Popular Pathology News and Current Events

Popular Pathology News and Current Events, Pathology News Articles.
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Beta blockers can repair malformed blood vessels in the brain
Propranolol, a drug that is efficacious against infantile haemangiomas (''strawberry naevi'', resembling birthmarks), can also be used to treat cerebral cavernous malformations, a condition characterised by misshapen blood vessels in the brain and elsewhere. This has been shown by researchers at Uppsala University in a new study published in the scientific journal Stroke. (2021-02-23)

Metabolic disturbance in the brain exacerbates, may forewarn Alzheimer's pathology
A better understanding of the metabolic processes in the brain -- specifically disturbances resulting from neurodegenerative diseases -- has important implications for potential treatments. The research was presented at Neuroscience 2019, the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience and the world's largest source of emerging news about brain science and health. (2019-10-20)

Traumatic brain injury biomarker shows promise to support rapid damage evaluation and predict outcomes
A new study in The American Journal of Pathology found that a brain lipid molecule, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), was significantly increased after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a preclinical animal model. They also found that it was elevated in areas associated with cell death and axonal injury, both major hallmarks of moderate and severe TBI. This strengthens the evidence that LPA could be used as a biomarker of TBI through blood testing, potentially providing a prognostic indicator of injury and outcome. (2018-07-16)

Gene expression patterns may help determine time of death
International team of scientists led by Roderic Guigó at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona shows that changes in gene expression in different tissues can be used to predict the time of death of individuals. Their results, which are published in Nature Communications this week, may have implications for forensic analyses. (2018-02-13)

Blood stored longer may be less safe for patients with massive blood loss and shock
In a collaborative study using a mouse model, researchers have found mechanistic links between older stored red blood cell transfusions and subsequent bacterial pneumonia. This may reveal new approaches to improve safety of stored red blood cell transfusions. The key player is free heme, a breakdown product from degraded red blood cells (2018-03-09)

Blood vessels also affected by Alzheimer's disease
A research conducted by the UAB demonstrates that mice suffering from this disease also have substantial malfunctions in small blood vessels, important in nourishing different organs and tissues and in regulating blood pressure, and which mainly affects females. The study also demonstrates a correlation between the state of peripheral blood vessels and different levels of anxious behaviour, both in normal ageing and in those suffering from Alzheimer's disease. (2018-03-16)

Scientists have identified the presence of cancer-suppressing cells in pancreatic cancer
Researchers have identified cells containing a protein called Meflin that has a role in restraining the progression of pancreatic cancer. They have also shown that cancer progression can be controlled by artificially increasing the amount of this protein in the cells. These findings could lead to the development of new therapies against pancreatic cancer. (2019-10-07)

New tool for prognosis and choice of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis
In rheumatoid arthritis, antibodies are formed that affect the inflammation in the joints. In an article published today in the journal Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, researchers at Uppsala University show that antibodies against the cartilage protein collagen II are associated with a good prognosis. (2017-03-23)

University of Leicester announces world first forensic technique
A team led by a University of Leicester forensic pathologist is believed to be the first in the world to use a new radiological approach for mass fatality investigation. (2006-02-24)

Linking heart attack damage to the spleen and kidney, an integrated study of heart failure
Ganesh Halade, who uses a mouse heart attack model to research ways to prevent heart failure, has published a functional and structural compendium of the simultaneous changes taking place in the heart, spleen and kidneys in mice during the period of acute heart failure immediately following a heart attack and during the longer period of chronic heart failure that comes next. (2017-11-15)

New finding will help target MS immune response
Researchers have made another important step in the progress towards being able to block the development of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. (2015-10-29)

Thyroid cancer discovery points to new treatments, prevention
The actions of a mutated protein in cells linked to thyroid cancer have been uncovered by researchers at Queen's University. The discovery paves the way for the future development of drugs to more effectively target, treat and possibly even prevent both inherited and non-inherited thyroid cancers. (2006-11-15)

Expert panel issues new guidelines for lung cancer molecular testing
Guidelines add ROS1 to list of tests matching lung cancer with targeted treatments, among other updated recommendations. (2018-01-30)

Using computers to detect breast cancer
Jeffrey Golden, MD, comments on new research exploring the use of computer algorithms in detecting the spread of breast cancer to lymph nodes. (2017-12-12)

Follicular lymphoma: A tale of 2 cancers
Many people survive well beyond 10 years following diagnosis of follicular lymphoma. Yet in a small number of cases, histological transformation -- where fast-growing cells outnumber the smaller, slow-growing cells -- or early progression to aggressive lymphoma occurs. In a study published in PLOS Medicine, Sohrab Shah and colleagues from the BC Cancer Agency in Vancouver, Canada, show that disparate evolutionary trajectories and mutational profiles drive these two distinct clinical endpoints. (2016-12-13)

Findings show potential use of artificial intelligence in detecting spread of breast cancer
Computer algorithms detected the spread of cancer to lymph nodes in women with breast cancer as well as or better than pathologists. (2017-12-12)

Active young adults with Type 1 diabetes have muscle complications
A new study from McMaster and York universities in Canada has found that poor muscle health may be a complication of Type 1 diabetes, even among active twenty-somethings. (2018-04-18)

Researchers describe mechanism that underlies age-associated bone loss
A major health problem in older people is age-associated osteoporosis -- the thinning of bone and the loss of bone density that increases the risk of fractures. Researchers have now detailed an underlying mechanism leading to that osteoporosis. When this mechanism malfunctions, progenitor cells stop creating bone-producing cells, and instead create fat cells. Knowledge of this mechanism can provide targets in the search for novel bone-loss. (2017-09-22)

Harnessing the power of genomic sequencing augments diagnosis and treatment of lymphoid cancer
A new study published in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics has established that hybrid-capture sequencing is the method of choice for sequencing 'actionable' gene mutations across the most common forms of lymphoid cancer. Due to its applicability in routinely acquired formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, this assay can be implemented by clinical laboratories into routine diagnostic workflows. It reliably identifies potentially actionable gene mutations in 91 percent of patients, bringing the benefits of precision diagnosis and individualized therapy to patients with lymphoid cancer. (2018-02-08)

Study shows myocarditis linked to COVID-19 not as common as believed
A study conducted by Richard Vander Heide, MD, PhD, Professor and Director of Pathology Research at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, and Marc Halushka, MD, PhD, Professor of Pathology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, suggests myocarditis caused by COVID-19 may be a relatively rare occurrence. (2020-10-29)

Surgery in space
With renewed public interest in manned space exploration comes the potential need to diagnose and treat medical issues encountered by future space travelers. (2018-06-20)

Millions of novel genetic variants found in 1000 Swedish individuals
An extensive exercise to map genetic variation in Sweden has found 33 million genetic variants, 10 million of which are novel. Large-scale DNA sequencing methods were used to analyse the whole genome of 1000 individuals from different parts of the country. The study was led by researchers at Uppsala University, who have published their findings in the European Journal of Human Genetics. (2017-08-25)

Growing evidence that probiotics are good for your liver
Increased awareness of the importance of the microbes that live in our gut has spurred a great deal of research on the microbiome and fueled a booming probiotics industry. A new study suggests probiotics can improve not only the health of our gut but liver health, as well. (2018-04-22)

Sensitive new assay finds abnormalities in tumor cells that other techniques may miss
RNA-Seq, a new next-generation assay, can detect gene fusions in solid tumor cells with high accuracy and excellent reproducibility. According to a new report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, the assay detected 93 percent of gene fusions identified by currently available methods with no false positives. Importantly, gene fusions missed by other techniques were found, including 18 that had never been described before. This study paves the way for clinical use to advance the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors. (2018-06-18)

Family doctors could better detect child neglect with increased dental health training
New research now suggests that GPs lack the awareness and training to identify dental neglect in children, and therefore could miss the opportunity to share potential cases of wider abuse or neglect to other health and welfare professionals. The study in The British Dental Journal was led by Sascha Colgan, consultant GP and visiting researcher at the University of Southampton in the UK, and was published by Springer Nature. (2018-05-10)

Inflammatory processes drive progression of Alzheimer's and other brain diseases
Inflammation drives the progression of neurodegenerative brain diseases and plays a major role in the accumulation of tau proteins within neurons. An international research team led by the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the University of Bonn comes to this conclusion in the journal Nature. The results indicate that inflammatory processes represent a potential target for future therapies. (2019-11-20)

Smart software can diagnose prostate cancer as well as a pathologist
Chinese scientists and clinicians have developed a learning artificial intelligence system which can diagnose and identify cancerous prostate samples as accurately as any pathologist. This holds out the possibility of streamlining and eliminating variation in the process of cancer diagnosis. It may also help overcome any local shortage of trained pathologists. In the longer term it may lead to automated or partially automated prostate cancer diagnosis. (2018-03-16)

Scientists reverse aging-associated skin wrinkles and hair loss in a mouse model
Researchers have reversed wrinkled skin and hair loss, hallmarks of aging, in a mouse model. When a mutation leading to mitochondrial dysfunction is induced, the mouse develops wrinkled skin and extensive, visible hair loss in a matter of weeks. When the mitochondrial function is restored by turning off the gene responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction, the mouse returns to smooth skin and thick fur, indistinguishable from a healthy mouse of the same age. (2018-07-20)

Amyloid protein transmission through neurosurgery
Amyloid beta pathology -- protein deposits in the brain - might have been transmitted by contaminated neurosurgical instruments, suggests a new UCL-led study. For the paper, published in Acta Neuropathologica, researchers studied the medical records of four people who had brain bleeds caused by amyloid beta build-up in brain blood vessels. All four people had undergone neurosurgery two or three decades earlier as children or teenagers, raising the possibility that amyloid beta deposition may be transmissible. (2018-02-15)

AMP Iissues consensus guideline recommendations for NGS bioinformatics pipelines
The Association for Molecular Pathology, the premier global, non-profit molecular diagnostics professional society, today published 17 consensus recommendations to help clinical laboratory professionals achieve high-quality sequencing results and deliver better patient care. The report, 'Standards and Guidelines for Validating Next Generation Sequencing Bioinformatics Pipelines: A Joint Recommendation of the Association for Molecular Pathology and College of American Pathologists,' was released online ahead of publication in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics. (2017-11-16)

Detecting blood clot risk using biomarkers
Researchers at Boston Medical Center (BMC) and Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) aim to increase survival rates among these patients by identifying new and validating existing biomarkers. (2017-03-15)

New science details discovery of bacterial pathogen in brains of Alzheimer's patients
New science uncovers how an unlikely culprit, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) -- the bacterium commonly associated with chronic gum disease -- appears to drive Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. (2019-01-23)

Microscope using UV instead of visible light emerging as diagnostic tool
New MUSE technology obtains high-resolution images of fresh biopsies for analysis within minutes, eliminating need for conventional slides and preserving original tissue sample. (2017-12-04)

Recognizing kidney injury due to burns is improved by artificial intelligence
Many burn victims suffer acute kidney injury, but early recognition of the condition can be challenging. Now an Artificial Intelligence / Machine Learning model developed at UC Davis Health and reported in a new study can predict acute kidney injury quicker and more accurately than ever. (2019-07-12)

UMN Medical School discovery could mean improved immunity against reinfections
University of Minnesota researchers have discovered a connection between the body's memory cells and a unique protein in the body called purinergic receptor P2RX7, influencing the body's long-term immune system. (2018-07-10)

AMP publishes recommendations for clinical CYP2C19 genotyping allele selection
AMP has published consensus, evidence-based recommendations to aid clinical laboratory professionals when designing and validating clinical CYP2C19 assays, promote standardization of testing across different laboratories and complement existing clinical guidelines. (2018-02-27)

Diabetes-Alzheimer's link explored at Neuroscience 2019
Surprising links exist between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, and researchers are beginning to unpack the pathology that connects the two. Hear leading scientists announce their new findings at Neuroscience 2019, the world's largest source of emerging news and cutting-edge research on the brain and nervous system. (2019-10-07)

Early changes to synapse gene regulation may cause Alzheimer's disease
TMDU-led Japanese research revealed a role for splicing proteins in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Increased phosphorylation of the SRRM2 protein, seen in AD mouse models and human patients, was found to block its transport to the nucleus. This reduced levels of the PQBP1 protein, causing abnormal changes to the splicing of synapse genes and cognitive decline. These phenotypes were reversed by restoring PQBP1 function, suggesting a possible future treatment for AD. (2018-10-12)

Improved understanding of the pathology of dwarfism may lead to new treatment targets
Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a severe inherited dwarfing condition In PSACH, a genetic mutation leads to abnormal retention of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cartilage-producing cells (chondrocytes), which interferes with function and cell viability. In a report in The American Journal of Pathology, investigators describe how this protein accumulation results in 'ER stress' and initiates a host of pathologic changes. These findings may open up new ways to treat PSACH and other ER-stress-related conditions. (2018-12-12)

Big change from small player -- Mitochondria alter body metabolism and gene expression
Mitochondria have their own DNA, but the 13 genes in human mitochondria -- along with DNA sequences for tRNAs, rRNAs and some small peptides -- are massively overshadowed by the 20,000 genes in the human nucleus. Nevertheless, these diminutive mitochondria may have a strong influence on cellular metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic diseases like heart failure or obesity, according to preliminary research by Scott Ballinger, Ph.D., professor of pathology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. (2018-11-09)

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