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Family tree of blood production reveals hundreds of thousands of stem cells
Adult humans have ten times more blood-creating stem cells in their bone marrow than previously thought, ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 stem cells. Researchers developed a new approach for studying stem cells, based on methods used in ecology. The results in Nature present a new opportunity for studying how human stem cells throughout the body change during ageing and disease, and could lead to insights on cancer development and stem cell therapies. (2018-09-05)

Scientists at the MDI biological laboratory are decoding the genetic mechanisms of aging
A new paper by MDI Biological Laboratory scientists Jarod Rollins, Ph.D., and Aric Rogers, Ph.D., co-corresponding authors, describes the mechanisms by which longevity is regulated post-transcriptionally, or after a genetic blueprint has been transcribed from an organism's DNA. The identification of these mechanisms will serve as a road map for screening new, more specific drugs to prolong healthy lifespan. The laboratory, located in Bar Harbor, Maine, focuses on research on regeneration and aging. (2019-10-10)

Stunning space butterfly captured by ESO telescope
Resembling a butterfly with its symmetrical structure, beautiful colours, and intricate patterns, this striking bubble of gas -- known as NGC 2899 -- appears to float and flutter across the sky in this new picture from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). This object has never before been imaged in such striking detail, with even the faint outer edges of the planetary nebula glowing over the background stars. (2020-07-30)

Common -- but without a name
The most commonly occurring red alga in the Bangiales in New Zealand has at last received a formal scientific name. Pyropia plicata, an intertidal red alga, is found in the North, South and Chatham Islands. It had been confused for years with another species from New Zealand. Known as karengo, it is eaten and highly prized by Maori as a taonga or treasure. The paper was published in the open access journal PhytoKeys. (2013-03-28)

Low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide complements the actions of an intratumoral C-class...
Intratumoral injection of SD-101 induces significant anti-tumor immunity in preclinical and clinical studies, especially when combined with PD-1 blockade. (2020-01-31)

Astronomers use vanishing neutron star to measure space-time warp
In an interstellar race against time, astronomers have measured the space-time warp in the gravity of a binary star and determined the mass of a neutron star -- just before it vanished from view. (2015-01-08)

VISTA unveils a new image of the Large Magellanic Cloud
ESO's VISTA telescope reveals a remarkable image of the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of our nearest galactic neighbors. VISTA has been surveying this galaxy and its sibling the Small Magellanic Cloud, as well as their surroundings, in unprecedented detail. This survey allows astronomers to observe a large number of stars, opening up new opportunities to study stellar evolution, galactic dynamics, and variable stars. (2019-09-13)

Hubble captures a dozen sunburst arc doppelgangers
Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have observed a galaxy in the distant regions of the Universe which appears duplicated at least 12 times on the night sky. This unique sight, created by strong gravitational lensing, helps astronomers get a better understanding of the cosmic era known as the epoch of reionisation. (2019-11-07)

Why some Wikipedia disputes go unresolved
Study identifies reasons for unsettled editing disagreements and offers predictive tools that could improve deliberation. (2018-11-06)

New artificial intelligence system automatically evolves to evade internet censorship
UMD researchers developed a tool called Geneva (short for Genetic Evasion), which automatically learns to circumvent censorship. Tested in China, India and Kazakhstan, Geneva found dozens of ways to circumvent censorship by exploiting gaps in censors' logic and finding bugs that the researchers say would have been virtually impossible to find manually. Geneva is being presented during a peer-reviewed talk at the Association for Computing Machinery's 26th Conference on Computer and Communications Security in London, November 14, 2019. (2019-11-13)

Inducing climate-smart global supply networks: Nature Commentary
Extreme weather events like super-typhoon Haiyan and hurricane Sandy can have major negative impacts on the world economy. So far, however, the effects on global production and consumption webs are missing from most assessments. This is a serious deficit, argues Anders Levermann from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research: (2014-02-05)

Decade of research shows little improvement in websites' password guidance
Leading brands including Amazon and Wikipedia are failing to support users with advice on how to securely protect their data, a study shows. (2018-07-17)

Oncotarget Characterization of iPS87, a prostate cancer stem cell-like cell line
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 12 reported outside its natural niche, the cultured prostate cancer stem cells lost their tumor-inducing capability and stem cell marker expression after approximately 8 transfers at a 1:3 split ratio. (2020-03-27)

SDSC's Gordon Supercomputer assists in crunching large Hadron Collider data
Gordon, the unique supercomputer launched last year by the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California, San Diego, recently completed its most data-intensive task so far: Rapidly processing raw data from almost one billion particle collisions as part of a project to help define the future research agenda for the Large Hadron Collider. (2013-04-04)

Averting toxic chats: Computer model predicts when online conversations turn sour
The internet offers the potential for constructive dialogue and cooperation, but online conversations too often degenerate into personal attacks. In hopes that those attacks can be averted, Cornell University researchers have created a model to predict which civil conversations might take a turn and derail. (2018-07-24)

Shining like a diamond: A new species of diamond frog from northern Madagascar
Despite the active ongoing taxonomic progress on the Madagascar frogs, the amphibian inventory of this hyper-diverse island is still very far from being complete. More new species are constantly being discovered, often within already well-studied areas. So, in one of the relatively well-studied parks in northern Madagascar, a new species of diamond frog, Rhombophryne ellae, was found in 2017. Now, the discovery is published in the open-access journal Zoosystematics and Evolution. (2020-06-16)

Organic polymers show sunny potential
A new version of solar cells created by laboratories at Rice and Pennsylvania State universities could open the door to research on a new class of solar energy devices. (2013-05-29)

Flying jewels spell death for baby spiders
Spider flies are large, often metallic green or blue insects that are recognized as important pollinators of flowering plants. Their darker side is the highly specialized larval biology; maggots live as internal parasites of immature spiders, ultimately consuming the spider from the inside out. A new comprehensive article on Australasian spider flies reviews all currently recognized genera, and describes four species new to science. The study was published in the open-access journal ZooKeys. (2012-03-02)

Wikipedia articles on plane crashes show what we remember -- or forget
Disastrous current events trigger collective memory of certain past events, a new study of nearly 1,500 Wikipedia articles on airplane crashes and other incidents reports. The results, which provide a new way of modeling our collective memory, reveal how different topics are connected to each other through memory and association -- thereby forming an interconnected network of topics. (2017-04-05)

Hubble showcases new portrait of Jupiter
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope reveals the intricate, detailed beauty of Jupiter's clouds in this new image taken on June 27, 2019. It features the planet's trademark Great Red Spot and a more intense colour palette in the clouds swirling in the planet's turbulent atmosphere than seen in previous years. (2019-08-08)

Carnegie Mellon researchers create 'Wikipedia' for neurons
To help scientists make sense of 'brain big data,' researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have used data mining to create www.neuroelectro.org, a publicly available website that acts like Wikipedia, indexing physiological information about neurons. The site will help to accelerate the advance of neuroscience research by providing a centralized resource for collecting and comparing data on neuronal function. (2015-03-30)

4 new species of water-gliding rove beetles discovered in Ningxia, China
Four new species of Steninae were discovered during an expedition in the Liupan Shan Natural Reserve, Ningxia, China. The scientists described a total of 17 species of these intriguing beetles that live in the dead leaf mass of the territory explored, thus marking 11 new province records and a great contribution to assessing the biodiversity of the Ningxia Autonomous Region. The study was published in the open access journal Zookeys. (2013-02-25)

Research says teens, young adults explore differently
Adolescents don't necessarily have 'faulty' decision-making, University of Arizona psychologist Robert Wilson and his colleagues discovered. They simply value different kinds of information. The researchers found that young adults do more 'directed exploration,' or exploration driven by information seeking, than teens. (2017-02-01)

Notice me! Neglected for over a century, Black sea spider crab re-described
Even though recognised in the Mediterranean Sea, the Macropodia czernjawskii spider crab was ignored by scientists (even by its namesake, 19th-century biologist Vladimir Czernyavsky) in the regional faunal accounts of the Black Sea for more than a century. Now, scientists re-describe this, most likely, sole species of the genus to occur in the Black Sea. The finding was published in the open-access journal Zoosystematics and Evolution. (2020-09-01)

Global analysis of billions of Wikipedia searches reveals biodiversity secrets
An international team of researchers from the University of Oxford, the University of Birmingham and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev have found that the way in which people use the internet is closely tied to patterns and rhythms in the natural world. This finding, publishing March 5 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology suggests new ways to monitor changes in the world's biodiversity. (2019-03-05)

Astronomers use slime mould to map the universe's largest structures
The behaviour of one of nature's humblest creatures and archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope are helping astronomers probe the largest structures in the Universe. (2020-03-26)

Small wasps to control a big pest?
Five species of parasitic wasps have been found associated with the vector of the Pine Wood Nematode. As this sanitary problem has been present for over a decade, new methods to control it are needed, besides trapping the insect and cutting and destroying infested trees. These five species may be candidates for bio-control programs in the future, along with others presented in a systematic key. The study was published in the open access journal ZooKeys. (2012-12-20)

Hubble discovers mysterious black hole disc
Astronomers using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have observed an unexpected thin disc of material encircling a supermassive black hole at the heart of the spiral galaxy NGC 3147, located 130 million light-years away. (2019-07-11)

2 vortex trails with 1 stroke
As of today, the Wikipedia entry for the hummingbird explains that the bird's flight generates in its wake a single trail of vortices that helps the bird hover. But after conducting experiments with hummingbirds in the lab, researchers at the University of California, Riverside propose that the hummingbird produces two trails of vortices -- one under each wing per stroke -- that help generate the aerodynamic forces required for the bird to power and control its flight. (2013-02-25)

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin induces claudin-4 to activate YAP in oral squamous cell
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 4: Treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines HSC3 and HSC4 with Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, induced CLDN4 nuclear translocation to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness, cell proliferation, and invasive ability. (2020-02-04)

Healthy skepticism: People may be wary of health articles on crowdsourced sites
People may be skeptical about medical and health articles they encounter on crowdsourced websites, such as Wikipedia and Wikihealth, according to researchers. While that may be good news for health officials who are worried that these sites allow non-experts to easily add and edit health information, the researchers added that having medical professionals curate content on those sites may not reduce the skepticism. (2020-10-15)

Thoughts on plant genomes
The growing world population and the challenges posed by climate change make the control of these natural resources one of the most crucial issues for all humanity in the future. In this regard, genome sequence information is of fundamental importance for understanding natural diversity and evolution of living organisms as well as for the design of breeding strategies aimed to produce new varieties with suitable traits. (2021-02-03)

One place for all scholarly literature: An Open Science Prize proposal
Openly accessible literature is called 'the fabric and the substance of Open Science' in a small grant proposal, submitted to the Open Science Prize contest and published in the Research Ideas and Outcomes (RIO) open access journal. To tackle the issue of it being dispersed across thousands of website, the authors build on the existing prototype Paperity to suggest a global universal catalog of all open access scientific publications incorporated with many functionalities and features. (2016-03-14)

Automated system can rewrite outdated sentences in Wikipedia articles
A system created by MIT researchers could be used to automatically update factual inconsistencies in Wikipedia articles, reducing time and effort spent by human editors who now do the task manually. (2020-02-12)

On Wikipedia, politically controversial science topics vulnerable to information sabotage
'As society turns to Wikipedia for answers, students, educators, and citizens should understand its limitations when researching scientific topics that are politically charged. On entries subject to edit-wars, like acid rain, evolution, and global change, one can obtain -- within seconds -- diametrically different information on the same topic.' (2015-08-14)

Chromosome analyses of prickly pear cacti reveal southern glacial refugia
Analysis of chromosome number variation among species of a North American group of prickly pear cacti showed that the most widespread species encountered are of hybrid origin. Those widespread species likely originated from hybridization among closely related parental species from western and southeastern North America. This study was published in the open access journal Comparative Cytogenetics. (2012-02-14)

Vultures foraging far and wide face a poisonous future
African vultures face an increasing risk of fatal poisoning, according to Durham University research. (2013-01-30)

Crowd-augmented cognition
Crowdsourcing has brought us Wikipedia and ways to understand how HIV proteins fold. However, most tasks have proven resistant to distributed labor, at least without a central organizer. Aniket Kittur of Carnegie Mellon University has designed crowdsourcing frameworks that combine the best qualities of machine learning and human intelligence, allowing distributed groups of workers to perform complicated cognitive tasks. He presented two prototype systems at the Computer-Human Interaction conference in San Jose this week. (2016-05-11)

Software maps ambiguous names in texts to the right person
Computer scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Informatics in Saarbruecken have developed software that resolves the ambiguity of names within texts automatically. This mapping between mentions and actual entities like persons not only improves search engines, but also makes it possible to analyze huge amounts of text efficiently. The researchers will present their program for the first time at the computer expo Cebit at the research booth of Saarland University (hall 9, booth E13). (2014-02-26)

ESO telescopes record last moments of star devoured by a black hole
Using telescopes from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and other organisations around the world, astronomers have spotted a rare blast of light from a star being ripped apart by a supermassive black hole. The phenomenon, known as a tidal disruption event, is the closest such flare recorded to date at just over 215 million light-years from Earth, and has been studied in unprecedented detail. The research is published today in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. (2020-10-12)

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