Popular Neural Circuits News and Current Events

Popular Neural Circuits News and Current Events, Neural Circuits News Articles.
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An ionic black box
While we embrace the way the Internet of Things already is making our lives more streamlined and convenient, the cybersecurity risk posed by millions of wirelessly connected gadgets, devices and appliances remains a huge concern. Even single, targeted attacks can result in major damage; when cybercriminals control and manipulate several nodes in a network, the potential for destruction increases. (2018-04-25)

All too human
Professor Rony Paz of the Weizmann Institute of Science suggests that our brains are like modern washing machines -- evolved to have the latest sophisticated programming, but more vulnerable to breakdown and prone to develop costly disorders. He and a group of researchers recently conducted experiments comparing the efficiency of the neural code in non-human and human primates, and found that as the neural code gets more efficient, the robustness that prevents errors is reduced. (2019-01-22)

NIST chip lights up optical neural network demo
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made a silicon chip that distributes optical signals precisely across a miniature brain-like grid, showcasing a potential new design for neural networks. (2018-07-26)

Artificial neural networks could power up curation of natural history collections
Fed with new knowledge for centuries, natural history collections contain critical data for many scientific endeavors. While recent efforts in mass digitization have already provided unprecedented insight by generating large datasets from these collections, a new pilot project -- one of the first of its kind -- suggests that the key to efficiently studying these data might lie in the new-age deep learning techniques. The research article is published in the open-access Biodiversity Data Journal. (2017-11-02)

Transplanting adult spinal cord tissues: A new strategy of repair spinal cord injury
Spinal cord injury repair is one of the most challenging medical problems, and no effective therapeutic methods has been developed. Now researchers from China reported transplantation of adult spinal cord tissue for treatment of adult complete spinal cord injury. This work provided valuable information for future clinical application. (2019-03-27)

Light-based processors boost machine-learning processing
An international team of scientists have developed a photonic processor that uses rays of light inside silicon chips to process information much faster than conventional electronic chips. Published in Nature, the breakthrough study was carried out by scientists from EPFL, the Universities of Oxford, Münster, Exeter, Pittsburgh, and IBM Research - Zurich. (2021-01-06)

From spinal cord injury to recovery
Spinal cord injury disconnects communication between the brain and the spinal cord, disrupting control over part of the body. Studying the mechanisms of recovery, Leuven researcher Aya Takeoka (NERF) found that a specific type of neuronal feedback from sites below the injury plays a crucial role during early recovery and for maintaining regained motor functions. (2019-04-08)

One step closer to finding a cure for brain diseases
Korean researchers identified a mechanism for signaling brain nerve cells through excitatory synaptic binding proteins. The finding provides important clues to understanding the principles of synaptic nerve transmission and thus can be used to analyze the fundamental causes of brain diseases and treat them. (2018-07-12)

During infancy, neurons are still finding their places
Researchers have identified a large population of previously unrecognized young neurons that migrate in the human brain during the first few months of life, contributing to the expansion of the frontal lobe, a region important for social behavior and executive function. (2016-10-06)

ORNL researchers design novel method for energy-efficient deep neural networks
Researchers at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a novel method for more efficiently training large numbers of networks capable of solving complex science problems. Specifically, Mohammed Alawad, Hong-Jun Yoon, and Gina Tourassi of ORNL's Computer Science and Engineering Division, have demonstrated that by converting deep learning neural networks (DNNs) to 'deep spiking' neural networks (DSNNs) they can improve the efficiency of network design and training. (2018-03-14)

How neurons use crowdsourcing to make decisions
When many individual neurons collect data, how do they reach a unanimous decision? New research from the Santa Fe Institute's collective computation group suggests a two-phase process. (2017-06-06)

New tool to identify and control neurons
One of the big challenges in the Neuroscience field is to understand how connections and communications trigger our behavior. Researchers at Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience developed a tool to identify and control neurons. The new technique, called Calcium and Light-Induced Gene Handling Toolkit or 'Cal-Light,' allows researchers to observe and manipulate the neural activities underlying behavior with never-before-seen specificity, hopefully allowing researchers to identify causality between neuronal activity and behavior. (2017-06-26)

Virginia Tech researchers lead breakthrough in quantum computing
A team of Virginia Tech chemistry and physics researchers have advanced quantum simulation by devising an algorithm that can more efficiently calculate the properties of molecules on a noisy quantum computer. (2019-07-25)

Neurons can learn temporal patterns
Individual neurons can learn not only single responses to a particular signal, but also a series of reactions at precisely timed intervals. This is what emerges from a study at Lund University in Sweden. (2017-05-29)

AI helps to fight against lung cancer
Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in 2015 in United States. Early detection of lung nodules will undoubtedly increase the five-year survival rate for lung cancer according to prior studies. In a paper published in SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, researchers propose a novel rating method based on geometrical and statistical features to extract initial nodule candidates and an artificial neural network approach to the detection of lung nodules. (2017-06-29)

Transplanting human nerve cells into a mouse brain reveals how they wire into brain circuits
A team of researchers led by Pierre Vanderhaeghen and Vincent Bonin (VIB-KU Leuven, Université libre de Bruxelles and NERF) showed how human nerve cells can develop at their own pace, and form highly precise connections with the surrounding mouse brain cells. These findings shed new light on the unique features of the human brain and open new perspectives for brain repair and the study of brain diseases. (2019-11-21)

Training artificial intelligence with artificial X-rays
AI holds real potential for improving both the speed and accuracy of medical diagnostics -- but before clinicians can harness the power of AI to identify conditions in images such as X-rays, they have to 'teach' the algorithms what to look for. Now, U of T Engineering have designed a new approach: using machine learning to create computer generated X-rays to augment AI training sets. (2018-07-06)

Even flies like a familiar song
The process that allows sounds experienced during infancy to shape language is poorly understood. Researchers at Nagoya University found that courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster can be shaped by earlier auditory experiences. Their findings allowed them to develop a novel and simple neurological model to study how experiences of sound can shape complex modes of communication in animals. (2018-03-20)

Talk to the hand
Fans of the blockbuster movie 'Iron Man 3' might remember the characters step inside the digital projection of a 'big brain' and watch as groups of neurons are 'lit up' along the brain's neural 'map' in response to physical touch. Now, much like that scene, researchers at the University of Missouri have discovered a new insight into how the complex neural map of the human brain operates. (2019-11-05)

Why musical training benefits us in processing speech
A brain imaging study by Dr. DU Yi from the Institute of Psychology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and her collaborator Dr. Zatorre Robert from the Montréal Neurological Institute and McGill University has revealed that musical training might improve speech perception in noisy environments via enhanced neural foundation in bottom-up auditory encoding, top-down speech motoric prediction, and cross-modal auditory-motor integration. (2017-12-04)

Brain scientists at TU Dresden examine brain networks during short-term task learning
'Practice makes perfect' is a common saying. We all have experienced that the initially effortful implementation of novel tasks is becoming rapidly easier and more fluent after only a few repetitions. (2016-11-03)

IBM-EPFL-NJIT team demonstrates novel synaptic architecture for brain inspired computing
Two New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) researchers, working with collaborators from the IBM Research Zurich Laboratory and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, have demonstrated a novel synaptic architecture that could lead to a new class of information processing systems inspired by the brain. (2018-07-10)

Maternal inflammation boosts serotonin and impairs fetal brain development in mice
Fighting the flu during pregnancy sickens a pregnant woman, but it may also put the fetus at a slightly increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders like autism later in life. A new study in pregnant mice, published June 1 in The Journal of Neuroscience, offers a potential mechanism explaining why: Inflammation alters neurotransmitters and impairs growth of nerve cells in the developing fetal brain. (2016-05-31)

Balancing time & space in the brain: New model holds promise for predicting brain dynamics
A team of scientists has extended the balanced network model to provide deep and testable predictions linking brain circuits to brain activity. (2016-10-31)

Brain scans show why people get aggressive after a drink or two
Researchers have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that measure blood flow in the brain to better understand why people often become aggressive and violent after drinking alcohol. After only two drinks, the researchers noted changes in the working of the prefrontal cortex of the brain, the part normally involved in tempering a person's levels of aggression. (2018-02-12)

Artificial Intelligence beats us in chess, but not in memory
A new piece of research shows that the brain strategy for storing memories may lead to imperfect memories, but in turn, allows it to store more memories, and with less hassle than AI. The new study, carried out by SISSA scientists in collaboration with Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience & Centre for Neural Computation, Trondheim, Norway, has just been published in Physical Review Letters. (2021-01-15)

NUS researchers unravel new insights into how brain beats distractions to retain memories
Researchers from the National University of Singapore have recently discovered a mechanism that could explain how the brain retains working memory when faced with distractions. These findings could endow cognitive flexibility to neural networks used for artificial intelligence. (2017-10-31)

Activating genes on demand
A new approach developed by Harvard geneticist George Church, Ph.D., can help uncover how tandem gene circuits dictate life processes, such as the healthy development of tissue or the triggering of a particular disease, and can also be used for directing precision stem cell differentiation for regenerative medicine and growing organ transplants. (2015-03-04)

Neural connectivity dictates altruistic behavior
A new study suggests that the specific alignment of neural networks in the brain dictates whether a person's altruism was motivated by selfish or altruistic behavior. (2016-03-03)

Understanding brain activity when you name what you see
Using complex statistical methods and fast measurement techniques, researchers found how the brain network comes up with the right word and enables us to say it. (2019-06-24)

The ultimate green technology
Imagine patterning and visualizing silicon at the atomic level, something which, if done successfully, will revolutionize the quantum and classical computing industry. A team of scientists in Edmonton, Canada has done just that, led by a world-renowned physicist and his up-and-coming protégé. (2017-02-13)

Chemical synthesis with artificial intelligence: Researchers develop new computer method
The board game Go was long considered to be a bastion reserved for human players due to its complexity. Nowadays, however, the world's best players no longer have any chance of winning against the 'AlphaGo' software. Researchers at the University of Muenster have now demonstrated that the recipe for the success of this software can be put to excellent use to plan chemical syntheses. The study has been published in the current issue of the Nature journal. (2018-03-29)

Brain pattern flexibility and behavior
The scientists analyzed an extensive data set of brain region connectivity from the NIH-funded Human Connectome Project (HCP) which is mapping neural connections in the brain and makes its data publicly available. (2016-11-29)

How does the brain learn by talking to itself?
One of the greatest challenges of systems neuroscience is to explain how synaptic connections change to support adaptive behaviours. Neuroscientists at UNIGE previously showed that synaptic learning mechanisms in the brain's cortex are dependent on feedback from deeper brain regions. They have now precisely deciphered how this feedback gates synaptic strengthening by switching on and off particular inhibitory neurons. This study may also offer insight into computerized learning systems and artificial intelligence. (2019-01-02)

A major step forward in organic electronics
Researchers at the Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Linköping University, have developed the world's first complementary electrochemical logic circuits that can function stably for long periods in water. This is a highly significant breakthrough in the development of bioelectronics. (2018-01-11)

An optical brain-to-brain interface supports information exchange for locomotion control
Chinese researchers established an optical BtBI that supports rapid information transmission for precise locomotion control, thus providing a proof-of-principle demonstration of fast BtBI for real-time behavioral control. (2020-05-07)

Maternal love: How a mother's brain responds to her infant
The distinctive ability of mothers to identify the cries of their offspring is widely evident in nature, where it is critical to the survival of these offspring. (2008-02-28)

Brothers in arms: The brain and its blood vessels
The brain and its surrounding blood vessels exist in a close relationship. Researchers from the MPI of Immunobiology and Epigenetics have discovered how cells of the blood vessels sense the metabolic condition of the brain and alter vascular function in response. The result could be important for patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's because the onset of these age-related diseases coincides with vascular defects and breakdown of vascular function in the brain. (2020-06-15)

Alcoholism may be caused by dynamical dopamine imbalance
Researchers from the Higher School of Economics, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, Indiana University and the Russian Academy of Sciences Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Applied Physics have identified potential alcoholism mechanisms, associated with altered dopaminergic neuron response to complex dynamics of prefrontal cortex neurones affecting dopamine release. (2017-03-09)

Artificial intelligence singles out neurons faster than a human can
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have developed an automated process that can track and map active neurons as accurately as a human can, but in a fraction of the time. This new technique, based on a deep learning algorithm, addresses a critical roadblock in neuron analysis, allowing researchers to rapidly gather and process neuronal signals for real-time behavioral studies. (2019-04-12)

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