Current Adaptive Optics News and Events

Current Adaptive Optics News and Events, Adaptive Optics News Articles.
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New sensor paves way to low-cost sensitive methane measurements
Researchers have developed a new sensor that could allow practical and low-cost detection of low concentrations of methane gas. Measuring methane emissions and leaks is important to a variety of industries because the gas contributes to global warming and air pollution. (2021-02-22)

Artificial intelligence predicts nonlinear ultrafast dynamics in optics
Researchers at Tampere University have successfully used artificial intelligence to predict nonlinear dynamics that take place when ultrashort light pulses interact with matter. This novel solution can be used for efficient and fast numerical modelling, for example, in imaging, manufacturing and surgery. The findings were published in the prestigious Nature Machine Intelligence journal. (2021-02-19)

Evolution's game of rock-paper-scissors
A group of scientists at Lehigh University led by Gregory Lang, associate professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, has recently provided empirical evidence that evolution can be nontransitive. Lang and his team identify a nontransitive evolutionary sequence through a 1,000-generation yeast evolution experiment. In the experiment, an evolved clone outcompetes a recent ancestor but loses in direct competition with a distant ancestor. (2021-02-16)

A sharper look at the interior of semiconductors
A research team at Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany) developed a high-resolution imaging method based on extreme short-wave UV light. It can be used to examine internal structures in semiconductors non-destructively, and with nanometre precision as the team reported in the current issue of the journal 'Optica'. (2021-02-16)

Moffitt uses mathematical modeling to identify factors that determine adaptive therapy success
In a new article featured on this month's cover of Cancer Research, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers, in collaboration with Oxford University, report results from their study using mathematical modeling to show that cell turnover impacts drug resistance and is an important factor that governs the success of adaptive therapy. (2021-02-15)

Epigenetic mechanisms allow native Peruvians to thrive at high altitudes
Scientists reveal the epigenetic mechanisms that enable humans to survive at extremely high altitudes in the Andes (2021-02-15)

Genetic markers show Pacific albacore intermingle across equator
Analyzing thousands of genetic markers in albacore tuna from the Pacific Ocean, researchers at Oregon State University have learned that just seven dozen of those markers are needed to determine which side of the equator a fish comes from. (2021-02-10)

Deepfake detectors can be defeated, computer scientists show for the first time
Systems designed to detect deepfakes --videos that manipulate real-life footage via artificial intelligence--can be deceived, computer scientists showed for the first time at the WACV 2021 conference which took place online Jan. 5 to 9, 2021. Researchers showed detectors can be defeated by inserting inputs called adversarial examples into every video frame. The adversarial examples are slightly manipulated inputs which cause artificial intelligence systems such as machine learning models to make a mistake. (2021-02-08)

Computerized adaptive screener may help identify youth at risk for suicide
Researchers funded by NIMH have developed a computerized adaptive screener to identify youth at risk for attempting suicide. The screener, called the computerized adaptive screen for suicidal youth, consists of 11 questions on average and correctly identified 82.4% of youth who went on to attempt suicide in the three months following screening. The results suggest this screener could serve as an easy-to-use way for providers to detect youth suicide risk in emergency department settings. (2021-02-03)

Spanish scientists identify a mechanism through which dendritic cells improve their antiviral and immunotherapy strategies
Researchers at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have discovered that dendritic cells, which initiate specific immune responses, can reprogram their genes to improve their immune response (2021-02-03)

Optimized LIBS technique improves analysis of nuclear reactor materials
In a new study, investigators report an optimized approach to using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for analyzing hydrogen isotopes. Their new findings could enable improved rapid identification and measurement of hydrogen and other light isotopes that are important in nuclear reactor materials and other applications. (2021-02-01)

Radiation Oncology trials using PET with FDG uptake among NSCLC patients
Two radiation oncology trials presented at the IALSC World Conference on Lung Cancer Singapore highlight how some researchers are exploring use of higher radiation boost doses to only PET-positive regions in locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A previous large RTOG phase III trial revealed that the unform delivery of a high dose to the entire tumor led to poorer survival. (2021-01-29)

Scientists find key function of molecule in cells crucial for regulating immunity
UNC School of Medicine scientists led by Jenny Ting, PhD, the William Kenan Distinguished Professor of Genetics, and Yisong Wan, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology, discovered that AIM2 is important for the proper function of regulatory T cells, or Treg cells, and plays a key role in mitigating autoimmune disease. Treg cells are a seminal population of adaptive immune cells that prevents an overzealous immune response, such as those that occurs in autoimmune diseases. (2021-01-28)

A vacuum-ultraviolet laser with submicrometer spot for spatially resolved photoemission spectroscopy
If vacuum ultraviolet lasers can be focused into a small beam spot, it will allow investigation of mesoscopic materials and structures and enable the manufacture of nano-objects with excellent precision. Towards this goal, Scientist in China invented a 177 nm VUV laser system that can achieve a sub-micron focal spot at a long focal length. This system can be re-equipped for usage in low-cost ARPES and might benefit condensed matter physics. (2021-01-27)

Optical scanner design for adaptive driving beam systems can lead to safer night driving
In a recent study published in the Journal of Optical Microsystems, researchers from Japan have come up with an alternative to conventional adaptive driving beam systems: a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanner that relies on the piezoelectric effect of electrically induced mechanical vibrations. (2021-01-27)

Oncotarget: Improved therapeutic efficacy of unmodified anti-tumor antibodies
The Oncotarget findings suggest that MEKi induced an increased expression of tumor-associated antigens, which in combination with anti-tumor antibodies, generated a robust adaptive anti-tumor response that was sustained by immune checkpoint inhibition therapy. (2021-01-25)

Crystal structures in super slow motion
Laser beams are used to change the properties of materials in an extremely precise way. However, the underlying processes generally take place at such unimaginably fast speeds and at such a small scale that they have so far eluded direct observation. Göttingen researchers have now managed to film, for the first time, the laser transformation of a crystal structure with nanometre resolution and in slow motion in an electron microscope. The results were published in Science. (2021-01-22)

Adaptive optics with cascading corrective elements
As reported in Advanced Photonics, researchers from the University of Freiburg, Germany, have made a significant advance in AO microscopy through the demonstration of a new AO module comprising two deformable phase plates (DPPs). (2021-01-21)

COVID-19 model reveals key role for innate immunity in controlling viral load
Since SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019, researchers have worked feverishly to study the novel coronavirus. Although much knowledge has been gained, scientists still have a lot to learn about how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human body, and how the immune system fights it. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science have developed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that reveals a key role for the innate immune system in controlling viral load. (2021-01-20)

Innovations through hair-thin optical fibres
Scientists at the University of Bonn have built hair-thin optical fibre filters in a very simple way. They are not only extremely compact and stable, but also colour-tunable. This means they can be used in quantum technology and as sensors for temperature or for detecting atmospheric gases. The results have been published in the journal ''Optics Express''. (2021-01-20)

How insects activate muscles to adapt to limbs removed
Adaptability explains why insects spread so widely and why they are the most abundant animal group on earth. Insects exhibit resilient and flexible locomotion, even with drastic changes in their body structure such as losing a limb. (2021-01-14)

Towards applications: ultra-low-loss on-chip zero-index materials
Dirac-cone materials behave like an isotropic and impedance-matched zero-index medium at Dirac-point wavelength, enabling light-matter interactions in a spatially uniform optical mode with arbitrary shapes. However, such interactions are limited to small areas because of the propagation loss. Scientists designed an ultra-low-loss and homogeneous zero-index material by introducing resonance-trapped bound states in the continuum. This design paves the way for leveraging perfect spatial coherence of large-area zero-index materials in linear, nonlinear, and quantum optics (2021-01-14)

Raman spectroscopy shows promise for diagnosing oral cancer
In a new study, researchers show that a light-based analytical technique known as Raman spectroscopy could aid in early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (2021-01-13)

Researchers develop laser-based process to 3D print detailed glass objects
Researchers have developed a new laser-based process for 3D printing intricate parts made of glass. With further development, the new method could be useful for making complex optics for vision, imaging, illumination or laser-based applications. (2021-01-12)

Researchers acquire 3D images with LED room lighting and a smartphone
In The Optical Society (OSA) journal Optics Express, the researchers demonstrate that 3D optical imaging can be performed with a cell phone and LEDs without requiring any complex manual processes to synchronize the camera with the lighting. (2021-01-11)

Evolving the surgical microscope
Ma and Fei explain how surgical microscopes are modified into slightly different optical configurations and equipped with specific imaging modalities and platforms for different surgical applications. (2021-01-05)

COVID-19 unmasked: math model suggests optimal treatment strategies
For older patients with COVID-19 infections, the clot-preventing drug heparin and immunity-enhancing drugs may improve outcomes. Patients with conditions such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure may benefit from anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs used to control blood pressure and vascular resistance. (2021-01-05)

Wi-Fi technology with fiber optic-like performance for Industry 4.0
It is the first step towards high performance wireless communications in the manufacturing industry (2020-12-22)

Bio-inspired endoscope provides 3D visible and near-infrared images simultaneously
Researchers have developed a new bio-inspired medical endoscope that can acquire 3D visible light and near-infrared fluorescence images at the same time. It features an optical design that combines the high-resolution 3D imaging of human vision with the mantis shrimp's capability to simultaneously detect multiple wavelengths of light. (2020-12-22)

New optical fiber brings significant improvements to light-based gyroscopes
Researchers have taken an important new step in advancing the performance of resonator fiber optic gyroscopes, a type of fiber optic sensor that senses rotation using only light. Because gyroscopes are the basis of most navigation systems, the new work could one day bring important improvements to these systems. (2020-12-21)

New method for imaging exhaled breath could provide insights into COVID-19 transmission
A new method for visualizing breath that is exhaled while someone is speaking or singing could provide important new insights into how diseases such as COVID-19 spread and the effectiveness of face masks. (2020-12-21)

Developing smarter, faster machine intelligence with light
Researchers at the George Washington University, together with researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the deep-tech venture startup Optelligence LLC, have developed an optical convolutional neural network accelerator capable of processing large amounts of information, on the order of petabytes, per second. (2020-12-18)

UCI engineers reveal molecular secrets of cephalopod powers
In a study published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, University of California, Irvine researchers have revealed the structure of a reflectin variant at the molecular level, and they have demonstrated a method for mechanically controlling the hierarchical assembly and optical properties of the protein. These findings are seen as key steps in exploiting many of the potentially useful attributes of the reflectin family. (2020-12-17)

Empowering women could help address climate change
Current and future damages of climate change depend greatly on the ability of affected populations to adapt to changing conditions. According to an international group of researchers, building capacity to adapt to such changes will require eradicating inequalities of many sorts, including gender. (2020-12-15)

High-brightness source of coherent light spanning from the UV to THz
An international team of scientists reports in Nature Photonics on a novel technique for a high-brightness coherent and few-cycle duration source spanning 7 optical octaves from the UV to the THz. (2020-12-14)

Researchers demonstrate nondestructive mid-infrared imaging using entangled photons
Researchers have shown that entangled photons can be used to improve the penetration depth of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in highly scattering materials. The method represents a way to perform OCT with mid-infrared wavelengths and could be useful for non-destructive testing and analysis of materials such as ceramics and paint samples. (2020-12-10)

Reactive Video playback that you control with your body
An international team of researchers from Lancaster University, Stanford University and FXPAL, have created a system that dynamically adapts to mirror the position of the viewer's body and matches the speed of video playback to the viewer's movements. (2020-12-10)

Ionic defect landscape in perovskite solar cells revealed
Joint research work between Chemnitz University of Technology and Technische Universität Dresden under Chemnitz leadership reveals ionic defect landscape in metal halide perovskites -- publication in renowned journal Nature Communications (2020-12-04)

Researchers confront optics and data-transfer challenges with 3D-printed lens
Researchers have developed new 3D-printed microlenses with adjustable refractive indices - a property that gives them highly specialized light-focusing abilities. This advancement is poised to improve imaging, computing and communications by significantly increasing the data-routing capability of computer chips and other optical systems, the researchers said. (2020-12-03)

Scientists invent a new type of microscope that can see through an intact skull
Researchers at IBS invented a new type of microscope called reflective matrix microscope, which uses adaptive optics techniques (2020-12-02)

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