Current Aerosols News and Events

Current Aerosols News and Events, Aerosols News Articles.
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How aerosols are formed
ETH Zurich researchers conducted an experiment to investigate the initial steps in the formation of aerosols. Their findings are now aiding efforts to better understand and model that process - for example, the formation of clouds in the atmosphere. (2021-01-14)

Extreme fire weather
When the Thomas Fire raged through Ventura and Santa Barbara counties in December 2017, Danielle Touma, at the time an earth science researcher at Stanford, was stunned by its severity. Burning for more than a month and scorching 440 square miles, the fire was then considered the worst in California's history. (2021-01-14)

Researchers find wildfire smoke is more cooling on climate than computer models assume
Many of the most advanced climate models simulate smoke that is darker, or more light absorbing, than what researchers see in observations. (2021-01-12)

Research shapes safe dentistry during Covid-19
Leading research at Newcastle University has been used to shape how dentistry can be carried out safely during the Covid-19 pandemic by mitigating the risks of dental aerosols. (2021-01-11)

New proposal for how aerosols drive increased atmospheric convection in thunderstorm clouds
High in the clouds, atmospheric aerosols, including anthropogenic air pollutants, increase updraft speeds in storm clouds by making the surrounding air more humid, a new study finds. (2020-12-31)

Plastic is blowing in the wind
The discovery of microplastics in the air above the ocean reveals the spread of this hazardous pollution. (2020-12-23)

Cost-effective hood reduces aerosol exposures to patients, otolaryngologists
The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to cause dramatic shifts in the practice of otolaryngology. In an effort to mitigate exposure to these airborne particles, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) designed and tested a prototype nasolaryngoscopy hood, worn by the patient that offers safe and effective protection in reducing aerosols exposures. (2020-12-23)

Hand-held device measures aerosols for coronavirus risk assessment
Understanding aerosol concentrations and persistence in public spaces can help determine infection risks. However, measuring these concentrations is difficult, requiring specialized personnel and equipment. Now, researchers demonstrate that a commercial hand-held particle counter can be used for this purpose and help determine the impacts of risk-reducing measures, like ventilation improvements. They describe the quick and easy, portable process in the journal Physics of Fluids. (2020-12-22)

New method for imaging exhaled breath could provide insights into COVID-19 transmission
A new method for visualizing breath that is exhaled while someone is speaking or singing could provide important new insights into how diseases such as COVID-19 spread and the effectiveness of face masks. (2020-12-21)

Coronavirus spread during dental procedures could be reduced with slower drill rotation
Researchers from Imperial College London and King's College London have found that careful selection and operation of dental drills can minimise the spread of COVID-19 through aerosols. (2020-12-17)

SARS-CoV-2-like particles very sensitive to temperature
A new study found that moderate temperature increases on glass surfaces broke down SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles structure, while humidity had very little impact. The findings suggest that as temperatures begin to drop, particles on surfaces will remain infectious longer. This is the first study to analyze the mechanics of the virus on an individual particle level, but the findings agree with large-scale observations of other coronaviruses that appear to infect more people during the winter. (2020-12-17)

The mask matters: How masks affect airflow, protection effectiveness
Even though it has been widely known that wearing a face mask will help mitigate the community spread of COVID-19, less is known regarding the specific effectiveness of masks in reducing the viral load in the respiratory tracts of those wearing them. In Physics of Fluids, researchers examined the effect of wearing a three-layer surgical mask on inspiratory airflows and the effects on the inhalation and deposition of ambient particles in the upper respiratory airways. (2020-12-15)

Urban land and aerosols amplify hazardous weather, steer storms toward cities
Urban landscapes and human-made aerosols have the potential to not only make gusts stronger and hail larger; they can also start storms sooner and even pull them toward cities, according to new research exploring the impact of urban development on hazardous weather. (2020-12-15)

Corona pandemic could be better tackled by reducing aerosol transmission.
Aerosols and their spread play an essential role in the transmission of COVID-19. However, the risk of transmission could be significantly reduced if more could be done to reduce indoor airborne viruses. The Working committee particulate matter (AAF) has therefore issued an statement with concrete recommendations. These include window ventilation, exhaust ventilation, air purification systems and CO2 measuring devices for indoor areas such as classrooms or transportation, and increased use of N95 and FFP2 masks. (2020-12-08)

Research reveals how airflow inside a car may affect COVID-19 transmission risk
A new study uses computer simulations to track airflows inside a car's passenger cabin, providing potential strategies -- some of them counterintuitive -- for reducing the risk of transmitting airborne diseases. (2020-12-04)

No nanoparticle risks found in field tests of spray sunscreens
People can continue using mineral-based aerosol sunscreens without fear of exposure to dangerous levels of nanoparticles or other respirable particulates, according to Penn State research published in the journal Aerosol Science and Engineering. (2020-12-02)

Airflow studies reveal strategies to reduce indoor transmission of COVID-19
At the 73rd Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics, researchers presented a range of studies investigating the aerodynamics of infectious disease. Their results suggest strategies for lowering risk based on a rigorous understanding of how infectious particles mix with air in confined spaces. (2020-11-22)

Which particulate air pollution poses the greatest health risk?
Researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, together with colleagues from several other European institutions, have investigated whether particulate matter from certain sources can be especially harmful to human health. They found evidence that the amount of particulate matter alone is not the greatest health risk. Rather, it could be the so-called oxidative potential that makes particulate pollution so harmful. They are publishing their results today in the scientific journal Nature. (2020-11-18)

Reducing aerosol pollution without cutting carbon dioxide could make the planet hotter
Humans must reduce carbon dioxide and aerosol pollution simultaneously to avoid weakening the ocean's ability to keep the planet cool, new UC Riverside research shows. (2020-11-17)

Cutting emissions makes North Atlantic focus of ocean heat uptake under global warming
Scientists discover an obvious hemispheric asymmetry in Ocean Heat Undertake (OHU) under the low-emission scenario. In the long term, North Atlantic OHU keeps increasing and will become the main region of OHU. (2020-11-09)

New drug candidate for the treatment of COVID-19
Researchers from the University of Kent, the Goethe-University in Frankfurt am Main (Germany), and the Hannover Medical School (Germany) have identified a drug with the potential to provide a treatment for COVID-19. (2020-10-30)

SARS-CoV-2 outbreak investigation in meat processing plant suggests aerosol transmission in confined
The importance of maintaining high quality air flow to restrict transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in confined workspaces has been strongly indicated by the investigation of an outbreak of the virus at a German meat processing plant during May and June 2020. The study, published in EMBO Molecular Medicine, concluded that in such confined spaces where unfiltered air is recirculated at low rates of external air exchange, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur over distances of at least eight metres. (2020-10-28)

Video provides guidance on surgery to wean patients with COVID-19 off ventilators
A temporary tracheostomy can be essential for allowing a critically ill patient to come off a ventilator. A new article, with an accompanying video, published in the New England Journal of Medicine by clinicians at Massachusetts General Hospital offers valuable guidance on how to safely perform the procedure in patients with COVID-19. (2020-10-28)

Effective ventilation may be a key factor in preventing the spread of COVID-19
During the first wave of COVID-19, which paralyzed the world in spring, it was initially thought that effective hand washing and 2-meter social distancing would help prevent the highly contagious virus. Scientists, however, have now come to the conclusion that proper indoor ventilation is even more effective. (2020-10-20)

Report finds COVID-19 rate among dentists is less than one percent
Fewer than one percent of dentists nationwide were found to be COVID-19 positive, according to a first-of-its-kind report in the US based on data collected in June 2020. (2020-10-15)

New study shows which medical procedures pose COVID-19 risk to health-care providers
Autopsy, airway suctioning and cardiopulmonary resuscitation are among the list of medical procedures that pose a risk of spreading COVID-19 from a patient to their health-care provider by creating aerosols, according to new research published in the journal BMJ Open Respiratory Research. The team, led by UAlberta medicine professor Sebastian Straube, carried out a systematic review of public health guidelines, research papers and policy documents from around the globe to determine which procedures are classified as aerosol-generating. (2020-10-13)

A 2014 seal flu illustrates how avian flu viruses can adapt to spread between mammals
In a study appearing October 7, 2020 in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, researchers pinpoint the mammalian adaptation mutations that appeared during a deadly 2014 avian influenza outbreak in seals. They show that these mutations also made the virus transmissible via the air in ferrets and that similar mutations play a recurring and consistent role in making avian influenza viruses more transmissible between other mammal species. (2020-10-07)

Climate change could mean fewer sunny days for hot regions banking on solar power
Changes to regional climates brought on by global warming could make it so that areas such as the American Southwest that are currently considered ideal for solar power would be less viable in the future, a Princeton-based study suggests. Higher surface temperatures will lead to more moisture, aerosols and particulates in the atmosphere, which may result in less solar radiation and more cloudy days. The study is the first to assess the day-to-day reliability of solar energy under climate change. (2020-10-07)

New aerosol research indicates significantly less risk of COVID-19 transmission from
New research published in Anaesthesia (a journal of the Association of Anaesthetists) shows that these procedures may only produce a fraction of the aerosols previously thought, much less than would be produced during a single regular cough. This brings into question whether the procedures should be designated aerosol generating procedures and provides an opportunity to dramatically speed up surgery. (2020-10-06)

Revising climate models with new aerosol field data
Advanced field measurements of how quickly aerosol particles are pulled out of the air can help improve climate predictions - and air quality forecasts. (2020-10-06)

Dust dampens albedo effect, spurs snowmelt in the heights of the Himalayas
Dust blowing onto high mountains in the western Himalayas is a bigger factor than previously thought in hastening the melting of snow there, researchers show in a study published Oct. 5 in Nature Climate Change. That's because dust - lots of it in the Himalayas - absorbs sunlight, heating the snow that surrounds it. (2020-10-05)

Letter from leading researchers urges terminology update, shift in COVID-19 guidance
Scientists affiliated with leading research institutions across the United States state in a letter published Monday in the journal Science that researchers across disciplines must converge to deliver clear public health guidance about how SARS-CoV-2 is spread in the air. (2020-10-05)

Climate: Iodic acid influences cloud formation at the North Pole
An international team of scientists from EPFL, the Paul Scherrer Institute and Stockholm University has identified a novel driver of new aerosol particle formation in the Arctic during the summer to fall transition. The authors show that iodic acid is important for forming new particles which subsequently influence the formation of clouds and their radiative effect over the Arctic pack ice. (2020-10-01)

Conversation quickly spreads droplets inside buildings
With implications for the transmission of diseases like COVID-19, researchers have found that ordinary conversation creates a conical 'jet-like' airflow that quickly carries a spray of tiny droplets from a speaker's mouth across meters of an interior space. (2020-09-29)

China's air pollutant reduction success could make it tougher to control climate change
China's success in improving air quality by cutting polluting emissions may have a negative knock-on effect on climate change overall, a new study has found. (2020-09-29)

Nasal calcium rich salts show reduction of exhaled aerosol particles up to 99%
In a paper published in Molecular Frontiers Journal, researchers from Cambridge, Massachusetts have discovered a more effective way of eliminating airborne particles from airways using nasal calcium-rich salts called FEND, which have potential applications in the fight against Covid-19. (2020-09-29)

Are China's pollution remediation efforts making the planet warmer?
A 10-year effort by China to improve air quality and reduce pollution-related health risks has caused warming in areas across the northern hemisphere, according to new work published in Environmental Research Letters. (2020-09-29)

Many ventilation systems may increase risk of COVID-19 exposure, study suggests
Ventilation systems in many modern office buildings, which are designed to keep temperatures comfortable and increase energy efficiency, may increase the risk of exposure to the coronavirus, particularly during the coming winter, according to research published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics. (2020-09-29)

Unexpected wildfire emission impacts air quality worldwide
During wildfires, nitrous acid plays a leading role--spiking to levels significantly higher than scientists expected, driving increased ozone pollution and harming air quality, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder and the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. (2020-09-21)

Accurate labels like 'aerosol' or 'chemicals' increase perceived risks of e-cigarette use
Researchers at George Mason University found that students perceived e-cigarette emissions to be more harmful when accurate labels such as 'chemicals' and 'aerosols' were used to describe emissions, compared to tobacco industry coined jargon like 'vapor.' Students who viewed questions about 'aerosol' or 'chemical' were more likely to perceive secondhand exposure to e-cigarettes to be 'harmful/very harmful.' Further, students who perceived greater harmfulness from e-cigarette exposure were more likely to support a tobacco-free campus policy. (2020-09-16)

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