Popular Olfactory News and Current Events

Popular Olfactory News and Current Events, Olfactory News Articles.
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Female mammals follow their noses to the right mates
Historically, most examples of female mate choice and its evolutionary consequences are found in birds. But that doesn't mean mammals aren't just as choosy, researchers say. It just means that mammal mate preferences may be harder to spot. (2009-03-17)

NIH study uncovers blood vessel damage & inflammation in COVID-19 patients' brains but no infection
In an in-depth study of how COVID-19 affects a patient's brain, National Institutes of Health researchers consistently spotted hallmarks of damage caused by thinning and leaky brain blood vessels in tissue samples from patients who died shortly after contracting the disease. In addition, they saw no signs of SARS-CoV-2 in the tissue samples, suggesting the damage was not caused by a direct viral attack on the brain. (2020-12-30)

Improving cell transplantation after spinal cord injury: When, where and how?
Spinal cord injuries are mostly caused by trauma, often incurred in road traffic or sporting incidents, often with devastating and irreversible consequences. According to a systematic analysis of 49 animal studies published this week in PLOS Biology by Ralf Watzlawick, Jan Schwab and colleagues, after experimental spinal cord injury, transplanting olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into the site of damage significantly improves locomotor performance. (2016-05-31)

Running away from carbon dioxide: The terminal connection
Like us, fish need oxygen, and swimming through a patch of carbon dioxide turns out not to be a pleasant experience. Instead, they prefer to avoid carbon dioxide altogether. In experiments published in Cell Reports on Jan. 30, researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan have discovered a neuronal pathway that makes this behavior possible. (2018-01-30)

Nano vaccine for hepatitis B shows promise for third world
A new needle-less vaccine is highly effective and can be stored without refrigeration, University of Michigan studies in animals show. The vaccine should also be safer to administer than existing hepatitis B vaccines and effective with only two immunizations. The technique, a nanoemulsion given in the nose, is a step closer to human trials, possibly within a year. Hepatitis B kills an estimated 1 million people annually. (2008-08-12)

Mosquitoes remember human smells, but also swats, researchers find
A Virginia Tech study shows that mosquitoes can rapidly learn and remember the smells of hosts and that dopamine is a key mediator of this process. The study proved a mosquito's preference can shift if that person's smell is associated with an unpleasant sensation. (2018-01-25)

The sniff test of self-recognition confirmed: Dogs have self-awareness
A new research carried out by the Department of Psychology of the Barnard College in the USA, in publication on the journal Behavioural Processes, used a sniff-test to evaluate the ability of dogs to recognize themselves. The experiment confirms the hypothesis of dogs' self-cognition proposed last year by Professor Roberto Cazzolla Gatti of the Biological Institute of the Tomsk State University, Russia. (2017-09-05)

Pesticides give bees a hard time
Scientists from the University of Würzburg have investigated the impact of a new pesticide on the honeybee. In high doses, it has a negative impact on the insects' taste and cognition ability. (2018-04-05)

Smelling the risk of infection
Humans and monkeys are social beings and benefit from a community. But the closeness to conspecifics is an opportunity for parasites to infect new hosts. Clémence Poirotte from the German Primate Center investigated how mandrills recognize conspecifics infected with intestinal parasites. The monkeys are able to smell an infected group member and groom them less than healthy individuals. This component of the 'behavioral immune system' plays a crucial role in the co-evolution of host and parasite. (2017-04-10)

A fish of all flavors
Japanese researchers achieve atomic resolution images of taste receptors in fish. The structure explains why so few receptors are sufficient to sense a nearly limitless variety of sweet and savory flavors. Because these receptors are shared across vertebrate species, including humans, the findings are expected to provide new insights on how humans ascertain different tastes. (2017-06-08)

Flies smell through a Gore-Tex system
A research group led by a scientist of the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) has gained important insights into how the nanopores that allow the fruit fly to detect chemicals in the air, and has identified the gene responsible for their development. (2019-04-18)

For a banded mongoose in northern Botswana, communicating with family can be deadly
A novel tuberculosis pathogen, Mycobacterium mungi, closely related to human TB, infects and kills banded mongooses through a surprising route -- olfactory communication. Now, a detailed investigation published in the journal Veterinary Pathology provides a window into how this deadly disease moves between mongooses and within the mongoose host. (2018-01-10)

Hunter-gatherers have a special way with smells
When it comes to naming colors, most people do so with ease. But, for odors, it's much harder to find the words. One notable exception to this rule is found among the Jahai people, hunter-gatherers living in the Malay Peninsula. For them, odors are just as easy to name as colors. Now a new study reported in Current Biology suggests that the Jahai's special way with smell is related to their hunting and gathering lifestyle. (2018-01-18)

Baby's tears and mom's libido
A substance in young mice's tears makes female mice more likely to reject male sexual advances. This research is part of ongoing efforts at the University of Tokyo to understand how animals communicate using chemicals called pheromones. Direct connections between human and mouse behavior cannot be made because pheromones are highly species specific. (2018-10-26)

Moths with a nose for learning
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and NIST have discovered that when training insects, the process of building associations is not a simple matter of strengthening connections through reinforcement. Understanding how associations are built between stimuli and behavior gives insight into the nature of learning and could inform the design of artificial (2008-10-02)

Brain can navigate based solely on smells
Northwestern University researchers have developed a new 'smell virtual landscape' that enables the study of how smells engage the brain's navigation system. The work demonstrates, for the first time, that the mammalian brain can form a map of its surroundings based solely on smells. (2018-02-26)

For female mosquitoes, two sets of odor sensors are better than one
A team of Vanderbilt biologists has found that the malaria mosquito has a second complete set of odor receptors that are specially tuned to human scents. (2017-03-17)

Desert ants cannot be fooled
Cataglyphis fortis desert ants can learn visual or olfactory cues to pinpoint their nest, but only if these cues are unique to specify the nest entrance. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, discovered that the insects ignore visual landmarks or odors as nest-defining cues, if these occur not only near the nest but also along the route. Hence, ants are able to evaluate the informative value of such cues. (2017-11-22)

A good nose: RUB-Researchers decipher interaction of fragrances and olfactory receptors
Banana, mango or apricot -- telling these smells apart is no problem for the human nose. How the olfactory organ distinguishes such similar smells has been uncovered by an interdisciplinary team of researchers at the RUB. The scientists were the first to shed light on the dynamics of the three-dimensional structure of the binding site of an olfactory receptor. (2011-12-13)

Study tracks what moths think when they smell with their antennae
researchers have created a functional map of how the hawkmoth smells, tracing the process from the antennae to specific areas in the hawkmoth brain. Using a wind tunnel, calcium imaging, and 80 different odor compounds found in the hawkmoth's natural environment, researchers mapped how the hawkmoth distinguishes between odors to find a safe place to eat or to lay eggs, according to the study published Feb. 27 in the journal Cell Reports. (2018-02-27)

Lessons from the fly brain improve search algorithms
To develop better search algorithms for images and data, a group of researchers has turned to the fruit fly brain. (2017-11-09)

Scientists find how neural activity spurs blood flow in the brain
New research from Harvard University neuroscientists has pinpointed exactly how neural activity boosts blood flow to the brain. The finding has important implications for our understanding of common brain imaging techniques such as fMRI, which uses blood flow in the brain as a proxy for neural activity. (2008-06-26)

Bacteria may help frogs attract mates
The role played by symbiotic microorganisms isolated from the skin of anurans has been discovered by researchers in Brazil. The study is published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (2019-03-14)

A rose is a rose is a rose: Mathematical model explains how two brains agree on smells
Columbia scientists have discovered why the brain's olfactory system is so remarkably consistent between individuals, even though the wiring of brain cells in this region differs greatly from person to person. To make sense of this apparent paradox, the researchers developed a computational model showing that two brains need not have previously sniffed the same exact set of odors in order to agree on a new set of scents. (2018-05-01)

Study suggests that a novel wearable nasal device to reduce smelling ability can induce weight loss and changes to dietary preferences
New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Vienna, Austria (May 23-26) shows that a daily use of a novel nasal device to reduce smelling ability can induce weight loss and changes to dietary preferences in people aged 50 years and under. (2018-05-24)

Autism and the smell of fear
Autism typically involves the inability to read social cues. We most often associate this with visual difficulty in interpreting facial expression, but new research at the Weizmann Institute of Science suggests that the sense of smell may also play a central role in autism. (2017-11-27)

Late, but not too late -- screening for olfactory dysfunction
In a large population-based study of randomly selected participants in Germany, researchers found that participants aged 65-74 years with olfactory dysfunction showed impaired cognitive performance. Interestingly, this strong association was not present in younger (55-64 years) or older (75-86 years) participants. Additionally, the effect was more present in women than men. (2018-04-20)

An eNose is able to sniff out bacteria that cause soft tissue infections
A recent study conducted at the University of Tampere, Tampere University of Technology, Pirkanmaa Hospital District and Fimlab in Finland has concluded that an electronic nose (eNose) can be used to identify the most common bacteria causing soft tissue infections. (2018-01-16)

Quick! What's that smell? Mammal brains identify type of scent faster than once thought
It takes less than one-tenth of a second -- a fraction of the time previously thought -- for the sense of smell to distinguish between one odor and another, new experiments in mice show. (2017-11-14)

Olfactory receptors have more functions than merely smell perception
Numerous studies to date have shown that olfactory receptors are relevant not only for smell perception, but that they also play a significant physiological and pathophysiological role in all organs. An overview of receptors detected so far and of the functions they fulfil within the human body is provided by researchers from Ruhr-Universität Bochum, published in the journal Physiological Reviews;. (2018-07-16)

Pioneering discovery of an odor-detecting receptor enhancer
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have identified a regulatory sequence that turns gene expression on, or simply an enhancer, for odor-detecting receptors, which form one of the largest gene clusters in the mouse genome. This was done using a combination of research methods, including the CRISPR-Cas9 system, which is a genome editing technique, the Bacillus subtilis synthetic genome vector system, which is a cloning system for large DNA fragments, and bioinformatics. (2017-10-12)

Reversing influences of intergenerational stress offers hope for addressing public health
Researchers at Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, have shown for the first time in an animal model it is possible to reverse influences of parental stress by exposing parents to behavioral interventions following their own exposure to stress. This study has important public health implications for preventing future generations from bearing influences of stressors their parents faced before the children were conceived. (2018-08-27)

Smelling the forest not the trees: Why animals are better at sniffing complex smells
Animals are much better at smelling a complex 'soup' of odorants rather than a single pure ingredient, a new study by the University of Sussex has revealed. (2018-12-10)

Neuroimaging reveals lasting brain deficits in iron-deficient piglets
Iron deficiency in the first four weeks of a piglet's life - equivalent to roughly four months in a human infant - impairs the development of key brain structures, scientists report. The abnormalities remain even after weeks of iron supplementation begun later in life, the researchers found. (2018-02-21)

Advancing the science of smell -- with a hint of musk
Researchers have identified key molecular mechanisms at work when people smell musks, a highly valued group of fixatives used in many perfumes and colognes. The discovery may have implications for a wide range of effects on mood and behavior in vertebrates, said the scientists. (2018-04-09)

Electrical stimulation in the nose induces sense of smell in human subjects
Physicians at Massachusetts Eye and Ear have, for the first time, induced a sense of smell in humans by using electrodes in the nose to stimulate nerves in the olfactory bulb, a structure in the brain where smell information from the nose is processed and sent to deeper regions of brain. (2018-11-27)

When the nose doesn't know: Can loss of smell be repaired?
Researchers at Tufts are examining the behavior of stem cells within the context of aging and loss of smell. In Cell Stem Cell, they report mechanisms to regenerate adult stem cells in mice to restore smell cells: it mimics induced pluripotency, but is simpler, involving only two Yamanaka factors. (2017-12-04)

Witnesses can catch criminals by smell
Move over sniffer dogs, people who witnessed a crime are able to identify criminals by their smell. Police lineups normally rely on sight, but nose-witnesses can be just as reliable as eye-witnesses, new research published in Frontiers in Psychology has found. (2016-06-09)

A neuron can cause a domino effect
If the sense of smell disappears, this can indicate a disease such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. However, unlike previously assumed, general degenerations in the nervous system do not play a leading role in the loss of the sense of smell with increasing age, but individual nerve cells or classes of nerves are decisive. (2018-03-01)

Smell and behavior: The scents of taking action
Canadian scientists have discovered a neural pathway that links olfaction to locomotion. (2018-10-29)

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