consortium to analyze the genomes of nearly 900,000 people has revealed important insights into the genetic overlap among some psychiatric diseases, as well as among personality traits. (2018-06-21)

Genome of wheat ancestor sequenced
Sequencing the bread wheat genome has long been considered an almost insurmountable task, due to its enormous size and complexity. Now, an international team of scientists led by researchers at the University of California, Davis, has come a step closer to solving the puzzle by sequencing the genome of a wild ancestor of bread wheat known as Aegilops tauschii, a type of goatgrass. (2017-11-15)

Historical genomes reveal recent changes in genetic health of eastern gorillas
The critically endangered Grauer's gorilla has recently lost genetic diversity and has experienced an increase in harmful mutations. These conclusions were reached by an international team of researchers who sequenced eleven genomes from eastern gorilla specimens collected up to 100 years ago, and compared these with genomes from present-day individuals. The results are now published in Current Biology. (2018-12-27)

Modern humans emerged more than 300,000 years ago new study suggests
A genomic analysis of ancient human remains from KwaZulu-Natal revealed that southern Africa has an important role to play in writing the history of humankind. A research team from Uppsala University, Sweden, the Universities of Johannesburg and the Witwatersrand, South Africa, presents their results in the Sept. 28 early online issue of Science. (2017-09-28)

A mass dog vaccination campaign stops rabies transmission in its tracks
Mass dog vaccination campaigns in an African city successfully interrupted rabies transmission for nine months during 2014, researchers report. (2017-12-20)

Line-1 modes of nuclear entrance and retrotransposition
In a new SLAS Discovery auto-commentary, the authors of an article recently published in eLife ('LINE-1 Protein Localization and Functional Dynamics During the Cell Cycle') explain their general views on their novel discoveries and discuss ideas on the relevant new questions generated by their data. (2018-05-04)

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