Popular Motor Neurons News and Current Events

Popular Motor Neurons News and Current Events, Motor Neurons News Articles.
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Easy on the eyes
New computer program uses artificial intelligence to determine what visual neurons like to see. Algorithm generates synthetic images that morph into 'super stimulus' for neurons, removing inherent bias of using natural images to gauge preferences. The approach could shed light on learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorders and other neurologic conditions. (2019-05-02)

All too human
Professor Rony Paz of the Weizmann Institute of Science suggests that our brains are like modern washing machines -- evolved to have the latest sophisticated programming, but more vulnerable to breakdown and prone to develop costly disorders. He and a group of researchers recently conducted experiments comparing the efficiency of the neural code in non-human and human primates, and found that as the neural code gets more efficient, the robustness that prevents errors is reduced. (2019-01-22)

NIST chip lights up optical neural network demo
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made a silicon chip that distributes optical signals precisely across a miniature brain-like grid, showcasing a potential new design for neural networks. (2018-07-26)

Watching neurons in action
OIST scientists have devised a way of observing the working of single neurons in unsurpassed detail in a live animal. (2018-08-23)

Video games to improve mobility after a stroke
A joint research by the Basque research center BCBL and the London Imperial College reveals that, after a cerebral infarction, injuries in areas that control attention also cause motility problems. The authors propose to complement physiotherapy with another type of cognitive training, such as video games. (2018-02-14)

ALS neuron damage reversed with new compound
Scientists have identified the first compound that eliminates the ongoing degeneration of upper motor neurons that become diseased and are a key contributor to ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a swift and fatal neurodegenerative disease that paralyzes its victims. In ALS, movement-initiating nerve cells in the brain and muscle-controlling nerve cells in the spinal cord die. After administering the new compound,, the diseased brain neurons stopped degenerating so much that they became similar to healthy control neurons after 60 days of treatment. (2021-02-23)

Brain neurons help keep track of time
Turning the theory of how the human brain perceives time on its head, a novel analysis in mice reveals that dopamine neuron activity plays a key role in judgment of time, slowing down the internal clock. (2016-12-08)

WSU researchers discover new clues on how sleep works in the brain
Star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes appear to play an essential role in sleep, a new study by scientists from the Washington State University Sleep and Performance Research Center confirms. Published today in PLOS Genetics, their study shows that astrocytes communicate to neurons to regulate sleep time in fruit flies and suggests it may do the same in mammals, including humans. (2018-10-31)

During infancy, neurons are still finding their places
Researchers have identified a large population of previously unrecognized young neurons that migrate in the human brain during the first few months of life, contributing to the expansion of the frontal lobe, a region important for social behavior and executive function. (2016-10-06)

Improving academic performance with physical fitness
Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is beneficial for both physical and mental health throughout life. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that it may also play a key role in brain health and academic performance. In a new study scheduled for publication in the Journal of Pediatrics, researchers studied the independent and combined influence of components of physical fitness on academic performance. (2014-06-19)

Innate immune adaptor TRIF confers neuroprotection in ALS
Researchers led by Nagoya University report that deficiency of the innate immune adaptor TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF) significantly shortens survival time and accelerates disease progression of ALS mice. They revealed for the first time that the TRIF pathway is involved in eliminating aberrantly activated astrocytes to maintain the microenvironment surrounding motor neurons in ALS mice. This study provides a clue to develop a new therapeutic approach for protecting ALS motor neurons. (2018-04-15)

Transplanting adult spinal cord tissues: A new strategy of repair spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury repair is one of the most challenging medical problems, and no effective therapeutic methods has been developed. Now researchers from China reported transplantation of adult spinal cord tissue for treatment of adult complete spinal cord injury. This work provided valuable information for future clinical application. (2019-03-27)

How many types of neurons are there in the brain?
For decades, scientists have struggled to develop a comprehensive census of cell types in the brain. Now, researchers describe powerful new approaches to systematically identify individual classes of neurons in the spinal cord. In doing so, they reveal elements of the underlying circuit architecture through which these neurons shape movement -- and highlight how statistical approaches could provide neuroscientists with a critical tool to quantify the cellular diversity of any region of the brain. (2016-03-03)

Neurons that regenerate, neurons that die
In a new study published in Neuron, investigators report on a transcription factor that they have found that can help certain neurons regenerate, while simultaneously killing others. (2017-06-21)

How neurons use crowdsourcing to make decisions
When many individual neurons collect data, how do they reach a unanimous decision? New research from the Santa Fe Institute's collective computation group suggests a two-phase process. (2017-06-06)

Parkinson's disease patients benefit from physical activity
A comprehensive review published in the Journal of Parkinson's Disease confirms that people living with Parkinson's disease (PD) can benefit from being physically active, especially when it comes to improving gait and balance, and reducing risks of falls. It concludes that health professionals should be confident about prescribing physical activity to improve the health and quality of life of PD patients. (2016-11-15)

Engineering researchers use laser to 'weld' neurons
University of Alberta researchers have developed a method of connecting neurons, using ultrashort laser pulses -- a breakthrough technique that opens the door to new medical research and treatment opportunities. Neurons are cells in the nervous system that are responsible for transferring information between the brain and the rest of the body. The team is the first ever to find a way to bond neurons and in doing so, is giving researchers a powerful new tool. (2016-02-09)

Molecular body guards for neurons
In the brain, patterns of neural activity are perfectly balanced. The interplay between activating and inhibitory neurotransmitters ensures that the level of activity stays within the physiological range. During an epileptic attack excitation gains the upper hand resulting in the death of neurons. Researchers of the Bonn University Medical School have now discovered a key player in a signal transduction cascade, which protects neurons from hyperexcitation-induced cell death. (2016-03-02)

'Filter' hones GWAS results to help researchers avoid dead ends
A genetics research team at Johns Hopkins Medicine has solved a dilemma facing researchers who use genomewide association studies (GWAS) by developing a new approach that strategically 'filters' which genes are worth further study. The researchers hope this strategy will accelerate the study of diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia and even addiction by helping researchers avoid 'dead-end paths.' They are optimistic that this strategy will gain widespread use and will save researchers time and money. (2018-03-05)

New tool to identify and control neurons
One of the big challenges in the Neuroscience field is to understand how connections and communications trigger our behavior. Researchers at Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience developed a tool to identify and control neurons. The new technique, called Calcium and Light-Induced Gene Handling Toolkit or 'Cal-Light,' allows researchers to observe and manipulate the neural activities underlying behavior with never-before-seen specificity, hopefully allowing researchers to identify causality between neuronal activity and behavior. (2017-06-26)

From spinal cord injury to recovery
Spinal cord injury disconnects communication between the brain and the spinal cord, disrupting control over part of the body. Studying the mechanisms of recovery, Leuven researcher Aya Takeoka (NERF) found that a specific type of neuronal feedback from sites below the injury plays a crucial role during early recovery and for maintaining regained motor functions. (2019-04-08)

A turbo engine for tracing neurons
Putting a turbo engine into an old car gives it an entirely new life -- suddenly it can go further, faster. That same idea is now being applied to neuroscience, with a software wrapper that can be used on existing neuron tracing algorithms to boost their ability to handle not just big, but enormous sets of data. The wrapper, called UltraTracer, is highlighted this month in Nature Methods. (2017-04-27)

Neurons can learn temporal patterns
Individual neurons can learn not only single responses to a particular signal, but also a series of reactions at precisely timed intervals. This is what emerges from a study at Lund University in Sweden. (2017-05-29)

Antibodies protect nerve-muscle connections in a mouse model of Lou Gehrig's disease
A new study led by NYU School of Medicine researchers identifies a novel treatment strategy that preserved neuromuscular synapses in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. (2018-02-20)

Impact of inactivity on muscles more severe for older people
According to a recent study published in The Journal of Physiology, researchers have been able to document for the first time how the same period of inactivity has a greater and more severe impact on the muscle power of the lower limbs of the elderly than young people, which is essential for movements like climbing the stairs. (2018-01-04)

Autism is associated with zinc deficiency in early development -- now a study links the two
Autism has been associated with zinc deficiency in infancy. While it is not yet known whether zinc deficiency in early development causes autism, scientists have now found a mechanistic link. Published in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, their study connects zinc, autism risk genes and abnormal neuronal connections associated with autism spectrum disorders. (2018-11-09)

One or the other: Why strength training might come at the expense of endurance muscles
The neurotransmitter brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts in the muscle, so that during strength training endurance muscle fiber number is decreased. Researchers at the University of Basel's Biozentrum have more closely investigated this factor, from the group of myokines, and demonstrated that it is produced by the muscle and acts on both muscles and synapses. The results published in PNAS also provide new insights into age-related muscle atrophy. (2019-07-25)

Mild traumatic brain injury causes long-term damage in mice
A new Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology study in mice found that mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) can precipitate not only acute damage but also a lifelong degenerative process. (2017-12-14)

Sleep tight! Researchers identify the beneficial role of sleep
Why do animals sleep? Why do humans 'waste' a third of their lives sleeping? Researchers now reveal a novel and unexpected function of sleep that they believe could explain how sleep and sleep disturbances affect brain performance, aging and various brain disorders. Using 3D time-lapse imaging techniques in live zebrafish, they were able to define sleep in a single chromosome resolution and show that single neurons require sleep in order to perform nuclear maintenance. (2019-03-05)

Why musical training benefits us in processing speech
A brain imaging study by Dr. DU Yi from the Institute of Psychology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and her collaborator Dr. Zatorre Robert from the Montréal Neurological Institute and McGill University has revealed that musical training might improve speech perception in noisy environments via enhanced neural foundation in bottom-up auditory encoding, top-down speech motoric prediction, and cross-modal auditory-motor integration. (2017-12-04)

Extraordinary regeneration of neurons in zebrafish
Biologists from the University of Bayreuth have discovered a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish. They studies the Mauthner cells, which are solely responsible for the escape behaviour of the fish, and previously regarded as incapable of regeneration. However, their ability to regenerate crucially depends on the location of the injury. (2020-07-10)

New model may provide insights on neurocognitive disorders caused by HIV
HIV infects certain cells in the brain called microglia, and infected microglia release toxic and inflammatory molecules that can impair or kill surrounding neurons. (2017-11-08)

Stroke patients take the lead in their rehabilitation
EPFL spin-off Intento has developed a patient-controlled electrical-stimulation device that helps stroke victims regain mobility in paralyzed arms. The promising results of the first clinical study are published in Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. (2017-05-09)

Footwear habits influence child and adolescent motor skill development
Researchers show that children and adolescents who spend most of their time barefoot develop motor skills differently from those who habitually wear shoes. Published in Frontiers in Pediatrics, this is the first study to assess the relevance of growing up shod vs. barefoot on jumping, balancing and sprinting motor performance during different stages of childhood and adolescence. Results suggest that regular physical activity without shoes may improve children's and adolescents' balancing and jumping skills. (2018-07-11)

A molecule that directs neurons
A research team coordinated by the University of Trento studied a mass of brain cells, the habenula, linked to disorders like autism, schizophrenia and depression. The results of their work, published in 'Development', will help find out more about serious brain disorders that can only be treated in ways that take a toll on the quality of life of people. (2020-03-24)

Even flies like a familiar song
The process that allows sounds experienced during infancy to shape language is poorly understood. Researchers at Nagoya University found that courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster can be shaped by earlier auditory experiences. Their findings allowed them to develop a novel and simple neurological model to study how experiences of sound can shape complex modes of communication in animals. (2018-03-20)

New way to study swallowing could one day lead to improved treatments for ALS
There is no cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's Disease, but new findings from the University of Missouri School of Medicine and the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine are deepening researchers' understanding of a common ALS symptom: swallowing problems. (2018-11-14)

Balancing time & space in the brain: New model holds promise for predicting brain dynamics
A team of scientists has extended the balanced network model to provide deep and testable predictions linking brain circuits to brain activity. (2016-10-31)

Growing and moving
How interactions between neuronal migration and outgrowth shape network architecture. (2019-10-09)

Why do we fall asleep when bored?
University of Tsukuba researcher discovers why we have the tendency to fall asleep in the absence of motivating stimuli, i.e., when bored. (2017-09-29)

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