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Current Adaptive News and Events, Adaptive News Articles.
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OU-led study aims to use microbial information to inform global climate change models
A study led by researchers from the OU Institute of Environmental Genomics tackles a problem that has challenged scientists for more than a decade. The findings from which may have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate warming. (2020-09-29)

Bioelectronic device achieves unprecedented control of cell membrane voltage
Every living cell maintains a voltage across the cell membrane that results from differences in the concentrations of charged ions inside and outside the cell. In an impressive proof-of-concept demonstration, an interdisciplinary team of scientists has developed a bioelectronic system driven by a machine learning algorithm that can shift the membrane voltage in living cells and maintain it at a set point for 10 hours. (2020-09-24)

Modeling future COVID-19 cases under a variety of immune responses, and with or without vaccines
Researchers who adapted standard epidemiological models to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic trajectory might unfold in the next five years report diverse scenarios ranging from recurring severe epidemics to elimination. (2020-09-21)

T cells take the lead in controlling SARS-CoV-2 and reducing COVID-19 disease severity
A multi-layered, virus-specific immune response is important for controlling SARS-CoV-2 during the acute phase of the infection and reducing COVID-19 disease severity, with the bulk of the evidence pointing to a much bigger role for T cells than antibodies. A weak or uncoordinated immune response, on the other hand, predicts a poor disease outcome. (2020-09-16)

Immunotherapy: Enhancing the therapeutic effectiveness of photothermal cancer treatments
Immune checkpoint blockade is the most promising therapy mode of cancer immunotherapy. But the therapeutic efficiency remains low mainly due to immunosuppression. Near-infrared light can be used to stimulate black phosphorus to produce heat, which can then be a specific immunological stimulator for reversing immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. The light-induced black phosphorus (BP) nanosystem,combined with anti-CD47 antibody offers significant synergistic antitumor effect and activates local and systemic anti-tumor immunity. (2020-09-15)

TRESK regulates brain to track time using sunlight as its cue
Research from the University of Kent has found that TRESK, a calcium regulated two-pore potassium channel, regulates the brain's central circadian clock to differentiate behaviour between day and night. (2020-09-14)

Romantic partners influence each other's goals
Over the long-term, what one partner in a two-person relationship wishes to avoid, so too does the other partner -- and what one wants to achieve, so does the other. These effects can be observed regardless of gender, age and length of the relationship, as researchers from the University of Basel report in a study of more than 450 couples. (2020-09-08)

Comprehensive look at US fuel economy standards show big savings on fuel and emissions
In one of the first comprehensive assessments of the fuel economy standards in the US, researchers found that, over their 40-year history, the standards helped reduce reliance on foreign oil producers, saved $5 trillion in fuel costs and prevented 14 billion metric tons of carbon from being released into the atmosphere. The standards (known as CAFE standards), first enacted to reduce foreign oil dependence, were cost-effective, fair, durable and adaptive, the researchers found. (2020-09-03)

Hearing loss in naked mole-rats is an advantage, not a hardship
With six mutations in genes associated with hearing, naked mole-rats can barely hear the constant squeaking they use to communicate with one another. This hearing loss, which is strange for such social, vocal animals, is an adaptive, beneficial trait, according to new findings published in the journal Current Biology. (2020-09-03)

Expanding researchers' knowledge of the microbial defense toolkit
A new study identifies a wide array of previously unknown molecular functions and enzymatic activities microbes use to protect against viral threats. (2020-08-27)

Detailed map of natural killer cells in COVID-19 patients expands understanding of innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2
A new study of 27 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has provided a detailed map of natural killer (NK) cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, revealing that specific characteristics of NK cell activation associate with different levels of disease severity. (2020-08-21)

Early NK cell-mediated immune response may contribute to severe COVID-19
Researchers may have come one step closer toward understanding how the immune system contributes to severe COVID-19. In a study published in Science Immunology, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden show that so-called natural killer (NK) cells were strongly activated early after SARS-CoV-2 infection but that the type of activation differed in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. The discovery contributes to our understanding of development of hyperinflammation in some patients. (2020-08-21)

Flu vaccine induces short-lived bone marrow plasma cells, limiting vaccination longevity
Influenza-specific bone marrow plasma cells - responsible for maintaining the level of protective antibodies following a flu shot - are short-lived, and decline to their pre-vaccination levels within a year, researchers report. (2020-08-13)

Adaptive mutations repeat themselves in tiny crustaceans of Lake Baikal
Researchers showed that parallel evolution driven by adaptations can be detected at the whole-genome level. Lake Baikal is home to hundreds of species of endemic amphipods that evolved from several species in their distant ancestry and embrace a variety of ecological niches from predators to planktonic forms and parasites. Parallels were found even between forms with totally different lifestyles. (2020-08-10)

New study sheds light on evolution of hell ants from 100 million years ago
An international research team co-led by Prof. WANG Bo from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology (NIGPAS) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has confirmed the special trap-jaw predation mechanism of hell ants, providing new insights into their evolution. (2020-08-06)

Massey scientist suggests COVID-19 should be treated as an acute inflammatory disease
The COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental effects on global infrastructure sectors, including economic, political, health care, education and research systems, and there is still no definitive treatment strategy for the disease. A team of scientists, including VCU Massey Cancer Center researcher Masoud Manjili, D.V.M., Ph.D., conducted a comprehensive analysis of worldwide COVID-19 data to identify key strategies moving forward to develop effective therapeutics. (2020-08-05)

Remote islands: Stepping stones to understanding evolution
In a new study published in Evolution, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and collaborators from the University of the Ryukyus investigated evolutionary and ecological changes in ants in the South Pacific archipelago of Fiji to examine a controversial theory for how evolution occurs on islands. (2020-07-30)

Loss of adaptive immunity helps deep sea anglerfish fuse with their mates
The discovery of altered adaptive immunity in anglerfish helps explain how the creatures are able to temporarily or permanently fuse with their mates without experiencing immune rejection. (2020-07-30)

Immune functions traded in for reproductive success
Researchers at the MPI of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg, Germany, and the University of Washington in Seattle, USA, for the first time, investigate the phenomenon of sexual parasitism in deep-sea anglerfish. The scientists show that this very rare mode of reproduction is associated with the loss of adaptive immunity. In the course of evolution, however, the animals have reorganized their immune systems and only survive with the help of their innate immunity. (2020-07-30)

Silicon core fishbone waveguide extends frequency comb
It is difficult to make very wide frequency combs from silicon waveguides, but clever waveguide engineering may be about to make that task a bit easier. (2020-07-23)

Perspective: T cell responses to COVID-19 are a crucial target for research
While early research on the adaptive immune response to COVID-19 primarily looked at antibodies, more information is now emerging on how T cells react to the SARS-CoV-2 virus - addressing a crucial knowledge gap, say Daniel Altmann and Rosemary Boyton in a new Perspective. (2020-07-17)

Analysis of immune responses in COVID-19 patients identifies defining features of severe disease
An analysis of immune responses in 42 COVID-19 patients, both infected and recovered, identified immune signatures that distinguish severe COVID-19 cases. Notably, the analysis features insights not only into adaptive immune cell responses, but also those of innate immune cells responding to the virus. (2020-07-15)

Study finds that special filters in glasses can help the color blind see colors better
A new UC Davis Eye Center study, conducted in collaboration with France's INSERM Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute, found that special patented glasses engineered with technically advanced spectral notch filters enhance color vision for those with the most common types of red-green color vision deficiency ('anomalous trichromacy'). Notably, the ability to identify and experience expanded color was also demonstrated when color blind test subjects were not wearing the glasses. (2020-07-13)

Evolutionary biologists find several fish adapt in the same way to toxic water
Several species of fish have adapted to harsh environments using the same mechanism, which brings to question evolutionary chance, according to a study by Kansas State University and Washington State University. (2020-07-08)

Did adaptive radiations shape reptile evolution?
A Harvard research team examined the largest data set of living and extinct major reptile groups to tackle the how adaptive radiations have shaped reptile evolution. Using DNA information from modern species and anatomical features from modern and fossil species, the study detected periods of fast anatomical change during the origin of reptile groups often predate when those groups diversified into hundreds or thousands of species, contradicting ideas of adaptive radiation in evolution biology. (2020-07-03)

DynamX Bioadaptor, a novel 'uncaging' platform for coronary artery revascularisation
Drug Eluting Stents (DES) are the mainstay of coronary artery disease treatment. Although DES design iterations have reduced MACE in the first year after PCI, beyond 1-year, a persistent 2-3% annualized event rate without plateau is observed. The DynamXâ„¢ Novolimus-Eluting Coronary Bioadaptor System is a 71 micron thin, cobalt-chromium platform with a novel ''uncaging'' mechanism of the circumferential rings after 6 months while maintaining axial links following uncaging. (2020-06-25)

Plug-and-play lens simplifies adaptive optics for microscopy
Researchers have developed a new plug-and-play device that can add adaptive optics correction to commercial optical microscopes. Adaptive optics can greatly improve the quality of images acquired deep into biological samples, but has, until now, been extremely complex to implement. (2020-06-24)

Graphene smart textiles developed for heat adaptive clothing
New research on the two-dimensional (2D) material graphene has allowed researchers to create smart adaptive clothing which can lower the body temperature of the wearer in hot climates. (2020-06-18)

How the giant sequoia protects itself
A three-dimensional network of fibers makes the bark resistant to fire and rock fall. (2020-06-17)

Doing more with terahertz: Simplifying near-infrared spectroscopy systems
Researchers from Beihang University, China, and Tokushima University, Japan, have developed a terahertz spectroscopy scheme that offers outstanding resolution using a single laser. (2020-06-08)

Sea snakes have been adapting to see underwater for 15 million years
A study led by the University of Plymouth (UK) has for the first time provided evidence of where, when and how frequently species have adapted their ability to see in color. (2020-05-28)

The evolutionary puzzle of the mammalian ear
How could the tiny parts of the ear adapt independently to the diverse functional and environmental regimes encountered in mammals? A group of researchers from the University of Vienna and the Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research proposed a new explanation for this puzzle. They suggest that the incorporation of the bones of the primary jaw joint into the ear has considerably increased the genetic, regulatory, and developmental complexity of the mammalian ear. (2020-05-27)

ADHD: genomic analysis in samples of Neanderthals and modern humans
The frequency of genetic variants associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has decreased progressively in the evolutionary human lineage from the Palaeolithic to nowadays, according to a study published in the journal Scientific Reports. (2020-05-27)

Indigenous collaboration and leadership key to managing sea otter population recovery
A new study highlights the need to engage Indigenous communities in managing sea otter population recovery to improve coexistence between humans and this challenging predator. (2020-05-21)

Ecosystem diversity drives the origin of new shark and ray species
Biologists how different oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of California and the Baja California Peninsula influenced formation of new species of sharks and rays. (2020-05-19)

Intent defined optical network for intelligent operation and maintenance
Traditionally, the operation and maintenance of optical networks rely on the experience of engineers to configure network parameters, involving command-line interface, middle-ware scripting, and troubleshooting. However, with the emerging of B5G/6G applications, the traditional configuration cannot meet the new requirement of real-time automatic configuration. Researchers propose an intent defined optical network (IDON) architecture toward artificial intelligence-based optical network automated operation and maintenance against service objective, by introducing a self-adapted generation and optimization (SAGO) policy. (2020-05-19)

Mindfulness training shows promise for people with MS
New research suggests mindfulness training may help multiple sclerosis patients in two very different ways: regulating negative emotions and improving processing speed. People with MS who underwent the four-week mindfulness training not only improved more compared to those who did nothing - they also improved compared to those who tried another treatment, called adaptive cognitive training. (2020-05-18)

Astronomers confirm existence of two giant newborn planets in PDS 70 system
New direct images captured with W. M. Keck Observatory's upgraded adaptive optics system lead to the first independent confirmation of two protoplanets orbiting the star PDS 70. (2020-05-18)

Army researchers develop new ways to nudge the brain
For Army scientists, the goal of neuroscience research is pursuing the inner workings of the human brain to advance scientific understanding and improve Soldier performance. (2020-05-14)

Immune system discovery paves way to lengthen organ transplant survival
A new discovery in mice shows the innate immune system has 'memory,' previously thought to be a unique feature of the adaptive immune system. Blocking this memory prevented transplanted organs from being rejected, providing a way to more specific drugs that could lengthen organ transplant survival. (2020-05-08)

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