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Animal behaviour: Dogs may have body-awareness and understand consequences of own actions
Dogs may be able to recognize their own body as an obstacle and also understand the consequences of their own actions, according to a study involving 32 pet dogs published in Scientific Reports. (2021-02-18)

One in 10 Ohio women thought abortion illegal amid attempts to ban at 6 weeks
Though Ohio never formally enacted a so-called ''heartbeat bill'' banning abortions after six weeks of gestation, legislative and legal actions appear to have fueled beliefs that abortion is illegal in the state, a new study has found. (2021-02-17)

NASA-funded network tracks the recent rise and fall of ozone depleting pollutants
A short-lived resurgence in the emission of ozone depleting pollutants in eastern China will not significantly delay the recovery of Earth's protective 'sunscreen' layer, according to new research published Feb. 10 in Nature. (2021-02-17)

Environmentally friendly behavior is easy -- tourists just need a 'nudge'
A new study has demonstrated that providing a simple 'nudge' -- or cue -- is an effective way to influence the decision making process of tourists and encourage them to act in more environmentally friendly ways. The results offer many practical insights on how a simple, low cost intervention, such as placing a sign in a store, has huge potential on reducing the local impacts of businesses and tourist operators by making pro-environmental choices easy. (2021-02-09)

Online searches can help foreshadow future COVID-19 surges and declines, new study shows
Online searches for mobile and isolated activities can help to predict later surges and declines in COVID-19 cases, a team of researchers has found. Its findings, based on a four-month analysis of online searches, offer a potential means to anticipate the pathways of the pandemic--before new infections are reported. (2021-02-08)

Amazon spreads vaccine misinformation, iSchool researchers find
Amazon's search algorithm gives preferential treatment to books that promote false claims about vaccines, according to research by UW Information School Ph.D. student Prerna Juneja and Assistant Professor Tanu Mitra. (2021-02-02)

What impact did police violence have on participation in the October 1, 2020 referendum?
An academic study by professors Toni Rodon (UPF) and Marc Guinjoan (UB) demonstrates that violence decreased participation at the places where it occurred, but increased participation in surrounding municipalities. Part of this increased participation is accounted for by people with a dual sense of national identity who had not planned to vote but did so as a sign of protest or civil disobedience. (2021-02-02)

Oncotarget: The pro-apoptotic actions of 2-methoxyestradiol against ovarian cancer
The objective of this Oncotarget study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions of 2MeOE2, a known microtubule disrupting agent, in inducing apoptosis in ovarian tumors (2021-02-01)

Fighting racial inequity by funding Black scientists
In a paper in Cell, a network of bioengineering academics review data on racial inequities in research funding, and suggest ways to address disparities in allocating support. (2021-01-26)

Navigating uncertainty: Why we need decision theory during a pandemic
Modern decision theory can assist policymakers in critical times such as the COVID-19 crisis, argue Bocconi University's Massimo Marinacci and Valentina Bosetti in a paper coauthored by Nobel laureate Lars Peter Hansen (2021-01-22)

State responses, not federal, influenced rise in unemployment claims early in the pandemic
Early in the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic, unemployment claims were largely driven by state shutdown orders and the nature of a state's economy and not by the virus, according a new article by Georgia State University economists. (2021-01-19)

Set clear rules for vaccinating health care workers against SARS-CoV-2
Provincial and territorial governments should set clear rules for vaccinating health care workers against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in public and private settings, and should not leave this task to employers, according to an analysis in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) https://www.cmaj.ca/content/cmaj/early/2021/01/19/cmaj.202755.full.pdf. (2021-01-19)

Robot learns fast but safe navigation strategy
A research group from the Active Intelligent System Laboratory (AISL) at Toyohashi University of Technology (TUT) has proposed a new framework for training mobile robots to quickly navigate while maintaining low collision rates. The framework combines deep reinforcement learning (DRL) and curriculum learning in the training process for robots to learn a fast but safe navigation policy. (2021-01-18)

Divergences between scientific and Indigenous and Local Knowledge can be helpful
Divergences between scientific and Indigenous and Local Knowledge can provide a better understanding of why local pastoralists may be willing, or not, to participate in conservation initiatives for carnivores, a study from University of Helsinki suggests. (2021-01-15)

New classification marks paradigm shift in how conservationists tackle climate change
A new study co-authored by researchers from the Wildlife Conservation Society's (WCS) Global Conservation Program and the University of British Columbia (UBC) Faculty of Forestry introduces a classification called Resistance-Resilience-Transformation (RRT) that enables the assessment of whether and to what extent a management shift toward transformative action is occurring in conservation. (2021-01-14)

Study finds NRA stakeholders conflicted in wake of shootings
A recent study finds that, in the wake of a mass shooting, National Rifle Association (NRA) employees, donors and volunteers had extremely mixed emotions about the organization - reporting higher levels of both positive and negative feelings about the NRA, as compared to people with no NRA affiliation. (2021-01-12)

Robot displays a glimmer of empathy to a partner robot
Like a longtime couple who can predict each other's every move, a Columbia Engineering robot has learned to predict its partner robot's future actions and goals based on just a few initial video frames. The study, conducted at Columbia Engineering's Creative Machines Lab led by Mechanical Engineering Professor Hod Lipson, is part of a broader effort to endow robots with the ability to understand and anticipate the goals of other robots, purely from visual observations. (2021-01-11)

Protecting the global food supply chain
The University of Delaware's Kyle Davis led a collaborative effort to research how to protect food chains from environmental shocks--everything from floods, droughts, and extreme heat to other phenomena like natural hazards, pests, disease, algal blooms, and coral bleaching. (2021-01-05)

Anti-transpirant products unnecessary in cycad propagation
In a first-of-its-kind study within cycad horticulture literature, University of Guam researchers have found that the use of anti-transpirants neither help nor hinder successful propagation of cycad stem cuttings. (2020-12-30)

Quantifying effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on SARS-CoV-2 transmission with modeling
Limiting gatherings to fewer than 10 people and closing educational institutions were among the most effective nonpharmaceutical interventions at reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, a new modeling study finds. (2020-12-15)

What makes COVID misinformation so tough to stop on social media
A recent study highlights two of the reasons that misinformation about COVID-19 is so difficult to tackle on social media: most people think they're above average at spotting misinformation; and misinformation often triggers negative emotions that resonate with people. The findings may help communicators share accurate information more effectively. (2020-12-07)

Airflow modeling suggests driving with all windows down safest to prevent COVID-19 transmission
A new series of computational fluid dynamics simulations suggests that, for two people who must travel together in the same passenger car, the safest way to prevent possible transmission of COVID-19 in such a risky, enclosed environment is to do so with all four windows down and the passenger seated as far as (2020-12-04)

Shuttering fossil fuel power plants may cost less than expected
Decarbonizing US electricity production will require both construction of renewable energy sources and retirement of power plants now operated by fossil fuels. A generator-level model described in the December 4, 2020 issue of the journal Science suggests that most fossil fuel power plants could complete normal lifespans and still close by 2035 because so many facilities are nearing the end of their operational lives. (2020-12-03)

New report details links between widespread ocean pollution and human health risks
The new study ''Human Health and Ocean Pollution'' presents a broad and comprehensive examination of the multiple dangers to human and ecosystem health posed by pollution of the seas. Toxins in the ocean make landfall through the food chain and coastal tides, posing health risks to more than 3 billion humans, according to scientists led by the Centre Scientifique de Monaco and Boston College, with support from the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation. (2020-12-03)

Researchers find 'missing link'
Otago researchers have found the ''missing link between stress and infertility''. (2020-12-03)

Personality changes predict early career outcomes
A new study by a University of Houston psychologist may hold the key to job success. It finds young people who develop higher levels of conscientiousness and emotional stability during the transition to employment tend to be more successful in some aspects of their early careers. (2020-12-02)

How we learn words and sentences at the same time
How people work out the meanings of new words has been revealed by Lancaster University researchers, who say this is similar to the way in which young children learn language. The researchers said: ''A lot of what infants hear is ''who's a lovely baby yes you are now where's teddy gone oh look here is teddy''. How do babies begin to make sense of this burbling to figure out the language?'' (2020-11-30)

Teaching computers the meaning of sensor names in smart home
The UPV/EHU's IXA group has use natural language processing techniques to overcome one of the major difficulties associated with smart homes, namely that the systems developed to infer activities in one environment do not work when they are applied to a different one, because both the sensors and the activities are different. The group has come up with the innovative idea of using words to represent the activation of both sensors and human activity. (2020-11-30)

Is it better to give than receive?
Young children who have experienced compassionate love and empathy from their mothers may be more willing to turn thoughts into action by being generous to others, a University of California, Davis, study suggests. Lab studies were done of children at ages 4 and 6. (2020-11-30)

RUDN University research team of mathematicians suggested a new decision making algorithm
A research team from RUDN University developed an algorithm to help large groups of people make optimal decisions in a short time. They confirmed the efficiency of their model using the example of the market at which the outbreak of COVID-19 began. The model helped the administration and sellers agree on closing the market and reach a consensus about the sums of compensations in just three steps. (2020-11-25)

Understanding ion channel inhibition to open doors in drug discovery
Scientists have discovered how drug-like small molecules can regulate the activity of therapeutically relevant ion channels - and their findings could transform ongoing drug development efforts. The study reveals how a drug-like small molecule, called Pico145, binds to the TRPC5 channel, thereby preventing the channel from opening.  (2020-11-23)

Changes in fire activity are threatening more than 4,400 species globally
More than 4,400 species across the globe are at risk from extinction because of changes in fire activity says a new paper involving 27 international researchers. (2020-11-23)

Prehistoric shark hid its largest teeth
Some, if not all, early sharks that lived 300 to 400 million years ago not only dropped their lower jaws downward but rotated them outwards when opening their mouths. This enabled them to make the best of their largest, sharpest and inward-facing teeth when catching prey, paleontologists at the Universities of Zurich and Chicago have now shown using CT scanning and 3D printing. (2020-11-18)

In a pandemic, migration away from dense cities more effective than closing borders
During the COVID-19 pandemic, closing national borders and borders between states and regions has been prevalent. But does it help? In a paper in Chaos, researchers decided to put this hypothesis to the test and discover if confinement and travels bans are really effective ways to limit the spread of a pandemic disease. Specifically, they focused on the movement of people from larger cities to smaller ones and tested the results of this one-way migration. (2020-11-17)

Here's why conservatives and liberals differ on COVID-19
According to a new study from Lehigh Business, the differences between conservative and liberal responses to COVID-19 are mitigated when people perceive the virus itself to have agency -- the ability to control its own actions and thus exert power over people. Conservatives are generally more sensitive to threats that are relatively high in agency, say researchers with Lehigh University's College of Business and KU Leuven, Belgium. (2020-11-13)

Job interest not a big predictor of job satisfaction
Interest in an occupation matters, but not as much as you might think when it comes to job satisfaction. While it's not a strong predictor of satisfaction, a University of Houston researcher found that it may help in your performance on the job. (2020-11-11)

Representation of female authors in family medicine academic journals is trending upward
After decades of underrepresentation in medicine, women are now entering many specialties in the United States, including family medicine, at higher rates than men. Despite the rising proportion of female physicians in family medicine, they continue to be underrepresented in the highest levels of professional attainment, particularly in academic settings. This study from the Robert Graham Center examines female authorship of research published in three leading U.S. family medicine journals over time. (2020-11-10)

Pinning down how the brain predicts the consequences of choices
Learning to predict the outcomes of actions happens through two separate cognitive processes. Though distinct, it is frequently difficult to tell which scheme an individual is executing at any given instance. A new study in mice implements a novel experimental approach that untangles the two, and pins down how a specific brain structure represents the various features involved in the decision making process. (2020-11-04)

Brain region implicated in predicting the consequences of actions
A new study highlights the sophisticated mental machinery that helps the brain simulate the results of different actions and make the best choice. (2020-11-04)

BfR-Corona-Monitor: Respondents reduce contacts and stay at home more frequently
Starting this week, the new regulations for the containment of the coronavirus adopted by the Federal Government and the Länder will come into force throughout Germany. As the results of the BfR-Corona-Monitor, a regular survey by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), show, the respondents were already more cautious last week than they were two weeks before. (2020-11-03)

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