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"Knock codes" for smartphone security are easily predicted, researchers say
Smartphone owners who unlock their devices with knock codes aren't as safe as they think, according to new research. (2020-07-14)

Severely damaged human lungs can now be successfully recovered
A multidisciplinary team from Columbia Engineering and Vanderbilt University has now demonstrated that severely injured donor lungs that have been declined for transplant can be recovered outside the body by a system that uses cross-circulation of whole blood between the donor lung and an animal host. For the first time, a severely injured human lung that failed to recover using the standard clinical EVLP was successfully recovered during 24 hours on the team's cross-circulation platform. (2020-07-13)

A balancing act between immunity and longevity
Changes in the immune system can promote healthy ageing (2020-07-10)

Study pinpoints brain cells that trigger sugar cravings and consumption
New research published in Cell Metabolism has identified for the first time the specific brain cells that control how much sugar you eat and how much you crave sweet tasting food. The study by researchers at the University of Iowa and the University of Copenhagen specifically identifies the brain cells that respond to the hormone FGF21 to regulate sugar intake and sweet taste preference. (2020-07-10)

Famous 'Jurassic Park' dinosaur is less lizard, more bird
From movies to museum exhibits, the dinosaur Dilophosaurus is no stranger to pop culture. Many probably remember it best from the movie 'Jurassic Park,' where it's depicted as a venom-spitting beast with a rattling frill around its neck and two paddle-like crests on its head. But a new comprehensive analysis of Dilophosaurus fossils is helping to set the record straight, finding that the Dilophosaurus was actually the largest land animal of its time. (2020-07-07)

Injections are two-and-a-half times safer when nurses use revamped guidelines
Injections are two-and-a-half times safer when nurses use revamped guidelines. (2020-07-06)

Epigenetics: What the embryo can teach us about cell reprogramming
Cell reprogramming provides an outstanding opportunity for the artificial generation of stem cells for regenerative medicine approaches in the clinic. As current cell reprogramming methods are low in efficiency, researchers around the globe aim to learn lessons from the early embryo which might lead them to a more efficient and faster generation of high-quality, fully reprogrammed stem cells. (2020-07-06)

Timing of SNAP benefits can reduce childhood injuries
A recently published study shows that families that receive Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits later in the month have fewer ER visits, likely because they can afford to feed their families at the end of the calendar month when other resources run low. (2020-07-02)

Why don't confused patients call medicines helplines after discharge from hospital?
Research from the University of Bath in the UK suggests the best medicine-related support comes from hospital pharmacists, yet few discharged patients use helplines set up for this purpose. (2020-07-01)

Rethinking regional neurologic care in COVID-19 era
Ways to reduce over-triage for patients with neurologic disease and finding ways to care for patients at a distance during the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed in this Viewpoint. (2020-06-29)

Even 'low-risk' drinking can be harmful
It's not just heavy drinking that's a problem -- even consuming alcohol within weekly low-risk drinking guidelines can result in hospitalization and death, according to a new study published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. (2020-06-15)

Proposed seismic surveys in Arctic Refuge likely to cause lasting damage
Winter vehicle travel can cause long-lasting damage to the tundra, according to a new paper by University of Alaska Fairbanks researchers. Scars from seismic surveys for oil and gas exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge remained for decades, according to the study. The findings counter assertions made by the Bureau of Land Management in 2018 that seismic exploration causes no 'significant impacts' on the landscape. (2020-06-10)

Racial, gender disparities observed in heart transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection
Researchers suggest focusing on disparities to help identify which patients with a heart transplant may be at higher risk for a worse course of COVID-19 infection. (2020-06-09)

Essential components of dietary restriction revealed
Studies by Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI), have provided a new understanding into the roles two essential amino acids play in metabolic health, which may help scientists in the fight against obesity. (2020-06-09)

Australian researchers set record for carbon dioxide capture
Researchers from Australia's Monash University and the CSIRO have set a record for carbon dioxide capture using Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs). The technology resembles a sponge filled with tiny magnets. (2020-06-02)

COVID-19 crisis causes 17% drop in global carbon emissions
The COVID-19 global lockdown has had an 'extreme' effect on daily carbon emissions, but it is unlikely to last -- according to a new analysis by an international team of scientists. The study published in the journal Nature Climate Change shows that daily emissions decreased by 17% -- or 17 million tonnes of carbon dioxide -- globally during the peak of the confinement measures in early April compared to mean daily levels in 2019, dropping to levels last observed in 2006. (2020-05-19)

Subcellular chatter regulates longevity
As people get older, they often feel less energetic, mobile or active. This may be due in part to a decline in mitochondria, the tiny powerhouses inside of our cells, which provide energy and regulate metabolism. In fact, mitochondria decline with age not only in humans, but in many species. Why they do so is not well understood. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne set out to understand how mitochondrial function is diminished with age and to find factors that prevent this process. They found that communication between mitochondria and other parts of the cell plays a key role. (2020-05-19)

Retinal texture could provide early biomarker of Alzheimer's disease
Biomedical engineers at Duke University have devised a new imaging device capable of measuring both the thickness and texture of the various layers of the retina. The advance could be used to detect a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease, potentially offering a widespread early warning system for the disease. (2020-05-14)

New imaging tool helps researchers see extent of Alzheimer's early damage
New imaging technology allows scientists to see the widespread loss of brain synapses in early stages of Alzheimer's disease, a finding that one day may help aid in drug development, according to a new Yale University study. (2020-05-13)

GW survey evaluates influence of social media in attracting patients
A recent survey from the George Washington University suggests that patients do not take social media into consideration when looking for a dermatologist and recommend that practitioners should use social media as a tool in engaging and educating patients. (2020-05-07)

Birds take flight with help from Sonic hedgehog
Flight feathers are amazing evolutionary innovations that allowed birds to conquer the sky. A study led by Matthew Towers (University of Sheffield) and Marian Ros (University of Cantabria) and published in Development now reveals that flight feather identity is established thanks to Sonic hedgehog -- a signalling molecule well-known for giving the digits of the limb their different identities. These findings suggest the pre-existing digit identity mechanism was co-opted during the evolution of flight feathers. (2020-05-06)

Persistent and worsening insomnia may predict persistent depression in older adults
Older adults with depression may be at much higher risk of remaining depressed if they are experiencing persistent or worsening sleep problems, according to a study from researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (2020-04-30)

Cancer drug resistance study raises immune red flags
Once a cancer patient's tumors develop resistance to chemotherapy, the prognosis can be poor. However, inhibiting a key gene involved in multidrug resistance, MDR1, has not improved outcomes. A new study offers a reason, revealing unintended downstream effects on immune system cells. (2020-04-17)

Researchers challenge accuracy of methods that analyze trees of life
When species under a taxonomic umbrella have faced forks in the road, leading to extinction or adaptation, the path taken has been difficult to follow. In a newly published paper, two scientists argue that long-used approaches for reconstructing these paths are deeply flawed. They also offer a a mathematical model as a way forward. (2020-04-15)

Transposable elements play an important role in genetic expression and evolution
A new study published in Nature Communications by Adam Diehl, Ningxin Ouyang, and Alan Boyle, University of Michigan Medical School and members of the University of Michigan Center for RNA Biomedicine, shows that transposable elements play an important role in regulating genetic expression with implications to advance the understanding of genetic evolution. (2020-04-14)

New model finds countries should work together to control coronavirus, harmful species
Countries looking to contain the spread of harmful species and diseases like COVID-19 should work together in multiple hotspots, according to a new model developed by an Arizona State University researcher. (2020-04-13)

New prize-winning research highlights potential of immune intervention in improving regenerative medicine
Joana Neves is the 2019 grand prize winner of the Sartorius & Science Prize for Regenerating Medicine & Cell Therapy, for work in mice that offers a promising approach to improve the outcome of regenerative stem cell-based therapies aimed at delaying age-related degenerative diseases. (2020-03-12)

Dramatic increase in bowel cancer in young adults in England
There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of bowel cancer in adults under the age of 50, according to new research from the University of Bristol, UWE Bristol and University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust (UH Bristol). (2020-03-10)

Zoology: Biofluorescence may be widespread among amphibians
Biofluorescence, where organisms emit a fluorescent glow after absorbing light energy, may be widespread in amphibians including salamanders and frogs, according to a study in Scientific Reports. Biofluorescence had previously been observed in only one salamander and three frog species. (2020-02-27)

Essential oil components can be tested as drug candidates
A research team at the VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology and the KU Leuven Department of Biology showed that, contrary to generally held belief, most components of essential oils could meet the criteria set for drug candidates. Essential oil components are the constituents of essential oils, which are complex mixtures of plant metabolites obtained by dry or steam distillation, or by citrus peel pressing. (2020-02-21)

Portable MRIs bring diagnostics to stroke patients' bedside
For the first time, portable, low-field MRIs have successfully imaged patients' brains to evaluate stroke at their bedside. The findings suggest that a bedside MRI is safe and potentially practical in multiple settings. (2020-02-12)

Climate warming disrupts tree seed production
Research involving the University of Liverpool has revealed the effect of climate warming on the complex interactions between tree masting and the insects that eat their seeds. (2020-02-12)

Are robots designed to include the LGBTQ+ community?
Robot technology is flourishing in multiple sectors of society, including the retail, health care, industry and education sectors. However, are the perspectives of minority groups, such as the LGBTQ+ community, considered in robot and AI development? (2020-02-12)

Autonomous vehicle technology may improve safety for US Army convoys, report says
US Army convoys could be made safer for soldiers by implementing autonomous vehicle technology to reduce the number of service members needed to operate the vehicles, according to a new study from the RAND Corporation. (2020-02-12)

Revenge is more enjoyable than forgiveness -- at least in stories
When it comes to entertainment, people enjoy seeing bad guys get their punishment more than seeing them be forgiven, a new study reveals. But even though they don't enjoy the forgiveness stories as much, people do find these narratives more meaningful and thought-provoking than ones in which the bad guys receive their just deserts. (2020-02-11)

New method predicts individual response to Ebola infection
A team at the Center for Infection and Immunity (CII) at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health has used a specially bred population of laboratory mice that mimics human patterns of tolerance and susceptibility to the Ebola virus to identify human immune factors that predict outcomes among people infected with the disease. (2020-02-11)

Research brief: Ocean temperatures impact Central American climate more than once thought
In a study published today in the journal Nature Communications, UNLV researchers and colleagues at Indiana State University, the University of Venice, and other institutions examined the rainfall history of Central America over the last 11,000 years. The results provide context for the development of tropical rainforest ecosystems in the region, and long-sought answers to what has been controlling rainfall in Central America for several millennia. (2020-02-05)

Radiologists describe coronavirus imaging features
In a special report published today in the journal Radiology, researchers describe CT imaging features that aid in the early detection and diagnosis of Wuhan coronavirus. (2020-02-04)

New research establishes how first exposure to flu virus sets on our immunity for life
The first type of influenza virus we are exposed to in early childhood dictates our ability to fight the flu for the rest of our lives, according to a new study from a team of infectious disease researchers at McMaster University and Université de Montréal. (2020-01-30)

More than a knee injury: ACL tears cause harmful changes in our brain structure
It's known that some joint function is often permanently lost after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and re-injury is common even with intensive physical therapy, but it's unclear why. (2020-01-28)

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