Current Adaptive News and Events

Current Adaptive News and Events, Adaptive News Articles.
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Evolution's game of rock-paper-scissors
A group of scientists at Lehigh University led by Gregory Lang, associate professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, has recently provided empirical evidence that evolution can be nontransitive. Lang and his team identify a nontransitive evolutionary sequence through a 1,000-generation yeast evolution experiment. In the experiment, an evolved clone outcompetes a recent ancestor but loses in direct competition with a distant ancestor. (2021-02-16)

Moffitt uses mathematical modeling to identify factors that determine adaptive therapy success
In a new article featured on this month's cover of Cancer Research, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers, in collaboration with Oxford University, report results from their study using mathematical modeling to show that cell turnover impacts drug resistance and is an important factor that governs the success of adaptive therapy. (2021-02-15)

Epigenetic mechanisms allow native Peruvians to thrive at high altitudes
Scientists reveal the epigenetic mechanisms that enable humans to survive at extremely high altitudes in the Andes (2021-02-15)

Genetic markers show Pacific albacore intermingle across equator
Analyzing thousands of genetic markers in albacore tuna from the Pacific Ocean, researchers at Oregon State University have learned that just seven dozen of those markers are needed to determine which side of the equator a fish comes from. (2021-02-10)

Deepfake detectors can be defeated, computer scientists show for the first time
Systems designed to detect deepfakes --videos that manipulate real-life footage via artificial intelligence--can be deceived, computer scientists showed for the first time at the WACV 2021 conference which took place online Jan. 5 to 9, 2021. Researchers showed detectors can be defeated by inserting inputs called adversarial examples into every video frame. The adversarial examples are slightly manipulated inputs which cause artificial intelligence systems such as machine learning models to make a mistake. (2021-02-08)

Computerized adaptive screener may help identify youth at risk for suicide
Researchers funded by NIMH have developed a computerized adaptive screener to identify youth at risk for attempting suicide. The screener, called the computerized adaptive screen for suicidal youth, consists of 11 questions on average and correctly identified 82.4% of youth who went on to attempt suicide in the three months following screening. The results suggest this screener could serve as an easy-to-use way for providers to detect youth suicide risk in emergency department settings. (2021-02-03)

Spanish scientists identify a mechanism through which dendritic cells improve their antiviral and immunotherapy strategies
Researchers at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have discovered that dendritic cells, which initiate specific immune responses, can reprogram their genes to improve their immune response (2021-02-03)

Radiation Oncology trials using PET with FDG uptake among NSCLC patients
Two radiation oncology trials presented at the IALSC World Conference on Lung Cancer Singapore highlight how some researchers are exploring use of higher radiation boost doses to only PET-positive regions in locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A previous large RTOG phase III trial revealed that the unform delivery of a high dose to the entire tumor led to poorer survival. (2021-01-29)

Scientists find key function of molecule in cells crucial for regulating immunity
UNC School of Medicine scientists led by Jenny Ting, PhD, the William Kenan Distinguished Professor of Genetics, and Yisong Wan, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology, discovered that AIM2 is important for the proper function of regulatory T cells, or Treg cells, and plays a key role in mitigating autoimmune disease. Treg cells are a seminal population of adaptive immune cells that prevents an overzealous immune response, such as those that occurs in autoimmune diseases. (2021-01-28)

Optical scanner design for adaptive driving beam systems can lead to safer night driving
In a recent study published in the Journal of Optical Microsystems, researchers from Japan have come up with an alternative to conventional adaptive driving beam systems: a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) optical scanner that relies on the piezoelectric effect of electrically induced mechanical vibrations. (2021-01-27)

Oncotarget: Improved therapeutic efficacy of unmodified anti-tumor antibodies
The Oncotarget findings suggest that MEKi induced an increased expression of tumor-associated antigens, which in combination with anti-tumor antibodies, generated a robust adaptive anti-tumor response that was sustained by immune checkpoint inhibition therapy. (2021-01-25)

Adaptive optics with cascading corrective elements
As reported in Advanced Photonics, researchers from the University of Freiburg, Germany, have made a significant advance in AO microscopy through the demonstration of a new AO module comprising two deformable phase plates (DPPs). (2021-01-21)

COVID-19 model reveals key role for innate immunity in controlling viral load
Since SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019, researchers have worked feverishly to study the novel coronavirus. Although much knowledge has been gained, scientists still have a lot to learn about how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with the human body, and how the immune system fights it. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science have developed a mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that reveals a key role for the innate immune system in controlling viral load. (2021-01-20)

How insects activate muscles to adapt to limbs removed
Adaptability explains why insects spread so widely and why they are the most abundant animal group on earth. Insects exhibit resilient and flexible locomotion, even with drastic changes in their body structure such as losing a limb. (2021-01-14)

COVID-19 unmasked: math model suggests optimal treatment strategies
For older patients with COVID-19 infections, the clot-preventing drug heparin and immunity-enhancing drugs may improve outcomes. Patients with conditions such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure may benefit from anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs used to control blood pressure and vascular resistance. (2021-01-05)

Empowering women could help address climate change
Current and future damages of climate change depend greatly on the ability of affected populations to adapt to changing conditions. According to an international group of researchers, building capacity to adapt to such changes will require eradicating inequalities of many sorts, including gender. (2020-12-15)

Reactive Video playback that you control with your body
An international team of researchers from Lancaster University, Stanford University and FXPAL, have created a system that dynamically adapts to mirror the position of the viewer's body and matches the speed of video playback to the viewer's movements. (2020-12-10)

A shapeshifting material based on inorganic matter
By embedding titanium-based sheets in water, a group led by scientists from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science has created a material using inorganic materials that can be converted from a hard gel to soft matter using temperature changes, recreating the strange behavior of sea cucumbers. (2020-11-30)

Water-to-land transition in early tetrapods
The water-to-land transition is one of the most important major transitions in vertebrate evolution. However, there is still uncertainty about when the water-land transition took place and how terrestrial early tetrapods really were. A new paper in Nature addresses these questions and shows although these early tetrapods were still tied to water and had aquatic features, they also had adaptations that indicate some ability to move on land. (2020-11-25)

Forming beliefs in a world of filter bubbles
Why do so many Republicans still believe that the recent US presidential election was fraudulent? Is it possible to reach coronavirus deniers with factual arguments? A study by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development and the University of Amsterdam provides insights into what it is that stops people from changing their minds. Their findings have been published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. (2020-11-25)

Cichlid fishes from African Lake Tanganyika shed light on how organismal diversity arises
Lake Tanganyika in Africa is a true hotspot of organismal diversity. Approximately 240 species of cichlid fishes have evolved in this lake in less than 10 million years. A research team from the University of Basel has investigated this phenomenon of ''explosive speciation'' and provides new insights into the origins of biological diversity, as they report in the journal Nature. (2020-11-18)

Applying environmental genomics to coral conservation
Coral reefs are extremely sensitive to temperature, making them particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. But some corals seem able to adapt. Researchers from EPFL and the French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development (IRD) studied a reef in New Caledonia, combining approaches from environmental science and genomics to characterize their adaptive potential and develop targeted conservation strategies. (2020-11-12)

Adaptive governance could help build trust in COVID-19 digital contact tracing apps
Adaptive governance could help earn social license of digital contact tracing apps as a way of managing COVID-19, authors say in this Policy Forum. (2020-11-12)

Wound-healing biomaterials activate immune system for stronger skin
Researchers at Duke University and the University of California, Los Angeles, have developed a biomaterial that significantly reduces scar formation after a wound, leading to more effective skin healing. This new material, which quickly degrades once the wound has closed, activates an adaptive immune response that can trigger regenerative wound healing, leaving behind stronger and healthier healed skin. (2020-11-09)

Ninety years of data shows global warming impacts on foundation of marine ecosystems
Phytoplankton are microscopic plants that underpin ocean productivity and provide 50% of the world's oxygen via photosynthesis. An investigation of a 90 year data set from a coastal station offshore from Sydney provides a unique opportunity to better predict the impact of global warming on future ocean phytoplankton communities, on biodiversity and ultimately fisheries production. (2020-11-01)

Groundbreaking study on trained immunity to fight cancer
An extensive international collaboration led by Prof. Willem Mulder Eindhoven University of Technology has developed a groundbreaking approach based on trained immunity of the innate immune system to help in the elimination of tumorous cells. The immunotherapy approach uses nanobiologics to help produce trained immunity cells from bone marrow. (2020-10-29)

AI and photonics join forces to make it easier to find 'new Earths'
By combining photonics with artificial intelligence, University of Sydney scientists have developed a sensor that will help decipher the 'twinkle' of stars and allow for Earth-based exploration of planets around distant stars. Their invention will be deployed in one of the world's largest telescopes at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. (2020-10-21)

CRISPR-induced immune diversification in host-virus populations
Just like humans, microbes have equipped themselves with tools to recognize and defend themselves against viral invaders. In a continual evolutionary battle between virus and host, CRISPR-Cas act as a major driving force of strain diversity in host-virus systems. (2020-10-19)

How consumers responded to COVID-19
The coronavirus pandemic has been a catalyst for laying out the different threats that consumers face, and that consumers must prepare themselves for a constantly shifting landscape moving forward. A new study sets a framework for researchers to explore these topics and identify the needs of consumers during disruptive times. (2020-10-12)

NYUAD researchers discover immune evasion strategy used by Malaria-causing parasite
A team of researchers at NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) has found that the Plasmodium parasite, which transmits malaria to humans through infected mosquitos, triggers changes in human genes that alter the body's adaptive immune response to malarial infections. (2020-10-09)

The propagation of admixture-derived evolutionary potential
Adaptive radiation - the rapid evolution of many new species from a single ancestor - is a major focus in evolutionary biology. Adaptive radiations often show remarkable repeatability where lineages have undergone multiple episodes of adaptive radiation in distant places and at various points in time - implying their extraordinary evolutionary potential. (2020-10-07)

The number and clonality of TCRs are associated with the prognosis of colorectal cancer
This study has used a new technique called 'T-cell receptor (TCR) immuno-sequencing', which allows us to obtain both the number of T lymphocytes that infiltrate the tumor and their clonality index. (2020-10-06)

A timeline on the evolution of reptiles
A statistical analysis of that vast database is helping scientists better understand the evolution of these cold-blooded vertebrates by contradicting a widely held theory that major transitions in evolution always happened in big, quick (geologically speaking) bursts, triggered by major environmental shifts. (2020-10-06)

Deep-brain imaging at synaptic resolution with adaptive optics 2-photon endomicroscopy
Recognizing the need for improved imaging capabilities, a group of scientists from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) focused their sights on achieving brain imaging at synaptic resolution. (2020-10-06)

Gemini South's high-def version of 'A Star is Born'
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope is still more than a year from launching, but the Gemini South telescope in Chile has provided astronomers from Rice University and Dublin City University a glimpse of what the orbiting observatory should deliver. (2020-10-05)

Looking sharp: Most detailed image yet of famous stellar nursery
Astronomers using the international Gemini Observatory, a Program of NSF's NOIRLab, have captured the western wall of the Carina Nebula in unprecedented detail in a compelling image released today. The image reveals a number of unusual structures in the nebula. The exquisite detail revealed in the image is in part due to a technology known as adaptive optics, which resulted in a ten-fold improvement in the sharpness of the research team's observations. (2020-10-05)

Scale-adaptive auto-context-guided fetal US segmentation with structured random forests
https://doi.org/10.15212/bioi-2020-0016 Announcing a new article publication for BIO Integration journal. In this article the authors Xin Yang, Haoming Li, Li Liu, and Dong Ni from Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China and Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China consider Scale-adaptive Auto-context-guided Fetal US Segmentation with Structured Random Forests. (2020-10-02)

Innovative model improves Army human-agent teaming
Army researchers developed a novel computational model for gathering cognitive data that may be a game changer in the fields of neuroscience and econometrics, and has broad relevance to networked and multi-agent systems. (2020-09-30)

Screen time can change visual perception -- and that's not necessarily bad
The coronavirus pandemic has shifted many of our interactions online, with Zoom video calls replacing in-person classes, work meetings, conferences and other events. Will all that screen time damage our vision? Maybe not. It turns out that our visual perception is highly adaptable, according to research from Psychology Professor and Cognitive and Brain Sciences Coordinator Peter Gerhardstein's lab at Binghamton University. (2020-09-30)

Cells sacrifice themselves to boost immune response to viruses
Whether flu or coronavirus, it can take several days for the body to ramp up an effective response to a viral infection. New research appearing in the journal Nature Immunology describes how different cells in the immune system work together, communicate, and - in the case of cells called neutrophils - bring about their own death to help fight off infections. The findings could have important implications for the development of vaccines and anti-viral therapies. (2020-09-30)

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