Current Acid Rain News and Events

Current Acid Rain News and Events, Acid Rain News Articles.
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Attachable skin monitors that wick the sweat away?
A new preparation technique fabricates thin, silicone-based patches that rapidly wick water away from the skin. The technique could reduce the redness and itching caused by wearable biosensors that trap sweat beneath them. The technique was developed by bioengineer and professor Young-Ho Cho and his colleagues at KAIST and reported in the journal Scientific Reports last month. (2021-02-22)

Dozens of new lichen species discovered in East African mountain forests
The species diversity and relationships of lichens in the genus Leptogium, which are often very difficult to identify to species, were assessed on the basis of DNA analyses using a large dataset collected during more than 10 years from East Africa. (2021-02-22)

Traditional hydrologic models may misidentify snow as rain, new citizen science data shows
Normally, we think of the freezing point of water as 32°F - but in the world of weather forecasting and hydrologic prediction, that isn't always the case. In the Lake Tahoe region of the Sierra Nevada, the shift from snow to rain during winter storms may actually occur at temperatures closer to 39.5°F, according to new research from the Desert Research Institute (DRI), Lynker Technologies, and citizen scientists from the Tahoe Rain or Snow project. (2021-02-22)

Modeling a better catalyst for PIBSAs
Polyisobutenyl succinic anhydrides (PIBSAs) are important for the auto industry because of their wide use in lubricant and fuel formulations. New research led by the Computer-Aided Nano and Energy Lab (CANELa) at the University of Pittsburgh, in collaboration with the Lubrizol Corporation, builds a deeper understanding of the catalyst used to synthesize PIBSAs. (2021-02-17)

Bacteria and algae get rides in clouds
Human health and ecosystems could be affected by microbes including cyanobacteria and algae that hitch rides in clouds and enter soil, lakes, oceans and other environments when it rains, according to a Rutgers co-authored study. (2021-02-16)

Experimental tests of relativistic chemistry will update the periodic table
Researchers from Osaka University used a particle accelerator and co-precipitation to study the chemical reactivity of single rutherfordium atoms. Such experiments will continue the advancement of relativistic chemistry that is pertinent to a range of applications including renewable energy and new materials. (2021-02-16)

Challenge of the summer rainfall forecast skill in China: A possible solution
The Mongolian Cyclone is a major meteorological driving force across southeast Asia. This cyclone is known for transporting aerosols, affecting where precipitation develops. Meteorologists are seeking ways to improve seasonal prediction of the relationship between the Mongolian cyclone and South Asia high. These features are major components of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the corresponding heavy rain events. New research suggests that analyzing these phenomena in the upper-level atmosphere will enhance the summer rainfall forecast skill in China. (2021-02-16)

Climate research: rapid formation of iodic particles over the Arctic
When sea ice melts and the water surface increases, more iodine-containing vapours rise from the sea. Scientists from the international research network CLOUD have now discovered that aerosol particles form rapidly from iodine vapours, which can serve as condensation nuclei for cloud formation. The CLOUD researchers, among them scientists from the Goethe University Frankfurt, fear a mutual intensification of sea ice melt and cloud formation, which could accelerate the warming of the Arctic and Antarctic. (2021-02-11)

How the 3-D structure of eye-lens proteins is formed
Chemical bonds within the eye-lens protein gamma-B crystallin hold the protein together and are therefore important for the function of the protein within the lens. Contrary to previous assumptions, some of these bonds, called disulphide bridges, are already formed simultaneously with the synthesis of the protein in the cell. This is what scientists at Goethe University Frankfurt, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics and the French Institute de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble have discovered. (2021-02-10)

New method for asymmetric N,N-acetal synthesis promises advances in drug development
Chiral N,N-acetals are an important component of several bioactive drugs and medicines. Owing to this, chemical reactions that lead to high-purity yield of the desired 'enantiomeric' form are highly sought after. In a new study, scientists from Japan demonstrate high selectivity formation of N,N-acetals from reactions between 2-aminobenzamide and various diketones in presence of bis(imidazoline)-phosphoric acid catalyst and look into the possible mechanism, opening doors to facile synthesis of novel pharmaceutical drugs. (2021-02-09)

Chemists developed a simplified method for pharmaceutical compounds synthesizing
A team of chemists from Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University and Saint Petersburg State University developed a simple and efficient method to synthesize tetrahydroisoquinolines--important organic molecules for drug discovery. The method consists of just three steps. (2021-02-09)

New synthetic route for biofuel production
A German-Chinese research team has found a new synthetic route to produce biofuel from biomass. The chemists converted the substance 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) produced from biomass into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), which could be suitable as a biofuel. Compared to previous methods, they achieved a higher yield and selectivity under milder reaction conditions. (2021-02-08)

Iodine oxoacids formed in oceans have major impact on climate
Molecular iodine, a major emission from the ocean, can quickly convert to iodic oxoacids even under weak daylight conditions. These oxoacids lead rapidly to aerosol particles that significantly affect climate and human health. (2021-02-08)

Variable weather makes weeds harder to whack
From flooded spring fields to summer hailstorms and drought, farmers are well aware the weather is changing. It often means spring planting can't happen on time or has to happen twice to make up for catastrophic losses of young seedlings. According to a joint study between University of Illinois and USDA-ARS, it also means common pre-emergence herbicides are less effective. (2021-02-08)

Molecule from nature provides fully recyclable polymers
Plastics are among the most successful materials of modern times. However, they also create a huge waste problem. Scientists from the University of Groningen and the East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST) in Shanghai produced different polymers from lipoic acid, a natural molecule. These polymers are easily depolymerized under mild conditions. Some 87 percent of the monomers can be recovered in their pure form and re-used to make new polymers of virgin quality. (2021-02-04)

Iodine oxoacids drive rapid aerosol formation in pristine atmospheric areas
Iodine plays a bigger role than thought in rapid new particle formation (NPF) in relatively pristine regions of the atmosphere, such as along marine coasts, in the Arctic boundary layer or in the upper free troposphere, according to a new study. (2021-02-04)

Solving a puzzle
University of New Mexico scientists tease out the underlying mechanism of tuberous sclerosis complex (2021-02-03)

The morphological characteristics of precipitation areas affects precipitation intensity
Researchers from USTC studied the morphological characteristics of precipitation areas over Tibetan Plateau and found that morphological characteristics of precipitation areas affects precipitation intensity. (2021-02-02)

Extreme UV laser shows generation of atmospheric pollutant
Hokkaido University scientists show that under laboratory conditions, ultraviolet light reacts with nitrophenol to produce smog-generating nitrous acid. (2021-02-02)

Lactobacillus manipulates bile acids to create favorable gut environment
Probiotic Lactobacillus bacteria use enzymes situationally to manipulate bile acids and promote their own survival in the gut. (2021-02-01)

Halved risk for severe retinal disease in extremely premature infants
Risk for a severe form of retinopathy of prematurity, which can cause blindness in extremely premature babies, was halved when the newborns were given a new supplement combining various fatty acids. This was shown in a Swedish study led from the University of Gothenburg. (2021-02-01)

Yangtze River observational system to improve East Asian rainy season forecasting
A major observation effort deploying airplanes, satellites and ground-based tracking systems was mounted in 2020 along the Yangtze River in China to better describe the physical processes that cause the mei-yu, an intense rainy season that occurs during East Asia's summer monsoon. (2021-01-29)

How vitamins, steroids and potential antivirals might affect SARS-CoV-2
Evidence is emerging that vitamin D -- and possibly vitamins K and A -- might help combat COVID-19. A new study from the University of Bristol published in the journal of the German Chemical Society Angewandte Chemie has shown how they - and other antiviral drugs -- might work. The research indicates that these dietary supplements and compounds could bind to the viral spike protein and so might reduce SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. (2021-01-29)

Research shows people with high omega-3 index less likely to die from COVID-19
Researchers with the Fatty Acid Research Institute (FARI) and collaborators at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles and in Orange County, CA, have published the first direct evidence that higher omega-3 blood levels may reduce risk for death from COVID-19 infection. The report was published in the journal Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids on January 20, 2021. (2021-01-26)

Intercontinental study sheds light on the microbial life of sourdough
In a study of 500 sourdough starters spanning four continents, scientists have garnered new insights into the environmental factors that contribute to each sourdough starter's microbial ecosystem, and how different types of microbes influence both a sourdough's aroma and how quickly the sourdough rises. The results may surprise sourdough enthusiasts. (2021-01-26)

Ocean toxin a heartbreaking threat for sea otters
Heart disease is a killer threat for southern sea otters feasting on domoic acid in their food web, according to a study led by the University of California, Davis. Climate change projections indicate that toxic blooms and domoic acid exposure will continue to rise. (2021-01-26)

Efficient solid-state depolymerization of waste PET
Despite significant methodological and technological advancements in chemical recycling of synthetic polymers, an effective mechanochemical PET degradation has not yet been described in the scientific literature, until now! Vjekoslav Štrukil from the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia, found that the challenging breakdown of waste PET under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure can be achieved by mechanochemical ball milling or vapor-assisted aging. (2021-01-25)

ACSL1 as a main catalyst of CoA conjugation of propionic acid-class NSAIDs in liver
Researchers from Kanazawa University have found that propionic acid-class nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ibuprofen, form ''conjugates'' with coenzyme A (CoA) by one of the acyl-CoA synthetases, ACSL1, in liver. These conjugates have the covalent binding ability to cellular proteins that may lead to liver injury, a rare severe side effect of NSAID treatment. This knowledge could help pharmaceutical companies to generate pain control options with fewer risks of severe side effects. (2021-01-22)

Cargo delivery by polymers
Degradable, bio-based polymers offer options for chemical recycling, and they can be a tool to store and release useful molecules. Scientists have developed a class of sugar-based polymers that are degradable through acid hydrolysis. The researchers also integrated ''cargo'' molecules in the polymer, which are designed to split off after polymer degradation. Degradable, cargo-bearing polymers are important for medical and sensor applications, says the study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2021-01-22)

Vegan diet significantly remodels metabolism in young children
University of Helsinki researchers report a comprehensive pilot study on the metabolic effects of full vegan diet on young children. The study found vegan children to have remarkably altered metabolism and lower vitamin A and D status compared to children with no special diet. (2021-01-21)

Fatty acid may help combat multiple sclerosis
The abnormal immune system response that causes multiple sclerosis (MS) by attacking and damaging the central nervous system can be triggered by the lack of a specific fatty acid in fat tissue, according to a new Yale study. The finding suggests that dietary change might help treat some people with the autoimmune disease. (2021-01-19)

UCI researchers: Climate change will alter the position of the Earth's tropical rain belt
In a study to be published Jan. 18 in Nature Climate Change, researchers at the University of California, Irvine describe future changes to the tropical rain belt with expected climate change. The changes will cause droughts in large sections of the globe, threatening biodiversity and food security. (2021-01-18)

Climate change is hurting children's diets, global study finds
A first-of-its-kind, international study of 107,000 children finds that higher temperatures are an equal or even greater contributor to child malnutrition than the traditional culprits of poverty, inadequate sanitation, and poor education. The 19-nation study is the largest investigation to date of the relationship between our changing climate and children's diet diversity. Of the six regions examined--in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America--five had significant reductions in diet diversity associated with higher temperatures. (2021-01-14)

Not as simple as thought: How bacteria form membrane vesicles
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba identified a novel mechanism by which bacteria form membrane vesicles, which bacteria employ to communicate with each other or to defend themselves against antibiotics. By studying mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MCB), which also includes tuberculosis-causing bacteria, the researchers demonstrated that environmental stimuli dictate the route by which the MCB form membrane vesicles. Further, their observations were consistent among various MCB. This study has implications for vaccine development as well as novel therapies. (2021-01-14)

The regulatory network of sugar and organic acid in watermelon fruit is revealed
The innovation project watermelon and melon cultivation and physiology team of Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute has made new progress in the metabolism regulation of sugar and organic acid in watermelon fruit. (2021-01-14)

Groundwater drives rapid erosion of the Canterbury coastline, New Zealand
Groundwater flow and seepage can form large gullies along coastal cliffs in the matter of days, it has been discovered. (2021-01-12)

Carbon monoxide reduced to valuable liquid fuels
Rice engineers develop a reactor to produce liquid acetic acid directly from carbon monoxide. (2021-01-11)

Singapore and US scientists uncover the structure of Wnt, Wntless proteins
Preventing Wnt from hitching a ride may offer new avenue for novel treatments for cancer and fibrosis. (2021-01-11)

Switching DNA functions on and off by means of light
Biochemists at Münster University have developed a new strategy for controlling the biological functions of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) by means of light and therefore provide a tool to investigate processes which take place in cells. The results have been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2020-12-28)

Surveys identify relationship between waves, coastal cliff erosion
Researchers have always known that waves were an important part of the cliff erosion process, but they haven't been able to separate the influence of waves and rain before. After decades of debate over the differing roles that both play, new findings provide an opportunity to improve forecasts. (2020-12-28)

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