Current Aerosols News and Events

Current Aerosols News and Events, Aerosols News Articles.
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Simply speaking while infected can potentially spread COVID-19
COVID-19 can spread from asymptomatic but infected people through small aerosol droplets in their exhaled breath. Most studies of the flow of exhaled air have focused on coughing or sneezing; however, speaking while near one another is also risky. In Physics of Fluids, scientists used smoke and laser light to study the flow of expelled breath near and around two people conversing in various relative postures commonly found in the service industry. (2021-02-23)

Human impact on solar radiation levels for decades
Based on the long-term Potsdam radiation time series, ETH Professor Martin Wild and his collaborators have shown that variations in the intensity of sunlight over decades are down to ultra-fine, man-made dirt particles in the atmosphere. (2021-02-18)

Researchers have proved that that ozone is effective in disinfecting Coronavirus
It is possible to destroy the virus within minutes by gaseous ozone, which can be produced synthetically indoors. The advantage of gaseous ozone over liquid disinfectants (such as alcohol and bleach) is its ability to treat entire rooms, including all objects found in it and hard-to-reach locations. (2021-02-17)

Record sunshine during first COVID-19 lockdown largely caused by unusual weather
Exceptional weather conditions were mainly responsible for high solar radiation, not the aerosol reduction due to the shutdown of industry and reduced traffic in the first lockdown / International research team continues to develop climate simulations that take into account influences of the COVID-19 pandemic. (2021-02-16)

The water surface is a fantastic place for chemical reactions
Using an advanced technique, scientists from the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research have demonstrated that a chemical reaction powered by light takes place ten thousand times faster at the air-water interface--what we usually call the water surface--than in the bulk of the water, even when the light has equivalent energy. This finding could help our understanding of the many important chemical and biological processes that take place at the water surface. (2021-02-15)

Combination of pine scent and ozone as super source of particulate emissions
Scientists have managed to figure out why conifer forests produce so many fine particles into the atmosphere. Aerosol particles are particularly abundant when ?-pinene, the molecule responsible for the characteristic pattern of pine trees reacts with atmospheric ozone. (2021-02-11)

Climate research: rapid formation of iodic particles over the Arctic
When sea ice melts and the water surface increases, more iodine-containing vapours rise from the sea. Scientists from the international research network CLOUD have now discovered that aerosol particles form rapidly from iodine vapours, which can serve as condensation nuclei for cloud formation. The CLOUD researchers, among them scientists from the Goethe University Frankfurt, fear a mutual intensification of sea ice melt and cloud formation, which could accelerate the warming of the Arctic and Antarctic. (2021-02-11)

Black carbon aerosols in Beijing become "slim"
Scientists observed evident decreases of black carbon aerosol (BC) loading in the atmosphere of urban Beijing since the implementation of China's Action Plan of Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in 2013. And the BC aerosols became ''slim'', appearing with smaller core sizes and less coatings. (2021-02-10)

Researchers unravel what makes someone a COVID-19 super-spreader
Researchers at Tulane University, Harvard University, MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital have learned that obesity, age and COVID-19 infection correlate with a propensity to breathe out more respiratory droplets -- key spreaders of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Their findings were published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (2021-02-10)

Advanced simulations reveal how air conditioning spreads COVID-19 aerosols
A restaurant outbreak in China was widely reported as strong evidence of airflow-induced transmission of COVID-19, but it lacked a detailed investigation about exactly how transmission occurred. In Physics of Fluids, researchers at the University of Minnesota report using advanced simulation methods to capture the complex flows that occur when the cold airflow from air conditioners interacts with the hot plume from a dining table and the transport of virus-loading particles within such flows. (2021-02-09)

Better understanding the reasons behind Arctic amplified warming
EPFL professor Julia Schmale is calling on scientists to conduct dedicated process studies and to share their data and research findings on Arctic warming. She stresses the importance of studying how aerosols and clouds interact, as these highly complex and poorly understood mechanisms play a key role in climate change, but are also strongly affected by it. According to her, the region is in rapid transition and scientists need to act to not run behind. (2021-02-08)

COVID-19: Schools urgently need guidelines on improving ventilation in classrooms
There is an urgent need for guidelines on how schools can use ventilation to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission in the classroom, according to doctors at Imperial College London and the headteacher of a secondary school in Pinner, Middlesex. (2021-02-05)

Iodine oxoacids drive rapid aerosol formation in pristine atmospheric areas
Iodine plays a bigger role than thought in rapid new particle formation (NPF) in relatively pristine regions of the atmosphere, such as along marine coasts, in the Arctic boundary layer or in the upper free troposphere, according to a new study. (2021-02-04)

COVID-19 lockdowns temporarily raised global temperatures
The lockdowns and reduced societal activity related to the COVID-19 pandemic affected emissions of pollutants in ways that slightly warmed the planet for several months last year, according to new research led by NCAR. The counterintuitive finding highlights the influence of airborne particles, or aerosols, that block incoming sunlight. (2021-02-02)

Microwaves used to deactivate coronavirus, flu, other aerosolized viruses
As the pandemic continues, scientists are increasingly focused on developing methods to assist in decontaminating surfaces and spaces. In Review of Scientific Instruments, researchers report on experimental tools capable of presenting electromagnetic waves to an aerosol mixture with the capability to vary power, energy, and frequency of the electromagnetic exposure. The researchers seek to better characterize the threshold levels of microwave energy needed to inactivate aerosolized viral particles and reduce their ability to spread infection. (2021-01-26)

How aerosols are formed
ETH Zurich researchers conducted an experiment to investigate the initial steps in the formation of aerosols. Their findings are now aiding efforts to better understand and model that process - for example, the formation of clouds in the atmosphere. (2021-01-14)

Extreme fire weather
When the Thomas Fire raged through Ventura and Santa Barbara counties in December 2017, Danielle Touma, at the time an earth science researcher at Stanford, was stunned by its severity. Burning for more than a month and scorching 440 square miles, the fire was then considered the worst in California's history. (2021-01-14)

Researchers find wildfire smoke is more cooling on climate than computer models assume
Many of the most advanced climate models simulate smoke that is darker, or more light absorbing, than what researchers see in observations. (2021-01-12)

Research shapes safe dentistry during Covid-19
Leading research at Newcastle University has been used to shape how dentistry can be carried out safely during the Covid-19 pandemic by mitigating the risks of dental aerosols. (2021-01-11)

New proposal for how aerosols drive increased atmospheric convection in thunderstorm clouds
High in the clouds, atmospheric aerosols, including anthropogenic air pollutants, increase updraft speeds in storm clouds by making the surrounding air more humid, a new study finds. (2020-12-31)

Plastic is blowing in the wind
The discovery of microplastics in the air above the ocean reveals the spread of this hazardous pollution. (2020-12-23)

Cost-effective hood reduces aerosol exposures to patients, otolaryngologists
The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to cause dramatic shifts in the practice of otolaryngology. In an effort to mitigate exposure to these airborne particles, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) designed and tested a prototype nasolaryngoscopy hood, worn by the patient that offers safe and effective protection in reducing aerosols exposures. (2020-12-23)

Hand-held device measures aerosols for coronavirus risk assessment
Understanding aerosol concentrations and persistence in public spaces can help determine infection risks. However, measuring these concentrations is difficult, requiring specialized personnel and equipment. Now, researchers demonstrate that a commercial hand-held particle counter can be used for this purpose and help determine the impacts of risk-reducing measures, like ventilation improvements. They describe the quick and easy, portable process in the journal Physics of Fluids. (2020-12-22)

New method for imaging exhaled breath could provide insights into COVID-19 transmission
A new method for visualizing breath that is exhaled while someone is speaking or singing could provide important new insights into how diseases such as COVID-19 spread and the effectiveness of face masks. (2020-12-21)

Coronavirus spread during dental procedures could be reduced with slower drill rotation
Researchers from Imperial College London and King's College London have found that careful selection and operation of dental drills can minimise the spread of COVID-19 through aerosols. (2020-12-17)

SARS-CoV-2-like particles very sensitive to temperature
A new study found that moderate temperature increases on glass surfaces broke down SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles structure, while humidity had very little impact. The findings suggest that as temperatures begin to drop, particles on surfaces will remain infectious longer. This is the first study to analyze the mechanics of the virus on an individual particle level, but the findings agree with large-scale observations of other coronaviruses that appear to infect more people during the winter. (2020-12-17)

The mask matters: How masks affect airflow, protection effectiveness
Even though it has been widely known that wearing a face mask will help mitigate the community spread of COVID-19, less is known regarding the specific effectiveness of masks in reducing the viral load in the respiratory tracts of those wearing them. In Physics of Fluids, researchers examined the effect of wearing a three-layer surgical mask on inspiratory airflows and the effects on the inhalation and deposition of ambient particles in the upper respiratory airways. (2020-12-15)

Urban land and aerosols amplify hazardous weather, steer storms toward cities
Urban landscapes and human-made aerosols have the potential to not only make gusts stronger and hail larger; they can also start storms sooner and even pull them toward cities, according to new research exploring the impact of urban development on hazardous weather. (2020-12-15)

Corona pandemic could be better tackled by reducing aerosol transmission.
Aerosols and their spread play an essential role in the transmission of COVID-19. However, the risk of transmission could be significantly reduced if more could be done to reduce indoor airborne viruses. The Working committee particulate matter (AAF) has therefore issued an statement with concrete recommendations. These include window ventilation, exhaust ventilation, air purification systems and CO2 measuring devices for indoor areas such as classrooms or transportation, and increased use of N95 and FFP2 masks. (2020-12-08)

Research reveals how airflow inside a car may affect COVID-19 transmission risk
A new study uses computer simulations to track airflows inside a car's passenger cabin, providing potential strategies -- some of them counterintuitive -- for reducing the risk of transmitting airborne diseases. (2020-12-04)

No nanoparticle risks found in field tests of spray sunscreens
People can continue using mineral-based aerosol sunscreens without fear of exposure to dangerous levels of nanoparticles or other respirable particulates, according to Penn State research published in the journal Aerosol Science and Engineering. (2020-12-02)

Airflow studies reveal strategies to reduce indoor transmission of COVID-19
At the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics, researchers presented a range of studies investigating the aerodynamics of infectious disease. Their results suggest strategies for lowering risk based on a rigorous understanding of how infectious particles mix with air in confined spaces. (2020-11-22)

Which particulate air pollution poses the greatest health risk?
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, together with colleagues from several other European institutions, have investigated whether particulate matter from certain sources can be especially harmful to human health. They found evidence that the amount of particulate matter alone is not the greatest health risk. Rather, it could be the so-called oxidative potential that makes particulate pollution so harmful. They are publishing their results today in the scientific journal Nature. (2020-11-18)

Reducing aerosol pollution without cutting carbon dioxide could make the planet hotter
Humans must reduce carbon dioxide and aerosol pollution simultaneously to avoid weakening the ocean's ability to keep the planet cool, new UC Riverside research shows. (2020-11-17)

Cutting emissions makes North Atlantic focus of ocean heat uptake under global warming
Scientists discover an obvious hemispheric asymmetry in Ocean Heat Undertake (OHU) under the low-emission scenario. In the long term, North Atlantic OHU keeps increasing and will become the main region of OHU. (2020-11-09)

New drug candidate for the treatment of COVID-19
Researchers from the University of Kent, the Goethe-University in Frankfurt am Main (Germany), and the Hannover Medical School (Germany) have identified a drug with the potential to provide a treatment for COVID-19. (2020-10-30)

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak investigation in meat processing plant suggests aerosol transmission in confined
The importance of maintaining high quality air flow to restrict transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in confined workspaces has been strongly indicated by the investigation of an outbreak of the virus at a German meat processing plant during May and June 2020. The study, published in EMBO Molecular Medicine, concluded that in such confined spaces where unfiltered air is recirculated at low rates of external air exchange, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur over distances of at least eight metres. (2020-10-28)

Video provides guidance on surgery to wean patients with COVID-19 off ventilators
A temporary tracheostomy can be essential for allowing a critically ill patient to come off a ventilator. A new article, with an accompanying video, published in the New England Journal of Medicine by clinicians at Massachusetts General Hospital offers valuable guidance on how to safely perform the procedure in patients with COVID-19. (2020-10-28)

Effective ventilation may be a key factor in preventing the spread of COVID-19
During the first wave of COVID-19, which paralyzed the world in spring, it was initially thought that effective hand washing and 2-meter social distancing would help prevent the highly contagious virus. Scientists, however, have now come to the conclusion that proper indoor ventilation is even more effective. (2020-10-20)

Report finds COVID-19 rate among dentists is less than one percent
Fewer than one percent of dentists nationwide were found to be COVID-19 positive, according to a first-of-its-kind report in the US based on data collected in June 2020. (2020-10-15)

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