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The Milky Way may be swarming with planets with oceans and continents like here on Earth
According to a new study from the University of Copenhagen, Earth, Venus and Mars were created from small dust particles containing ice and carbon. The discovery opens up the possibility that the Milky Way may be filled with aquatic planets. (2021-02-22)

Proper fit of face masks is more important than material, study suggests
A team of researchers studying the effectiveness of different types of face masks has found that in order to provide the best protection against COVID-19, the fit of a mask is as important, or more important, than the material it is made of. (2021-02-11)

Cost-effective hood reduces aerosol exposures to patients, otolaryngologists
The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to cause dramatic shifts in the practice of otolaryngology. In an effort to mitigate exposure to these airborne particles, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) designed and tested a prototype nasolaryngoscopy hood, worn by the patient that offers safe and effective protection in reducing aerosols exposures. (2020-12-23)

Covering faces around kids won't mask emotions
The proliferation of face coverings to keep COVID-19 in check isn't keeping kids from understanding facial expressions, according to a new study by University of Wisconsin-Madison psychologists. (2020-12-23)

Carbon fertilization effects are declining worldwide, limiting their role in climate change mitigation
The widely observed carbon fertilization effects on plant photosynthesis worldwide are declining, researchers report in a new study. (2020-12-10)

'Sparkling' clean water from nanodiamond-embedded membrane filters
Although most of the planet is covered by water, only a fraction of it is clean enough for humans to use. Therefore, it is important to recycle this resource whenever possible. Current purification techniques cannot adequately handle the very hot wastewater generated by some industries. But now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have embedded amine-enhanced nanodiamond particles into membranes to address this challenge. (2020-12-09)

Java's protective mangroves smothered by plastic waste
The mangrove forests on Java's north coast are slowly suffocating in plastic waste. The plastic problem in northeast Asia is huge and a growing threat to the region's mangroves; a natural alley against coastal erosion. Based on fieldwork published in Science of the Total Environment, NIOZ researcher Celine van Bijsterveldt shows that restoration of this green protection belt is impossible without better waste management (2020-12-07)

The climate changed rapidly alongside sea ice decline in the north
Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen have, in collaboration with Norwegian researchers in the ERC Synergy project, ICE2ICE, shown that abrupt climate change occurred as a result of widespread decrease of sea ice. This scientific breakthrough concludes a long-lasting debate on the mechanisms causing abrupt climate change during the glacial period. It also documents that the cause of the swiftness and extent of sudden climate change must be found in the oceans. (2020-12-04)

Recycled concrete could be a sustainable way to keep rubble out of landfi
Results of a new five-year study of recycled concrete show that it performs as well, and in several cases even better, than conventional concrete. Researchers at UBC Okanagan's School of Engineering conducted side-by-side comparisons of recycled and conventional concrete within two common applications--a building foundation and a municipal sidewalk. They found that the recycled concrete had comparable strength and durability after five years of being in service. (2020-11-30)

Teton range glacial ice may have persisted in a dormant state during early Holocene warming
A continuous 10,000-year record of alpine glacier fluctuations in Wyoming's Teton Range suggests that some glacial ice in the western US persisted in a reduced, essentially dormant state during periods of early Holocene warming. The findings challenge the paradigm that all Rocky Mountain glaciers completely disappeared during these warm, dry conditions, instead. (2020-11-18)

Magnetic spray: Giving inanimate objects new bionergy
Recently, researchers from the Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology (SIAT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, together with the City University of Hong Kong (CityU), have developed an agglutinate, reprogrammable, disintegrable and biocompatible magnetic spray (M-spray) that can easily turn inanimate objects into millirobots. (2020-11-18)

New technology allows more precise view of the smallest nanoparticles
Scientists have reported a new optical imaging technology, using a glass side covered with gold nanodiscs that allows them to monitor changes in the transmission of light and determine the characteristics of nanoparticles as small as 25 nanometers in diameter. (2020-11-16)

Modelling microswimmers for drug delivery
An international group of theoretical physicists led by Abdallah Daddi-Moussa-Ider from Düsseldorf, Germany, has modelled the motion of microscopic, motile bodies - either powered micro-machines or living cells - in viscous liquid drops, using the Navier-Stokes equations. This work, which has applications in materials science and medicine, is now published in EPJ E. (2020-11-11)

Rivers melt Arctic ice, warming air and ocean
A new study shows that increased heat from Arctic rivers is melting sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and warming the atmosphere. (2020-11-06)

Researchers analyze studies of interventions to prevent violence against children
Numerous studies have examined interventions aimed at preventing violence against children. A recent analysis reveals various gaps not adequately addressed by these studies. (2020-10-21)

Media's reporting on gun violence does not reflect reality, study finds
When looking at media reports in three cities, half of victims were covered in the news, but a disproportionate amount of attention was given to less common circumstances and victims. (2020-10-19)

AI taught to rapidly assess disaster damage so humans know where help is needed most
Researchers trained an AI to assess post-disaster building damage just by looking at aerial images of the aftermath. (2020-09-30)

News coverage in Chicago disproportionately devalues Black and Hispanic lives
Social scientists found that homicide victims killed in Chicago's predominantly Black and Hispanic neighborhoods received less news coverage than those killed in mostly white neighborhoods. (2020-09-22)

Momentum of unprecedented Chilean uprising stalled by COVID-19 pandemic
The uprising that erupted in fall 2019 in Chile against the post-dictatorship government may be diminished by the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, according to faculty at Binghamton University, State University of New York. (2020-09-17)

A better model for predicting death by heat in nature?
A mathematical model that better accounts for temperature impacts from duration of exposure is helping scientists improve their grasp of how future climate warming will affect the survival of natural Drosophila populations. (2020-09-03)

Rock debris protects glaciers from climate change more than previously known
A new study which provides a global estimate of rock cover on the Earth's glaciers has revealed that the expanse of rock debris on glaciers, a factor that has been ignored in models of glacier melt and sea level rise, could be significant. (2020-08-05)

Medicare Part D favors generic prescription drugs over branded counterparts, study finds
Published this week in Health Affairs, the study led by Stacie Dusetzina, PhD, Ingram Associate Professor of Cancer Research and associate professor of Health Policy, compared Medicare Part D coverage of more than 1,360 pairs of generic and brand-name drugs. The analysis found 0.9% of plans covered only the brand name drug in 2019, compared to about 84% of plans covering only the generic drug. Roughly 15% of plans covered both the generic and brand-name version. (2020-08-05)

Nanostructures modeled on moth eyes effective for anti-icing
Researchers have been working for decades on improving the anti-icing performance of functional surfaces and work published in AIP Advances investigates a unique nanostructure, modeled on moth eyes, that has anti-icing properties. Moth eyes are of interest because they have a distinct ice-phobic and transparent surface. The researchers fabricated the moth eye nanostructure on a quartz substrate that was covered with a paraffin layer to isolate it from a cold and humid environment. (2020-08-04)

A call to arms: Enlisting private land owners in conservation
In 1872 the United States created Yellowstone, the first National Park in the world. Since then many more parks, monuments, preserves, wildernesses and other protected areas have been created in the USA. Protected areas, like Yellowstone, are invaluable, but are they actually effective at preserving endangered species? And if not, how can future protected areas do better? (2020-07-17)

Graduates of family medicine residencies are likely to enter and remain in family medicine
This study provides an overview of the characteristics of physicians who completed family medicine residency training from 1994 to 2017. It serves to update the only previous comprehensive national review of this kind, conducted in 1996, which covered family medicine graduates from 1969 through 1993. (2020-07-14)

Rochester researchers unlock clues to a dramatic chapter of Earth's geological history
How could the planet be covered entirely in ice--a state known as 'Snowball Earth'--and still give rise to multicellular life? The transition to such icy periods may not have been as abrupt as previously thought, new research from the University of Rochester shows. (2020-06-15)

High workload for ICU nurses may increase risk of organ failure for patients
For patients admitted to the intensive care unit in a hospital in Finland, increased workload for nurses and understaffing of nurses were linked with a higher likelihood that patients would experience multiple organ failure. The findings are published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing. (2020-06-03)

Insurers should be willing to negotiate coronavirus claims to avoid courts being overwhelmed, study
Insurers should be open to negotiating coronavirus claims to avoid courts becoming overwhelmed with disputes, a new study warns. (2020-06-02)

The effectiveness of a heating system is validated, heating air from solar radiation
The device, which takes advantage of heat generated on the outer layer of building facades, could cover the heating required to ventilate a building for up to 75% of the days in a cold season. (2020-05-28)

Persistence of forages is dependent on harvest intervals
Research investigates effects of harvest intervals on alfalfa in southeastern United States. (2020-05-14)

Modeling gas diffusion in aggregated soils
Researchers develop soil-gas diffusivity model based on two agricultural soils. (2020-05-07)

Research reveals possibly active tectonic system on the Moon
Strange spots scattered across the Moon's nearside where bedrock is conspicuously exposed are evidence of seismic activity set in motion 4.3 billion years ago that could be ongoing today, the researchers say. (2020-04-30)

A Europe covered in grasslands or forests: innovation and research on climate models
An experiment to better understand how atmospheric variables respond to land use changes. For the first time, research in this field integrates nine different models: giving birth to a study that, with the CMCC Foundation's contribution within an international team, looks at increasingly advanced climate models to identify concrete and effective strategies to tackle climate change. (2020-04-23)

Carbon emission scheme 'succeeding despite low prices'
A European Union (EU) programme aimed at reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has made significant progress despite low prices in carbon markets, according to a study at the Universities of Strathclyde and Pittsburgh. (2020-04-08)

A new record of deglaciations in last million years shows persistent role of obliquity pacing
Over the last million years, small variations in Earth's orbit continued to trigger and terminate global glaciations, throughout and after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, according to a new study, which presents a novel high-resolution record of the last 11 deglaciations. (2020-03-12)

Almost alien: Antarctic subglacial lakes are cold, dark and full of secrets
More than half of the planet's fresh water is in Antarctica. While most of it is frozen in the ice sheets, underneath the ice pools and streams of water flow into one another and into the Southern Ocean surrounding the continent. Understanding the movement of this water, and what is dissolved in it as solutes, reveals how carbon and nutrients from the land may support life in the coastal ocean. (2020-03-04)

Early Earth may have been a 'waterworld'
Kevin Costner, eat your heart out. New research shows that the early Earth, home to some of our planet's first lifeforms, may have been a real-life 'waterworld' -- without a continent in sight. (2020-03-02)

Most young women unhappy, stressed about their sex lives: Study
Half of young Australian women experience sexually-related personal distress, with one in five women having at least one female sexual dysfunction (FSD), new research by Monash University shows. (2020-02-23)

Earth's glacial cycles enhanced by Antarctic sea-ice
A 784,000 year climate simulation suggests that Southern Ocean sea ice significantly reduces deep ocean ventilation to the atmosphere during glacial periods by reducing both atmospheric exposure of surface waters and vertical mixing of deep ocean waters; in a global carbon cycle model, these effects led to a 40 ppm reduction in atmospheric CO2 during glacial periods relative to pre-industrial level, suggesting how sea ice can drive carbon sequestration early within a glacial cycle. (2020-02-17)

Tennessee infants exposed to hepatitis C at birth often not tested for virus
Most Tennessee infants exposed to hepatitis C at birth are not later tested to see if they acquired the virus, according to a study by researchers at Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt and the Vanderbilt Center for Child Health Policy. (2020-02-14)

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