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Popular Signaling Pathway News and Current Events, Signaling Pathway News Articles.
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Drug combo gangs up to take on triple-negative breast cancer
In the hunt for novel treatments against an aggressive form of breast cancer, researchers combined a new protein inhibitor with a chemotherapy drug to create a powerful combination that resulted in cancer cell death. (2017-09-26)

Running away from carbon dioxide: The terminal connection
Like us, fish need oxygen, and swimming through a patch of carbon dioxide turns out not to be a pleasant experience. Instead, they prefer to avoid carbon dioxide altogether. In experiments published in Cell Reports on Jan. 30, researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan have discovered a neuronal pathway that makes this behavior possible. (2018-01-30)

Cell biology: Positioning the cleavage furrow
Researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich have identified a signaling pathway that restricts cleavage furrow formation to the mid-plane of the cell. (2018-01-11)

Breast cancer tumor-initiating cells use mTOR signaling to recruit suppressor cells to promote tumor
Baylor College of Medicine researchers report a new mechanism that helps cancer cells engage myeloid-derived suppressor cells. (2016-05-16)

A radical solution comes from mixing tools
The molten surface of a sodium-based material could assist the direct conversion of methane to useful building blocks. (2017-10-03)

Hedgehog signaling proteins keep cancer stem cells alive
Researchers from Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have discovered that the survival of cancer stem cells is dependent on the 'Hedgehog signaling pathway'. Targeting this pathway had previously shown no effect on the growth of colorectal cancer. Now, Charité scientists have demonstrated that using different drugs to target a specific aspect of the pathway may yield better treatment outcomes for patients. Results from this research have been published in the journal Cell Reports*. (2018-01-19)

Cancer cells steer a jagged path
Researchers at Rice University and the Duke University School of Medicine define the role of a jagged ligand, JAG1, in cancer cells' ability to differentiate and metastasize, making them harder to track down and eliminate. (2019-01-03)

RNA and longevity: Discovering the mechanisms behind aging
Korean researchers suggests that NMD-mediated RNA quality control is critical for longevity in the roundworm called C. elegans, a popularly used animal for aging research. They first discovered that NMD activity decreases during aging. The team then discovered that enhanced NMD underlies the longevity of famous C. elegans strains called daf-2 mutants, which have reduced insulin hormone signaling. This achievement has been published in the world-renowned Nature Communications. (2017-03-09)

FDA-approved high blood pressure drug extends life span in roundworms
An FDA-approved drug to treat high blood pressure seems to extend life span in worms via a cell signaling pathway that may mimic caloric restriction. (2017-12-20)

Protein pileup affects social behaviors through altered brain signaling
Scientists at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) have discovered that when a normal cellular cleanup process is disrupted, mice start behaving in ways that resemble human symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. They found that loss of normal autophagy influences how brain cells react to inhibitory signals from each other and contributes to the behavioral changes. This intricate signaling pathway could be a new therapeutic target for neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. (2019-04-10)

From black hat to white hat: Findings tip assumptions about TAK1 in muscle growth
Convention was that the signaling protein, transforming growth factor-ß-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is detrimental to muscle health since it activates pathways associated with muscle wasting. However deactivating TAK1 did not preserve muscle health as expected, but resulted in the opposite effect: muscle wasting. (2018-02-08)

New findings about why losartan is effective in treating Marfan syndrome may reshape our thinking about patient management
Progressive dilation of the aortic root is considered one of the most serious manifestations of Marfan syndrome. The antihypertensive losartan is one of the two medications recommended by current guidelines attenuate the progression of this aortic enlargement, but which medication works best is still controversial. A new report in The American Journal of Pathology confirms losartan's efficacy but finds that the underlying mechanism of action is different than previously thought, opening up new possibilities for improvements in Marfan syndrome management. (2018-02-09)

Finding long strands of RNA in skin development and disease
Researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have discovered how unusually long pieces of RNA work in skin cells. The RNA pieces, called 'long non-coding RNAs' or 'lncRNAs,' help skin cells modulate connective tissue proteins, like collagen, and could represent novel therapeutic targets to promote skin repair. (2017-12-06)

Vine compound starves cancer cells
Researchers from Würzburg and Toyama have discovered that a compound isolated from tropical rainforest vines inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in the lab. (2018-11-16)

Lymphoma overrides a key protein's quadruple locks
Protein chemists at Johns Hopkins report they are closer to explaining why certain blood cancers are able to crack a molecular security system and run rampant. (2016-03-22)

How cells detect, mend DNA damage may improve chemotherapy
Human cells have a way of detecting and mending DNA damage caused by some common chemotherapy drugs, according to a new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The findings could have important implications for treating cancer. (2017-11-08)

Reprogrammed blood vessels promote cancer spread
Tumor cells use the bloodstream to spread in the body. To reach the blood, they first have to pass the wall of the vessel. Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center have now identified a trick that the cancer cells use: They activate a cellular signal in the vessel lining cells. This makes the passage easier and promotes metastasis. In experiments with mice, the researchers were able to block this process using antibodies. (2017-03-03)

Solving the puzzle of multicellularity
Wits PhD student, Jonathan Featherston, of the Evolution of Complexity Laboratory at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, has answered at least part of this question, by decoding the genomic sequence of one of the simplest of all multicellular organisms -- the four-celled alga Tetrabaena socialis. (2018-02-02)

Plants are also stressed out
What will a three-degree-warmer world look like? When experiencing stress or damage from various sources, plants use chloroplast-to-nucleus communication to regulate gene expression and help them cope. Now, Salk Institute researchers have found that GUN1 -- a gene that integrates numerous chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathways -- also plays an important role in how proteins are made in damaged chloroplasts, which provides a new insight into how plants respond to stress. (2019-04-19)

Kids born later in the year can still excel in sport
A child's birth month shouldn't affect their long-term prospects in high-level sport and those who hold off on specialising until later years may be the most successful, according to new research from the University of Sydney. (2018-01-31)

Penis development needs more than just testes and testosterone
Proper development of the fetal penis requires not just testosterone from the testes, but a second hormone produced by other tissues, including the placenta, according to a new study publishing Feb. 14 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology from Paul Fowler of the University of Aberdeen, Michelle Bellingham of the University of Glasgow, and colleagues in the UK, France and Sweden. The results reveal a previously unknown pathway of masculinization of the external genitals. (2019-02-14)

Signals from skin cells control fat cell specialization
When cells change to a more specialized type, we call this process cellular differentiation. Scientists have revealed that protein secretions by skin cells known as keratinocytes control the differentiation of subsurface skin fat cells. This discovery could potentially help to treat obesity. Associate Professor Takehiko Ueyama and Professor Naoaki Saito at the Biosignal Research Center of Kobe University led the research team, and the findings were published on July 24 in the online edition of the Journal of Investigative Dermatology. (2019-07-25)

Bacterial and host cell proteins interact to regulate Chlamydia's 'exit strategy'
Interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis proteins and host cell proteins help determine whether the bacterium leaves an infected cell via breakdown of the cellular membrane (lysis) or in a membrane-bound package, according to new research published in PLOS Pathogens by Phu Hai Nguyen of the National Institutes of Health, US, and colleagues. (2018-03-15)

Metastatic movements in 3-D
Caswell et al. report in the Journal of Cell Biology how the altered behavior of integrins can prompt metastatic movement in tumor cells. (2008-10-06)

Signaling pathways to the nucleus
Researchers have demonstrated how auxin, a hormone that controls many processes in plants, reaches its destination. (2018-03-16)

Fanconi anemia: Insight from a green plant
Fanconi anemia is a human genetic disorder with severe effects, including an increased risk of cancer and infertility. Research in plants helps us understand the disease in humans, showing how a key protein functions in the exchange of genetic material. (2018-01-19)

Researchers outline game-theory approach to better understand genetics
Principles of game theory offer new ways of understanding genetic behavior, a pair of researchers has concluded in a new analysis. (2018-09-04)

Decoding the chemistry of fear
A Salk team charts the pathway for fear in worms to reveal more about human anxiety. (2018-03-19)

Tweaking the immune response might be a key to combat neurodegeneration
Patients with Alzheimer's or other neurodegenerative diseases progressively loose neurons yet cannot build new ones. However, modulating the immune response might help the human brain to better cope with such conditions and regenerate. The research group led by Caghan Kizil at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases in Dresden report on these findings in the journal Cell Reports. Their conclusions are based on studying zebrafish, an organism well-known for its ability to counteract neuronal damage by regenerating lost cells. (2016-10-19)

Newly revealed autism-related genes include genes involved in cancer
Researchers in Italy have applied a computational technique that accounts for how genes interact, to find new networks of related genes that may be involved in autism spectrum disorder. Some of the genes have not been previously linked to the disorder, and could help scientists to better understand it and develop new treatments. (2017-09-25)

Why basal cell tumors return when drug treatment stops
A new study pinpoints a mechanism that controls how basal cell cancers respond to treatment and offers new ideas for controlling this disease when it gets tricky. (2018-02-01)

Bariatric surgery successes lead to type 2 diabetes treatment
Bariatric surgery has long yielded almost immediate health benefits for patients with type 2 diabetes, and new findings from Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine may be the key to developing drug alternatives to surgery. (2018-04-24)

Poor anti-VEGF responses linked to genetic variation in immune regulation
Though reducing VEGF signaling with anti-VEGF therapies has positive effects in many patients with wet age-related macular degeneration, some individuals continue to experience vision deterioration during treatment. In a study published this week in the JCI, Martin Friedlander's lab at Scripps Research Institute investigated whether genetic variation in an immune system component called the complement system may contribute to vision loss during anti-VEGF therapy in some patients. (2016-12-05)

Researchers describe mechanism that underlies age-associated bone loss
A major health problem in older people is age-associated osteoporosis -- the thinning of bone and the loss of bone density that increases the risk of fractures. Researchers have now detailed an underlying mechanism leading to that osteoporosis. When this mechanism malfunctions, progenitor cells stop creating bone-producing cells, and instead create fat cells. Knowledge of this mechanism can provide targets in the search for novel bone-loss. (2017-09-22)

Estrogen signaling impacted immune response in cancer
New research from The Wistar Institute showed that estrogen signaling was responsible for immunosuppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment across cancer types. These findings pave the way for combining immunotherapeutic treatments with anti-estrogen drugs that may significantly extend survival. (2016-10-17)

Lower levels of microRNA 29 may protect from cardiac fibrosis rather than causing it
Cardiac fibrosis involves an increase of connective tissue in the cardiac muscle, causing a loss of function. Researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now discovered that fibrosis occurs less frequently when microRNA 29 (miR-29) is suppressed in cardiac muscle cells. Older studies had suggested that it was in fact low levels of miR-29 that caused fibrosis. The new insights point to potential new approaches for developing drugs against fibrotic diseases. (2017-11-22)

Study explores emerging role of NAD+ in innate and adaptive immune responses
Researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) have discovered a new cellular and molecular pathway that regulates CD4+ T cell response -- a finding that may lead to new ways to treat diseases that result from alterations in these cells. (2018-02-23)

Researchers illustrate how muscle growth inhibitor is activated, could aid in treating ALS
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine are part of an international team that has identified how the inactive or latent form of GDF8, a signaling protein also known as myostatin responsible for limiting muscle, is activated. (2018-01-19)

Male fruit flies can smell a good mate based on her metabolism
A female fruit fly must balance her energy usage between making eggs now and storing nutrients for later. This balance affects the pheromones that she produces and impacts whether male fruit flies find her attractive, report Tatyana Fedina of the University of Michigan and colleagues, Aug. 17, 2017 in PLOS Genetics. (2017-08-17)

Mouse study adds to evidence linking gut bacteria and obesity
A new Johns Hopkins study of mice with the rodent equivalent of metabolic syndrome has added to evidence that the intestinal microbiome -- a 'garden' of bacterial, viral and fungal genes -- plays a substantial role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance in mammals, including humans. (2018-02-12)

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