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Genetics linked to childhood emotional, social and psychiatric problems
Emotional, social and psychiatric problems in children and adolescents have been linked to higher levels of genetic vulnerability for adult depression. (2020-04-15)

An updated overview of the complex clinical spectrum of tourette syndrome
Background: Tourette syndrome is a common nerve development disorder which is characterized by a variety of muscle or vocal movements called 'tics', often involuntary. The disorder is reflectively and quite erroneously associated by many as a just syndrome with tics and the frequent use of undesirable language (swearing). However, Tourette syndrome is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with several serious comorbidities justifying the quite recent term of 'Tourette disorder' in place of the known Tourette syndrome'. (2020-04-06)

Study links brain function changes to genetic risk in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis
Genetic studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that it takes many common genetic variations combining together in one individual to increase risk substantially. At the same time, neuroimaging experts have found differences in how the brains of people diagnosed with ADHD are functionally connected. However it's unclear how genetic risk might be directly related to altered brain circuitry in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. (2020-03-31)

Ritalin and similar medications cause brain to focus on benefits of work, not costs
New research from cognitive neuroscientists at Brown and Radboud universities has pinpointed how stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall can change people's motivation to complete difficult tasks. (2020-03-19)

International study completes the largest genetic map of psychiatric disorders so far
An international study published in the journal Cell, has described 109 genetic variants associated with eight psychiatric disorders: autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette Syndrome, in a total of about 230,000 patients worldwide. (2020-03-09)

Learning difficulties due to poor connectivity, not specific brain regions
Different learning difficulties do not correspond to specific regions of the brain, as previously thought, say researchers at the University of Cambridge. Instead poor connectivity between 'hubs' within the brain is much more strongly related to children's difficulties. (2020-02-27)

Rates of ADHD diagnosis in veterans are rising, reports VA study in Medical Care
Rates of diagnosed attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in veterans receiving care in the VA health system more than doubled during the past decade, reports a study in the March issue of Medical Care. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer. (2020-02-26)

The Lancet Digital Health: Video game-like intervention shows promise in improving attention of children with ADHD
A four-week randomised controlled trial of 348 children aged 8-12 years, published in journal The Lancet Digital Health, suggests that a digital intervention for paediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might help to improve inattention with minimal adverse effects. Further research is needed to confirm the clinical meaningfulness of the observed changes, but the digital nature of the intervention could help to improve access for some patients. (2020-02-24)

Autism eye scan could lead to early detection
A new eye scan could help identify autism in children years earlier than currently possible. The non-invasive eye scan utilises a hand-held device to find a pattern of subtle electrical signals in the retina that are different in children on the autism spectrum, which are directly linked to differences in their brain development. (2020-02-20)

Maternal obesity linked to ADHD and behavioral problems in children, NIH study suggests
Maternal obesity may increase a child's risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to an analysis by researchers from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health. (2020-02-19)

Some antibiotics prescribed during pregnancy linked with birth defects
Children of mothers prescribed macrolide antibiotics during early pregnancy are at an increased risk of major birth defects, particularly heart defects, compared with children of mothers prescribed penicillin, finds a study published by The BMJ today. (2020-02-19)

Teens with a history of ADHD need stronger monitoring of health risks
Researchers from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) wanted to better understand how primary care doctors addressed risks with ADHD patients as they transitioned from childhood to young adulthood. They found that although doctors generally discuss depression, substance abuse, and suicide risk with patients who have a history of ADHD, they rarely discuss safe driving with them and most of the time they do not monitor patients for risky sexual behavior. (2020-02-11)

Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy connected to elevated risk of ADHD
According to a study conducted in Finland, the risk of ADHD was 34 percent higher in children whose mother had a vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy than in those children whose mother's vitamin D level was sufficient during the first and second trimesters. The result was adjusted for maternal age, socioeconomic status and psychiatric history. (2020-02-10)

Children with ADHD more likely to receive medication if they live in poorer areas
Children with ADHD from the poorest areas are significantly more likely to receive medication as children with ADHD from the most affluent areas, according to the first UK study of its kind. (2020-02-07)

Kids diagnosed with ADHD often don't take medication regularly
Children diagnosed with ADHD inconsistently take their prescribed medication, going without treatment 40 per cent of the time, a new study has found. (2020-02-03)

Horseback riding combined with cognitive exercises can help children with ADHD and autism spectrum
A combination of therapeutic horseback riding and brain-building exercises can help children with neurodevelopmental disorders improve their motor skills, according to a new study. Combining lessons about horse anatomy, riding equipment, and the basics of riding with music therapy, eye tracking exercises and hand-eye coordination tasks shows the first evidence of both short and long-term benefits of using a combined program of horseback riding and brain training. (2020-01-31)

New guideline aims to transform evaluation and care of children and adolescents with ADHD
The Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics is releasing a groundbreaking guideline for the diagnosis and care of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in children and youth in a supplement to its February 2020 issue. (2020-01-31)

New clinical practice guideline for complex ADHD in children and adolescents
New clinical guidelines call strongly for providing psychosocial supports for children and adolescents with complex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Developed by the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (SDBP), the guideline provides a framework for diagnosing and treating complex ADHD in these age groups. (2020-01-30)

AI to help monitor behavior
Algorithms based on artificial intelligence do better at supporting educational and clinical decision-making, according to a new study. (2020-01-27)

Study: Pharmaceutical companies marketing stimulants to physicians
Results of a new study show that a large number of physicians in the US may have received marketing payments from pharmaceutical companies that produce stimulant medications. Led by researchers at Boston Medical Center's (BMC) Grayken Center for Addiction, the first of its kind study found that one in 18 physicians received some form of pharmaceutical marketing about stimulants, most often in the form of food or beverage. (2020-01-21)

Rich rewards: Scientists reveal ADHD medication's effect on the brain
Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified how certain areas of the human brain respond to methylphenidate -- a stimulant drug which is used to treat symptoms of ADHD. The work may help researchers understand the precise mechanism of the drug and ultimately develop more targeted medicines for the condition. (2020-01-17)

Study uses eye movement test to confirm brain ageing effects
A new study, published in PeerJ, shows how University of Liverpool researchers have used a newly developed eye movement test to improve the understanding of how parts of the brain work. (2020-01-16)

Mix of stress and air pollution may lead to cognitive difficulties in children
Children with elevated exposure to early life stress in the home and elevated prenatal exposure to air pollution exhibited heightened symptoms of attention and thought problems, according to researchers at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and Columbia Psychiatry. Early life stress is common in youth from disadvantaged backgrounds who also often live in areas with greater exposure to air pollution. (2020-01-16)

Severe childhood deprivation has longstanding impacts on brain size in adulthood
Researchers from King's College London have shown that the brains of young adult Romanian adoptees who were institutionalized as children are around 8.6% smaller than the brains of English adoptees who have not suffered this form of deprivation. (2020-01-06)

How diet affects mental health -- what's the evidence?
A new expert review confirms that diet significantly influences mental health and wellbeing, but cautions that the evidence for many diets is comparatively weak. This, the most up to date overview of the new field of Nutritional Psychiatry, is produced, by the Nutrition Network of the ECNP and is published in the peer-reviewed journal European Neuropsychopharmacology. (2020-01-03)

Understanding the adolescent brain
New research from University of Alberta neuroscientists shows that the brains of adolescents struggling with mental-health issues may be wired differently from those of their healthy peers. (2019-12-20)

Were greener areas around schools associated with lower likelihood of ADHD symptoms?
Attending schools in greener areas appears to be associated with a lower likelihood of having symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in this observational study of children in China. There were 59,754 children (ages 2 to 17) included, of whom 2,566 (4.3%) had ADHD symptoms. (2019-12-18)

Study highlights high cost of fossil fuel pollution on children's health
A new study by researchers at the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia Mailman School of Public Health is the first to compile the estimated per-case costs of 6 childhood health conditions linked to air pollution -- estimates that can be incorporated into benefits assessments of air pollution regulations and climate change mitigation policies. Results appear in the journal Environmental Research. (2019-12-12)

Artificial intelligence boosts MRI detection of ADHD
Deep learning, a type of artificial intelligence, can boost the power of MRI in predicting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to a new study. Researchers said the approach could also have applications for other neurological conditions. (2019-12-11)

Police killings of unarmed black Americans may have health impacts for nearby unborn black infants
Pregnant black women give birth to infants with smaller birth weights and shorter gestational ages if they live near the site of incidents in which unarmed blacks are killed by police during their first or second trimester, according to a new study. (2019-12-04)

Autism and ADHD share genes
Researchers from the national psychiatric project iPSYCH have found that autism and ADHD share changes in the same genes. The new knowledge relates directly to the biological causes of the two child psychiatric disorders. (2019-11-26)

Omega-3 fish oil as effective for attention as ADHD drugs for some children
Researchers from King's College London and China Medical University in Taichung, Taiwan, have found omega-3 fish oil supplements improve attention among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but only among those with low levels of omega-3 in their blood. (2019-11-19)

Youth with abnormal heart rhythms more likely to have ADHD, anxiety, depression
Children and adolescents with abnormal heart rhythms are more likely to have ADHD, anxiety and depression compared to their counterparts with either other select chronic childhood illnesses or no chronic medical conditions, according to new research. Researchers say it may be helpful to screen youth with heart arrhythmias for anxiety and depression to ensure they're being treated for these conditions as well, if needed. (2019-11-11)

Prenatal exposure to pollution linked to brain changes related to behavioral problems
A new study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), a center supported by 'la Caixa', has found a link between air pollution and changes in the corpus callosum, a region of the brain associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (2019-11-06)

ADHD across racial/ethnic groups
This study of patients from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds who received care at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health system looked at how common attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses were over a 10-year period across seven racial/ethnic groups. (2019-11-01)

Cycles of reward: New insight into ADHD treatment
Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) in collaboration with scientists at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland in New Zealand, investigated the actions of the drug in rats. Using dopamine cell recordings, electrochemical monitoring and computer modeling, they discovered a type of feedback loop that modulates dopamine levels in the rats' brains in response to the drug. This regulatory process may shed light on methylphenidate's therapeutic properties in ADHD. (2019-10-30)

NIH-funded study suggests acetaminophen in pregnancy linked to higher risk of ADHD, autism
Exposure to acetaminophen in the womb may increase a child's risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, suggests a study funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. (2019-10-30)

Young mums more likely to have kids with ADHD
Young mothers have a greater chance of having a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to new research from the University of South Australia. Exploring the genetic relationship between female reproductive traits and key psychiatric disorders, it found that the genetic risk of ADHD in children was strongly associated with early maternal age at first birth, particular for women younger than 20. (2019-10-23)

Painless tape strips used to detect molecular changes in skin of children with eczema
In a study using non-invasive tape strips in young children with eczema (or atopic dermatitis), researchers found many molecular signs of immune dysfunction and skin changes that relate to disease activity. (2019-10-15)

Fruit flies help in the development of personalized medicine
It is common knowledge that there is a connection between our genes and the risk of developing certain diseases. In a study on fruit flies, researchers from Aarhus University and Aalborg University have found that gene mapping can also be used to predict response to a given treatment. This knowledge is crucial for the development of personalised medicine. (2019-10-09)

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