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Army researchers expand study of ethics, artificial intelligence
The Army of the future will involve humans and autonomous machines working together to accomplish the mission. According to Army researchers, this vision will only succeed if artificial intelligence is perceived to be ethical. (2021-02-16)

It's morally wrong for rich nations to hoard COVID-19 vaccine
Rich nations should not engage in ''vaccine nationalism'' and keep the COVID-19 vaccine to themselves when poorer nations need them, according to Nicole Hassoun, professor of philosophy at Binghamton University, State University of New York. Hassoun's paper, ''Against Vaccine Nationalism,'' was published in the Journal of Medical Ethics. (2021-02-16)

BU study: New vaginal film, MB66, is safe
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Mapp Biopharmaceutical have now found that MB66, a vaginal film product containing monoclonal antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and 2), is safe and effective. (2021-02-03)

Pulsed ultraviolet light technology to improve egg safety, help poultry industry
Pulsed ultraviolet light can be an effective alternative to some of the antimicrobial technologies now used by the poultry industry to kill pathogens on eggshells, according to Penn State researchers, who simulated production conditions to test the technology. (2021-01-13)

High doses of saccharin don't lead to diabetes in healthy adults, study finds
For those trying to live a healthy lifestyle, the choice between sugar and artificial sweeteners such as saccharin can be confusing. A new study led by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and The Ohio State University College of Medicine found the sugar substitute saccharin doesn't lead to the development of diabetes in healthy adults as previous studies have suggested. (2021-01-12)

Non-immigrant kids respond differently when immigrant children are bullied
A recent study finds that, while youth think all bullying is bad, non-immigrant adolescents object less to bullying when the victim is an immigrant. However, the study found that the more contact immigrant and non-immigrant children had with each other, the more strongly they objected to bullying. (2021-01-05)

How loud is too loud? Identifying noise levels that deter older restaurant patrons
As restaurants get noisier, the increasing noise levels could deter older patrons, especially those with mild to severe hearing loss. Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will discuss their work on investigating acceptable noise levels that won't cause restaurant visitors to stay away from certain establishments. Identifying acceptable noise levels helps establish truly ''age-friendly'' communities. The session will take place as part of the 179th ASA Meeting. (2020-12-10)

Metal pollution in British waters may be threatening scallops, study reveals
Research, led by an interdisciplinary team at the University of York, suggests that the contamination of Isle of Man seabed sediments with zinc, lead and copper from the mining of these metals, which peaked on the island in the late 19th century, is causing the shells of king scallops to become significantly more brittle (2020-11-05)

Effectiveness of gemcitabine & daily RT for bladder preservation in muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Bladder preservation with trimodality therapy can be a safe and effective alternative to cystectomy for selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The phase II NRG Oncology NRG-RTOG 0712 trial evaluated two regimens. One was the prior RTOG standard using 5-flourouracil and cisplatin with twice daily radiation (FCT), and the other a regimen of gemcitabine and daily radiation (GD) which had demonstrated efficacy in single institution clinical trials. (2020-10-26)

Winners and losers of energy transition
Drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the electricity sector could have substantial economic and social impacts. Some regions might benefit more than others from new employment opportunities and from reduced air pollution, while others face threats to employment. Such a transition to renewable electricity thus risks creating new regional winners and losers. In a study published in Nature Communications, scientists from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) quantify regional impacts associated with Central European electricity targets. (2020-10-13)

Integrated terrestrial-freshwater planning doubles tropical freshwater conservation
Freshwater species are sometimes considered an afterthought in conservation planning, which typically prioritizes terrestrial ecosystems and their inhabitants. (2020-10-01)

Forgetting past misdeeds to justify future ones
Proven fact: we remember our altruistic behaviour more easily than selfish actions or misdeeds that go against our own moral sense. Described as 'unethical amnesia' by scientists, it is generally explained by self-image maintenance. But could these selective oversights, not necessarily conscious, have a more strategic aim? To find out, a team of behavioural economists from the CNRS recruited 1322 volunteers in an online experiment which took place over two sessions. (2020-09-29)

Gen Z not ready to eat lab-grown meat
New research by the University of Sydney and Curtin University that will be published on 8 September in Frontiers in Nutrition, found that, despite having a great concern for the environment and animal welfare, 72 percent of Generation Z were not ready to accept cultured meat - defined in the survey as a lab-grown meat alternative produced by in-vitro cell cultures of animal cells, instead of from slaughtered animals. (2020-09-07)

Japanese sake: the new pick-me-up? Yeast strain makes fatigue-fighting ornithine
Researchers from the Nara Institute of Science and Technology and the Nara Prefecture Institute of Industrial Development have found that that a mutant strain of sake yeast produces high levels of the amino acid ornithine. Ornithine has been found to reduce fatigue and improve sleep quality, and the non-genetically modified mutant yeast strain discovered in this study could be easily applied to brewing sake, a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage, as well as wine and beer. (2020-08-27)

Don't forget to clean robotic support pets, study says
Robotic support pets used to reduce depression in older adults and people with dementia acquire bacteria over time, but a simple cleaning procedure can help them from spreading illnesses, according to a new study published Aug. 26, 2020 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Hannah Bradwell of the University of Plymouth, UK and colleagues. (2020-08-26)

New surgical approach for women at risk of ovarian cancer
A new two-stage surgical approach for cancer prevention is highly acceptable among premenopausal women at high risk of ovarian cancer, according to research led by Queen Mary University of London. (2020-08-24)

American Cancer Society updates guideline for cervical cancer screening
An updated cervical cancer screening guideline from the American Cancer Society reflects the rapidly changing landscape of cervical cancer prevention in the United States, calling for less and more simplified screening. (2020-07-30)

The mystery of the less deadly mosquito nets
Research published in Nature Communications shows that insecticide-treated mosquito nets, the mainstay in the global battle against malaria, are not providing the protection they once did - and scientists say that's a cause for serious concern in tropical and subtropical countries around the globe. (2020-07-28)

Video camera in a public place knows the density of people or vehicle more accurately
Deep learning applied for image/video processing opened the door for the practical deployment for object detection and identification with acceptable accuracy. Crowd counting is another application of image/video processing. The scientists at Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST) designed a new DNN with backward connection, which achieved more accurate estimation of the density of objects. It can be applied for estimating human density in the public or vehicle density on a road. (2020-07-27)

How should hospitals ask patients for donations?
A new study looks for the first time at patients' views of hospital fundraising, including legally allowable practices that encourage physicians to work with their hospital's fundraising professionals. (2020-07-21)

Pandemic inspires framework for enhanced care in nursing homes
As of May 2020, nursing home residents account for a staggering one-third of the more than 80,000 deaths due to COVID-19 in the U.S. This pandemic has resulted in unprecedented threats--like reduced access to resources needed to contain and eliminate the spread of the virus--to achieving and sustaining care quality even in the best nursing homes. Active engagement of nursing home leaders in developing solutions responsive to the unprecedented threats to quality standards of care delivery is required. (2020-07-10)

Early clinical trial tests treatment strategy for pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer carries a poor prognosis, and it often goes undetected until advanced stages. A new BJS (British Journal of Surgery) study indicates that a certain cocktail of chemotherapy drugs may be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with a metastatic form of the disease. (2020-07-08)

Lose weight of fusion reactor component
Superconducting coils in a fusion power reactor exert a huge electromagnetic force. The coils are supported by a structure of solid build. A group of fusion engineering researchers of the National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institute of Natural Sciences first applied topology optimization to the design of a helical fusion reactor. The group succeeded in reducing the weight of the coil support structure by about 25% while maintaining the strength. (2020-06-29)

People more likely to accept nudges if they know how they work and how effective they are
The more people know about when and why behavioural interventions are being used and their effectiveness, the more likely they are to accept their use to change their behaviour. (2020-05-29)

Parents that know a child's preferences can assertively guide exercise
A parent who knows a child's preferences and participates in the activities can guide the child assertively without diminishing the child's enthusiasm for physical activity and exercise. (2020-05-15)

'Pivotal' trial results display favorable outcomes for use of TPV device
A percutaneous transcatheter therapy for congenital heart disease (CHD) patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation (PR) has been slow to materialize, in comparison to transcatheter pulmonary valve (TPV) therapy for a dysfunctional surgical RV-PA conduit which was first implanted twenty years ago as the Melody TPV. Findings from the Medtronic Harmony TPV Pivotal Trial were presented today during the SCAI 2020 Scientific Sessions Virtual Conference and showed favorable outcomes utilizing the device in patients with severe PR. (2020-05-15)

Strong relationships promote physical activity in older adults
UH researchers found that individual and interpersonal factors had the greatest association with older adults being physically active. (2020-05-13)

COVID-19, digital technologies, and the future of disease surveillance
Several data-driven epidemiological approaches that have been proposed or trialed for COVID-19 are justified if implemented through transparent processes that involve oversight, write Michelle M. Mello and C. Jason Wang in this Policy Forum. (2020-05-11)

Addressing the ethical considerations of SARS-CoV-2 human challenge trials
While an effective vaccine for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is likely many months away, development could be accelerated by conducting controlled human infection (CHI) studies -- which are increasingly being considered by the scientific community due to the urgent need. (2020-05-07)

Health warning labels on alcohol and snacks may reduce consumption
Image-and-text health warning labels, similar to those on cigarette boxes, show potential for reducing the consumption of alcoholic drinks and energy-dense snacks, such as chocolate bars, according to a study published in the open-access journal BMC Public Health. (2020-04-01)

Studies find link between belief in conspiracy theories and political engagement
A belief in the existence of conspiracies seems to go hand-in-hand with the assumption that political violence is an acceptable option (2020-03-31)

Media reports of celebrity suicide linked to increased suicide rates
Media reporting of suicide, especially celebrity suicides, is associated with increases in suicide in the general population, particularly by the same method as used by the celebrity, finds an analysis of the latest evidence published by The BMJ today. (2020-03-18)

New flood damage framework helps planners prepare for sea-level rise
Princeton researchers have developed a new framework allowing urban planners and policymakers to consider a combination of responses to sea-level rise and, if hard structures, how high these protections should be built, depending on their tolerance for risk and the projected financial losses to a particular area due to flooding. (2020-03-11)

Insufficient evidence backing herbal medicines for weight loss
Researchers from the University of Sydney have conducted the first global review of herbal medicines for weight loss in 19 years, finding insufficient evidence to recommend any current treatments. (2020-02-17)

Can T'ai Chi alleviate chronic low back pain in older adults?
A new study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using T'ai Chi to improve chronic low back pain in adults over 65 years of age compared to health education and usual care. (2020-02-11)

'Women my age tend to drink -- it's normal'
New Edith Cowan University (ECU) research has found that despite the potential health risks of exceeding national drinking guidelines, many middle-aged and young-old women who consume alcohol at high risk levels tend to perceive their drinking as normal and acceptable, so long as they appear respectable and in control. (2020-02-10)

Families give high marks to parenting supports 'for refugees, by refugees,' study finds
A parenting program, developed by Somali and Bhutanese refugees in partnership with Boston College researchers, retained a majority of participants and showed promise reducing reports of childhood depression and family conflict and improving behavior among children, according to findings published in the Journal of Adolescent Health. (2020-01-30)

30-year study identifies need of disease-modifying therapies for maple syrup urine disease
A new study analyzes 30 years of patient data and details the clinical course of 184 individuals with genetically diverse forms of Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD), which is among the most volatile and dangerous inherited metabolic disorders. (2020-01-24)

Becoming less active and gaining weight: Downsides of becoming an adult
Leaving school and getting a job both lead to a drop in the amount of physical activity, while becoming a mother is linked to increased weight gain, conclude two reviews published today and led by researchers at the University of Cambridge. (2020-01-19)

What is an endangered species?
What makes for an endangered species classification isn't always obvious. (2020-01-17)

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