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New yeast model of metabolic disorders may lead to life-saving therapies
A new Tel Aviv University study suggests that the role of yeast, the world's most basic eukaryotic unicellular organism, may pave the way for the development of novel, more effective therapies for congenital diseases. (2019-01-16)

Neonics put bumblebees at risk of extinction by hindering colony formation, study reveals
Bumblebees are less able to start colonies when exposed to a common neonicotinoid pesticide, according to a new University of Guelph study. Professor Nigel Raine has discovered that exposure to thiamethoxam reduces the chances of a bumblebee queen starting a new colony by more than a quarter. Using a mathematical model, the researchers found that this rate of decline could threaten extinction of wild bumblebee populations. (2017-08-14)

Paving the way for a fructose tolerance test
A new study finds that the hormone FGF21 is a reliable predictor of fructose metabolism and could, in essence, provide the basis for a 'fructose tolerance test.' (2014-10-13)

Understanding what makes Tennessee whiskey unique
Freshly distilled, un-aged whiskey is filtered over charcoal made from the sugar maple tree in a mysterious, but necessary step known as the Lincoln County Process. By law, a product cannot be called Tennessee whiskey without it. Researchers now say they have some clues as to what the process imparts to the final product. The researchers will present their results today at the American Chemical Society Spring 2019 National Meeting & Exposition. (2019-03-31)

Parent educational tools on pain relief help reduce babies' vaccination distress
Information provided to new parents in hospital about how to alleviate pain for their babies during vaccination resulted in more frequent use of pain interventions at future infant vaccinations, reports a study published in CMAJ. (2018-10-22)

Industry-ready process makes plastics chemical from plant sugars
A team from the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center and the University of Wisconsin-Madison describe an efficient and economically feasible process for producing HMF, a versatile plant-derived chemical considered crucial for building a renewable economy. (2019-05-03)

Too much fructose could leave dieters sugar shocked
Dieters should focus on limiting the amount of fructose they eat instead of cutting out starchy foods such as bread, rice and potatoes, report University of Florida researchers, who propose using new dietary guidelines based on fructose to gauge how healthy foods are. (2007-12-12)

Patients may have sweet and effective way to prepare for upper GI endoscopy: an anesthetic lollipop
Researchers at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in Lebanon have found that administering a lidocaine lollipop as a single-agent anesthetic to patients undergoing an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy procedure eliminated the need for sedation in the majority of patients. The research appears in the October issue of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. (2007-10-16)

In the eastern US, adult trees adapt and acclimate to local climate
Trees growing in temperate forests in the eastern US show strong adaptation or acclimation to local climate. So reports a new study that analyzed more than 23,000 tree cores to investigate how adult trees respond to changes in climatic conditions. Results were published this week in the journal Ecosphere. (2018-08-21)

Tree survival skills
Consider the cumulative stresses that transplanted trees must endure from the time they are harvested until they become established in a landscape. Multiple stress factors can mean the difference between survival and death for trees. Researchers from University of Illinois and Ohio State University, (2009-05-02)

Honeybee lives shortened after exposure to two widely used pesticides
The lives of honeybees are shortened -- with evidence of physiological stress -- when they are exposed to the suggested application rates of two commercially available and widely used pesticides. (2020-06-16)

Mediterranean diet boosts beneficial bacteria
Here's another reason to eat a Mediterranean-type diet: it's good for your gut. Scientists at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center found that eating a plant-based diet enhanced the good bacteria living in the gut by up to 7 percent as compared to only 0.5 percent from eating a more meat-centric, Western diet. (2018-04-25)

30-year study identifies need of disease-modifying therapies for maple syrup urine disease
A new study analyzes 30 years of patient data and details the clinical course of 184 individuals with genetically diverse forms of Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD), which is among the most volatile and dangerous inherited metabolic disorders. (2020-01-24)

Honey may reduce injury in children who have swallowed button batteries
Ingestion of button batteries, which are frequently found in the household setting, can rapidly lead to caustic esophageal injury in infants and children. A new study published in The Laryngoscope found that drinking honey or Carafate® (a cherry- flavored duodenal ulcer prescription) may help reduce esophageal damage. (2018-06-12)

Do endangered woods make better guitars?
Researchers have tested the sounds made by six different acoustic guitars in a study addressing the effects of the type of wood used in their construction. Some of the woods used for guitar backs are revered by guitar players for their acoustic qualities, and are claimed to be tonally superior to other woods. Unfortunately many of these woods are expensive, rare, and from unsustainable sources. (2019-01-21)

Are fish made of maple leaves?
Many of us learned about the aquatic food web in high school. Our teachers explained that aquatic plants form the base of the food web, with the energy they create supporting aquatic life, from invertebrates to the largest fish. However, a recent Nature paper by Institute of Ecosystem Studies scientists Drs. Michael L. Pace and Jonathan J. Cole, with colleagues from Wisconsin and Sweden, indicates that aquatic plants are receiving a little help from trees. (2004-01-14)

China's most important trees are hiding in plain sight
A research collaboration between Chinese and American scientists has synthesized long-term biodiversity data from 12 immense forest study plots spanning 1,500 miles, from China's far north to its southern tropics. Their results, published today in the journal Ecology, point to maple trees - long appreciated for their autumn foliage and the syrup that graces our tables - as potential foundation species in both China and North America. (2020-10-30)

Resveratrol, red wine compound linked to health, also found in dark chocolate and cocoa
Resveratrol, the antioxidant compound found in red wine, has been found in dark chocolate and cocoa powder. Of known sources, dark chocolate and cocoa are second only to red wine in resveratrol concentration. Resveratrol gained notoriety as the potential compound responsible for the (2008-10-14)

Trees prefer the big city life
A new study examines how trees respond to different urban intensities by comparing tree size and age, foliage nitrogen signature, nutrient and heavy metal content and other factors in forests in Newark, Del., and Philadelphia, Pa. Not only were the trees acclimated to urban conditions in the higher density Philadelphia forests, but the red maples there were actually healthier and more productive compared to those surrounded by less urbanization in Newark. (2020-10-16)

Land conservation helps local economies grow
Land conservation modestly increases employment rates, a traditional indicator of economic growth, according to an analysis of New England cities and towns, led by scientists at Amherst College, Harvard Forest, the Highstead Foundation, and Boston University. (2019-03-26)

Today's obesity epidemic may have been caused by childhood sugar intake decades ago
Current obesity rates in adults in the United States could be the result of dietary changes that took place decades ago, according to a new study published by researchers at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (2019-09-23)

Relationship between low income and obesity is relatively new, says study
It's a fact: poverty and obesity are intimately connected. But this relationship is only about 30 years old, according to a new study coauthored by UT researchers and published in Palgrave Communications, an open-access, online journal. (2018-12-11)

Deer and elk can help young Douglas-fir trees under some conditions
Long considered pests by forest managers, deer and elk can help Douglas-fir seedlings thrive under certain vegetation management conditions, a five-year study shows. (2019-12-04)

Heat forms potentially harmful substance in high-fructose corn syrup
Researchers have established the conditions that foster formation of potentially dangerous levels of a toxic substance in the high-fructose corn syrup often fed to honey bees. Their study, which appears in ACS' biweekly Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, could also help keep the substance out of soft drinks and dozens of other human foods that contain HFCS. (2009-10-14)

Effects of weather variability on maple syrup production studied
Some farmers in the United States and Canada have noticed that the quantity and quality of their maple syrup is changing with climate variability, said MSU Assistant Professor Selena Ahmed. Ahmed is co-leading a team of researchers who are investigating these observations. (2017-03-10)

Plants and microbes shape global biomes through local underground alliances
Princeton University researchers report that the distribution of forest types worldwide is based on the relationships plant species forged with soil microbes to enhance their uptake of nutrients. These symbioses could help scientists understand how ecosystems may shift as climate change alters the interplay between plants, microbes and soil. (2019-04-17)

High-fructose corn syrup enhances tumor growth in a mouse model of intestinal cancer
In a new study, researchers have found that consumption of high-fructose corn syrup can enhance tumor growth in mice that are genetically predisposed to develop intestinal cancer. (2019-03-21)

Native forest plants rebound when invasive shrubs are removed
Removing invasive shrubs to restore native forest habitat brings a surprising result, according to Penn State researchers, who say desired native understory plants display an unexpected ability and vigor to recolonize open spots. (2019-05-14)

Trees Need Calcium Too
Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior. This trend is a cause for concern because calcium is necessary for neutralizing acid rain and is an essential nutrient for tree growth. (1999-03-29)

Tree-of-heaven's prolific seed production adds to its invasive potential
Tree-of-heaven -- or Ailanthus -- is an invasive triple threat, according to a team of plant pathologists. The species produces seeds early in its lifespan, tends to make millions of viable seeds during its life, and continues to produce seeds for decades and, in some cases, for more than a century. (2017-08-02)

Is spring getting longer? UNH research points to a lengthening 'vernal window'
When spring arrives, temperatures begin to rise, ice is melts, and the world around us starts to blossom. Scientists sometimes refer to this transition from winter to the growing season as the 'vernal window,' and a study led by the University of New Hampshire shows this window may be opening earlier and possibly for longer. (2017-03-16)

Aquatic food web tied to land
Lead author and Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies limnologist Dr. Jonathan J. Cole comments, (2011-01-21)

Zinc reduces the burden of the common cold
Zinc supplements reduce the severity and duration of illness caused by the common cold, according to a systematic review published in the Cochrane Library. The findings could help reduce the amount of time lost from work and school due to colds. (2011-02-15)

Twisted meta-molecules as they really are
Physicists at the University of Bath have devised a new and highly sensitive method to truly test the chirality of a material, eliminating the risk of false positives from competing effects. (2018-06-26)

Eastern US forests more vulnerable to drought than before 1800s
Over thousands of years, most forests in the eastern United States evolved with frequent fire, which promoted tree species and ecosystems that were both fire and drought resistant. In little more than a century, humans upset that balance, suggest researchers, who blame the change, in part, on the well-meaning efforts of Smokey Bear. (2016-03-08)

Maple leaf extract could nip skin wrinkles in the bud
Maple trees are best known for their maple syrup and lovely fall foliage. But it turns out that the beauty of those leaves could be skin-deep -- and that's a good thing. Today, scientists report that an extract from the leaves may prevent wrinkles. The researchers will present their results today at the 256th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society. (2018-08-20)

Close to half of adults and one quarter of kids in the US regularly consume artificial sweeteners
A new study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics reports that 41 percent of adults and 25 percent of children currently consume at least one LCS item on a regular basis. The researchers note that this represents a 200 percent increase for children and a 54 percent increase among adults compared to data reported in 1999-2000. (2017-01-10)

Research advances understanding of opioid addiction in face of public health crisis
As the United States grapples with the devastating effects of an opioid epidemic, researchers are making progress in advancing our understanding of opioid addiction-related health issues, according to studies presented today at Neuroscience 2017, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience and the world's largest source of emerging news about brain science and health. (2017-11-13)

Examining association of major food sources of fructose-containing sugars with metabolic syndrome
This study combined the results of 13 studies with nearly 50,000 participants to look at the association of major food sources of fructose-containing sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup, with the risk of metabolic syndrome. (2020-07-09)

Fructose-sweetened drinks increase nonfasting triglycerides in obese adults
Obese people who drink fructose-sweetened beverages with their meals have an increased rise of triglycerides following the meal, according to new research from the Monell Center. This effect was especially pronounced in insulin-resistant subjects, worsening their already adverse metabolic profiles and potentially increasing their risk for heart disease and other metabolic disorders. (2009-02-12)

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