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Release of the cancer incidence and survival statistics for Northern Ireland 2012-2016
The Queen's University N. Ireland Cancer Registry (NICR) today released the number of new cancer cases diagnosed (incidence) in Northern Ireland in 2016. (2018-03-22)

Cancer mortality in the US continues decades-long drop
The cancer death rate dropped 1.7 percent from 2014 to 2015, continuing a drop that began in 1991 and has reached 26 percent, resulting in nearly 2.4 million fewer cancer deaths during that time. (2018-01-04)

Researchers demonstrate RAS dimers are essential for cancer
Researchers at UT Southwestern's Simmons Cancer Center have shown that RAS molecules act in pairs, known as dimers, to cause cancer, findings that could help guide them to a treatment. (2018-01-11)

Scientists find new evidence about how to prevent worsening pneumonia
Sodium channels in the cells that line the tiny capillaries in our lungs play an important role in keeping those capillaries from leaking and potentially worsening conditions like pneumonia, scientists report. (2017-09-05)

People born premature have smaller airways causing respiratory problems
People born prematurely may have smaller airways than those born at full term, which can cause respiratory problems. That's according to research published in Experimental Physiology today. (2017-11-29)

Scientists discover how cigarette smoke causes cancer: Study points to new treatments, safer tobacco
Everyone has known for decades that that smoking can kill, but until now no one really understood how cigarette smoke causes healthy lung cells to become cancerous. In a research report published in the March print issue of The FASEB Journal, researchers show that hydrogen peroxide (or similar oxidants) in cigarette smoke is the culprit. This finding may help the tobacco industry develop (2008-02-28)

High EGFR expression a predictor for improved survival with cetuximab plus chemotherapy
High epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression was a good predictor of which lung cancer patients would survive longer when cetuximab (Erbitux) was added to first-line chemotherapy, according to research presented at the 14th World Conference on Lung Cancer in Amsterdam, hosted by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. (2011-07-05)

New approach uses ultrasound to measure fluid in the lungs
A team of engineering and medical researchers has found a way to use ultrasound to monitor fluid levels in the lung, offering a noninvasive way to track progress in treating pulmonary edema -- fluid in the lungs -- which often occurs in patients with congestive heart failure. The approach, which has been demonstrated in rats, also holds promise for diagnosing scarring, or fibrosis, in the lung. (2017-03-21)

Certain factors may predict lung cancer patients' response to chemotherapy
In a retrospective analysis of 73 lung squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with the chemotherapy regimen of gemcitabine plus cisplatin, higher body mass index and younger age were linked with longer progression-free survival, the length of time that a patient lives with cancer but it does not get worse. Patients with better response to treatment and higher body mass index had longer overall survival in the Thoracic Cancer analysis. (2018-01-10)

Lung cancer mortality rates among women projected to increase by over 40 percent by 2030
The global age-standardized lung cancer mortality rate among women is projected to increase by 43 percent from 2015 to 2030, according to an analysis of data from 52 countries. The global age-standardized breast cancer mortality rate is projected to decrease by 9 percent in the same time frame. (2018-08-01)

Entrectinib effective, well-tolerated against ROS1 and NTRK lung cancers, especially with brain metastases
Pooled analysis of three phase 1 and 2 clinical trials show that the drug entrectinib is effective and well-tolerated against advanced ROS1 and NTRK fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). (2019-12-13)

Childhood aggression linked to deficits in executive function
Researchers find that primary school children with reduced cognitive skills for planning and self-restraint are more likely to show increased aggression in middle childhood. The study examined the relationship between aggression and executive function -- a measure of cognitive skills that allow a person to achieve goals by controlling their behavior. The results suggest that helping children to increase their executive function could reduce their aggression. (2018-03-15)

Video plus brochure helps patients make lung cancer scan decision
A short video describing the potential benefits and risks of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer in addition to an informational brochure increased patients' knowledge and reduced conflicted feelings about whether to undergo the scan more than the informational brochure alone, according to a randomized, controlled trial published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society. (2019-04-19)

New research shows diabetes and worse blood sugar control are associated with long-term cognitive decline
A new study in Diabetologia of some 5,000 older people in the UK has shown that rates of long-term cognitive decline are steeper in those who have diabetes compared with people with normal blood sugar control, and that efforts to delay the onset of diabetes and/or control blood sugar levels might prevent subsequent progression of brain function decline. (2018-01-25)

Novel classification can lead to new ways to diagnose and treat cancer
A novel approach to studying cancer has enabled researchers to group about 10,000 human cancers of 32 different types into 10 classes based on the molecular pathways that drive tumor growth. A better understanding of these pathways can potentially lead to novel ways to diagnose and treat cancer. (2018-02-12)

Mobilizing white blood cells to the lung: New discovery could lead to an improved influenza vaccine
Findings just published in the scientific journal Immunity by researchers at the Trudeau Institute shed new light on how a previously-unknown messaging mechanism within the human immune system prompts specific influenza-fighting cells to the lung airways during an infection. (2008-07-10)

Smoking may lead to heart failure by thickening the heart wall
Smokers without obvious signs of heart disease were more likely than nonsmokers and former smokers to have thickened heart walls and reduced heart pumping ability. The longer and more cigarettes people smoked, the greater the damage to their hearts' structure and function. Heart measures in former smokers were similar to nonsmokers, suggesting that quitting may reverse tobacco-related damage. (2016-09-13)

Study identifies new molecular target for treating deadly lung disease IPF
Scientists searching for a therapy to stop the deadly and mostly untreatable lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), found a new molecular target that slows or stops the illness in preclinical laboratory tests. Researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center report their data in the journal Cell Reports. Studying mice with IPF and donated human cells, they identify a gene called FOXF1 that inhibits the IPF disease process. (2018-04-10)

Reprogrammed blood vessels promote cancer spread
Tumor cells use the bloodstream to spread in the body. To reach the blood, they first have to pass the wall of the vessel. Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center have now identified a trick that the cancer cells use: They activate a cellular signal in the vessel lining cells. This makes the passage easier and promotes metastasis. In experiments with mice, the researchers were able to block this process using antibodies. (2017-03-03)

Expert panel issues new guidelines for lung cancer molecular testing
Guidelines add ROS1 to list of tests matching lung cancer with targeted treatments, among other updated recommendations. (2018-01-30)

CNIO researchers cure lung fibrosis in mice with a gene therapy that lengthens telomeres
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a potentially lethal disease associated with the presence of critically short telomeres, currently lacking effective treatment. The Telomere and Telomerase Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) has succeeded in curing this disease in mice using a gene therapy that lengthens the telomeres. This work constitutes a (2018-01-30)

Mutation promts lung tumor cells to morph into gut cells
Researchers were surprised when they recently spotted a miniature gut hidden in the cells of lung tumor samples. They discovered that these cells had lost a gene called NKX2-1 that acts as a master switch, flipping a network of genes to set the course for a lung cell. Without it, the cells follow the path of their nearest developmental neighbor -- the gut -- much like a train jumping tracks when a railroad switch fails. (2018-03-26)

Women who clean at home or work face increased lung function decline
Women who work as cleaners or regularly use cleaning sprays or other cleaning products at home appear to experience a greater decline in lung function over time than women who do not clean, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. (2018-02-16)

Fruits, vegetables and teas may protect smokers from lung cancer, UCLA researchers report
Tobacco smokers who eat three servings of fruits and vegetables per day and drink green or black tea may be protecting themselves from lung cancer, according to a first-of-its-kind study by UCLA cancer researchers. (2008-05-28)

Inhibiting metabolism found to be effective in treating aggressive form of lung cancer
Researchers from UCLA and Long Beach Memorial Medical Center have found that two targeted therapies could be more effective if used in combination to treat squamous cell carcinomas of the lung (2018-04-12)

Three papers help to crack the code of coenzyme Q biosynthesis
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a vital cog in the body's energy-producing machinery, a kind of chemical gateway in the conversion of food into cellular fuel. But six decades removed from its discovery, scientists still can't describe exactly how and when it is made. (2017-12-13)

Hope for patients with COPD
For the first time, a drug therapy appears to reduce lung function loss in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 42 countries. (2008-08-15)

Drexel researchers identify 'master regulator' involved in infant lung damage
Blocking the micro-RNA miR-34a significantly reduced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in mice. (2017-10-27)

Turning off asthma attacks
Working with human immune cells in the laboratory, Johns Hopkins researchers report they have identified a critical cellular 'off' switch for the inflammatory immune response that contributes to lung-constricting asthma attacks. The switch, they say, is composed of regulatory proteins that control an immune signaling pathway in cells. (2016-12-02)

A self-propelled catheter with earthworm-like peristaltic motion
A research team of Toho University and Tokyo Institute of Technology has developed a mechanism of a self-propelled catheter capable of generating peristaltic motion just like an earthworm by applying pneumatic pressure inside only one tube. The goal is to develop an AutoGuide robot that propels itself inside bronchi, automatically reaching the target lesion within the lungs, and can take a lesion sample and provide treatment. (2017-10-10)

Mayo Clinic study finds heart transplant patients benefit from new approach to immunosuppression
A new immunosuppression regimen for heart transplant patients can improve kidney function and prevent transplant coronary artery disease, according to two new Mayo Clinic studies. Mayo researchers will report their findings on April 26 at the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation Annual Meeting and Scientific Session in San Francisco. (2007-04-26)

A new strategy induces the regression of advanced lung tumors in mice
A study conducted by researchers at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) shows how the elimination of the c-Raf kinase by genetic manipulation causes the regression of Kras oncogene-driven advanced lung tumors in a genetically designed mouse model. It has also been shown that the elimination of the c-Raf protein produces very tolerable toxic effects. This opens a new possibility for the development of new therapies. (2018-01-25)

Limiting tumors' ability to hide from the immune system
Scientists have discovered a way to stop tumors from shedding certain proteins that the immune system uses to identify and attack tumors. (2018-03-29)

Antibodies as 'messengers' in the nervous system
Antibodies are able to activate human nerve cells within milliseconds and hence modify their function -- that is the surprising conclusion of a study carried out at Human Biology at the Technical University of Munich (TUM). This knowledge improves our understanding of illnesses that accompany certain types of cancer, above all severe intestinal malfunctions. (2017-01-27)

Radiation-guided nanoparticles zero in on metastatic cancer
Zap a tumor with radiation to trigger expression of a molecule, then attack that molecule with a drug-loaded nanoparticle. (2016-06-29)

People with HIV who smoke are more likely to die from lung cancer than from HIV itself
People living with HIV who adhere to antiretroviral therapy but smoke cigarettes are around 10 times more likely to die from lung cancer than from HIV itself, according to a study led by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital. (2017-09-18)

Nerve cells found to suppress immune response during deadly lung infections
Neurons that carry nerve signals to and from the lungs suppress immune response during fatal lung infections with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Animal experiments show that disabling these neurons can boost immune response and promote bacterial clearance to aid recovery. Targeting neuro-immune signaling in the lungs can pave the way to nonantibiotic therapies for bacterial pneumonia. (2018-03-05)

Vitamin C may reduce harm to infants' lungs caused by smoking during pregnancy
Vitamin C may reduce the harm done to lungs in infants born to mothers who smoke during their pregnancy, according to a randomized, controlled trial published online in the American Thoracic Society's American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. (2018-12-07)

First-in-human clinical trial of new targeted therapy drug reports promising responses for multiple
A phase I, first-in-human study led by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reveals for the first time, an investigational drug that is effective and safe for patients with cancers caused by an alteration in the receptor tyrosine kinase known as RET. The drug appears to be promising as a potential therapy for RET-driven cancers, such as medullary and papillary thyroid, non-small cell lung, colorectal and bile duct cancers, which have been historically difficult to treat. (2018-04-15)

Racial disparities in asthma related to health care access, environmental factors
In the United States, racial disparities in asthma prevalence, morbidity and mortality can largely be explained by looking at socioeconomic and environmental factors, such as access to healthcare. The findings highlight the potential of targeted interventions, such as mobile asthma clinic programs and joint programs with schools where asthma prevalence is high. (2019-01-11)

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