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Researchers speed up analysis of Arctic ice and snow data through AI
Professors at University of Maryland, Baltimore County have developed an artificial intelligence technique to quickly analyze newly collected data based on Arctic ice and snow thickness. Researchers previously analyzed these data manually; this AI will assist them by automating how they detect and analyze patterns in the thickness of the ice. Climate change necessitates a rapid understanding of new developments in the Arctic ice, and this tool provides a faster solution. (2021-01-12)

Computer scientists: We wouldn't be able to control super intelligent machines
We are fascinated by machines that can control cars, compose symphonies, or defeat people at chess, Go, or Jeopardy! While more progress is being made all the time in Artificial Intelligence (AI), some scientists and philosophers warn of the dangers of an uncontrollable superintelligent AI. Using theoretical calculations, an international team of researchers, including scientists from the Center for Humans and Machines at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, shows that it would not be possible to control a superintelligent AI. (2021-01-11)

Scientists identify workflow algorithm to predict psychosis
Cleverly combining artificial and human intelligence leads to improved prevention of psychosis in young patients (2021-01-09)

Advanced materials in a snap
A research team at Sandia National Laboratories has successfully used machine learning -- computer algorithms that improve themselves by learning patterns in data -- to complete cumbersome materials science calculations more than 40,000 times faster than normal. (2021-01-05)

AI algorithms detect diabetic eye disease inconsistently
In a paper published Jan. 5 in Diabetes Care, researchers compared seven algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy against the diagnostic expertise of retina specialists. (2021-01-05)

Using artificial intelligence to find new uses for existing medications
Scientists have developed a machine-learning method that crunches massive amounts of data to help determine which existing medications could improve outcomes in diseases for which they are not prescribed. (2021-01-04)

DUAL takes AI to the next level
Scientists at DGIST in Korea, and UC Irvine and UC San Diego in the US, have developed a computer architecture that processes unsupervised machine learning algorithms faster, while consuming significantly less energy than state-of-the-art graphics processing units. The key is processing data where it is stored in computer memory and in an all-digital format. The researchers presented the new architecture, called DUAL, at the 2020 53rd Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture. (2020-12-30)

A new TanSat XCO2 global product for climate studies
The 1st Chinese carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring satellite mission, TanSat, was launched in 2016. The 1st TanSat global map of CO2 dry-air mixing ratio (XCO2) measurements over land was released as version 1 data product with an accuracy of 2.11 ppmv (parts per million by volume) in 2017. A new (version 2) TanSat global XCO2 product is now released. (2020-12-24)

A full blood count of COVID-19 patients can predict disease severity
International research led by the Radboud university medical center shows that a full blood count of COVID-19 patients predicts fairly accurately whether the infection will have a complicated course or not. This makes it easier for healthcare providers to estimate the expected clinical picture. This study, conducted in eleven hospitals, has now been published in the scientific journal eLife. (2020-12-21)

High-five or thumbs-up? New device detects which hand gesture you want to make
A new device developed by engineers at the University of California, Berkeley, can recognize hand gestures based on electrical signals detected in the forearm. The system, which couples wearable biosensors with artificial intelligence (AI), could one day be used to control prosthetics or to interact with almost any type of electronic device. (2020-12-21)

Machine intelligence accelerates research into mapping brains
Scientists in Japan's brain science project have used machine intelligence to improve the accuracy and reliability of a powerful brain-mapping technique, a new study reports. Their development, published on December 18th in Scientific Reports, gives researchers more confidence in using the technique to untangle the human brain's wiring and to better understand the changes in this wiring that accompany neurological or mental disorders such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. (2020-12-18)

Researchers deconstruct ancient Jewish parchment using multiple imaging techniques
Scientists in Romania used multiple, complementary imaging techniques to non-invasively study the composition of an aged Jewish parchment scroll. The various analyses can determine the types of materials used in the manuscript's manufacturing, providing historical context for objects of mysterious provenance. The research also offers insights into the item's degradation over time, including indications of previous repair attempts. All of this information helps conservators determine how best to restore such antiques to their original condition. (2020-12-18)

AI-supported test predicts eye disease three years before symptoms
A pioneering new eye test, developed by scientists at UCL in collaboration with the Western Eye Hospital, London, may predict wet AMD, a leading cause of severe sight loss, three years before symptoms develop, finds a new study in Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. (2020-12-18)

Tiny quantum computer solves real optimisation problem
Quantum computers have already managed to surpass ordinary computers in solving certain tasks - unfortunately, totally useless ones. The next milestone is to get them to do useful things. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have now shown that they can solve a small part of a real logistics problem with their small, but well-functioning quantum computer. (2020-12-17)

The 16 facial expressions most common to emotional situations worldwide
Whether at a birthday party in Brazil, a funeral in Kenya or protests in Hong Kong, humans all use variations of the same facial expressions in similar social contexts, according to a new study from the University of California, Berkeley. The findings confirm the universality of human emotional expression across geographic and cultural boundaries at a time when nativism is on the rise. (2020-12-16)

Method finds hidden warning signals in measurements collected over time
MIT researchers have developed a deep learning-based algorithm to detect anomalies in time series data. The technology could provide advance warning of potential failures in systems ranging from satellites to computer data centers. (2020-12-16)

Experts advocate responsible and transparent use of algorithms in government
Amsterdam, NL, December 14, 2020 - The use of algorithms in government is transforming the way bureaucrats work and make decisions in different areas, such as healthcare or criminal justice. Experts address the transparency challenges of using algorithms in decision-making procedures at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels in this special issue of Information Polity. (2020-12-14)

The video referee in the spotlight
Since the 2019/20 season, controversial referee calls in the English Premier League may be technically reviewed and, if deemed necessary, corrected. Using a Twitter analysis of 129 games in the English Premier League, a research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now determined how decisions made by video referees affect the mood of the fans. (2020-12-14)

Artificial intelligence improves control of powerful plasma accelerators
Researchers have used AI to control beams for the next generation of smaller, cheaper accelerators for research, medical and industrial applications. (2020-12-11)

New method to boost supply of life-saving stem cells
Researchers at the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona and Columbia University in New York City have found a new method for growing a large quantity of life-saving blood stem cells. The scarcity of these cells is one of the greatest limitations for their use in a variety of medical procedures, from treatment of blood cancers to inherited blood disorders that require a bone marrow transplantation. (2020-12-08)

Algorithms and automation: Making new technology faster and cheaper
Additive manufacturing (AM) machinery has advanced over time, however, the necessary software for new machines often lags behind. To help mitigate this issue, Penn State researchers designed an automated process planning software to save money, time and design resources. (2020-12-08)

Identifying markers of COVID-19 infection using blood tests
This study identifies the values for six biochemical biomarkers that indicate a patient may be infected with SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19). The key novelty of this study lies in the fact that it was carried out using a blood test and can provide a determination in about 60 minutes. (2020-12-04)

AI reduces computational time required to study fate of molecules exposed to light
Light-induced processes are critical in transformative technologies such as solar energy harvesting, as well as in photomedicine and photoresponsive materials. Theoretical studies of the dynamics of photoinduced processes require numerous electronic structure calculations, which are computationally expensive. Scientists from the University of Groningen developed machine learning-based algorithms, which reduce these computations significantly. The Open Source software package that they developed, PySurf, was presented in a paper in the Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. (2020-12-01)

ASM journals build mechanisms to promote gender equity
ASM journal editors and staff seek to improve gender equity after analysis shows that women are not only underrepresented but receive more negative outcomes. A new analysis of 80,000 manuscript submissions will guide new mechanisms to promote gender equity in the publishing process. (2020-12-01)

Teaching computers the meaning of sensor names in smart home
The UPV/EHU's IXA group has use natural language processing techniques to overcome one of the major difficulties associated with smart homes, namely that the systems developed to infer activities in one environment do not work when they are applied to a different one, because both the sensors and the activities are different. The group has come up with the innovative idea of using words to represent the activation of both sensors and human activity. (2020-11-30)

A tricky kidney puzzle
By analyzing the gene expression of single cells, algorithms are able to not only reconstruct their original location in the tissue, but also to determine details about their function. Teams led by Kai Schmidt-Ott and Nikolaus Rajewsky have published their findings in JASN, using the kidney as an example. (2020-11-27)

RUDN University research team of mathematicians suggested a new decision making algorithm
A research team from RUDN University developed an algorithm to help large groups of people make optimal decisions in a short time. They confirmed the efficiency of their model using the example of the market at which the outbreak of COVID-19 began. The model helped the administration and sellers agree on closing the market and reach a consensus about the sums of compensations in just three steps. (2020-11-25)

AI detects COVID-19 on chest x-rays with accuracy and speed
Northwestern University researchers have developed a new artificial intelligence (A.I.) platform that detects COVID-19 by analyzing X-ray images of the lungs. (2020-11-24)

Non-invasive electrolyte levels' measuring method can prevent sudden cardiac death
Researchers from Kaunas University of Technology (KTU), Lithuania came up with the idea on how to measure fluctuating blood potassium levels non-invasively, through electrocardiogram. The researchers claim that their method may become a digital biomarker in the future for managing electrolyte levels. This would be a huge step towards preventing potentially life-threatening conditions among people who suffer from chronic kidney disease. (2020-11-23)

COVID19 A research of Politecnico di Milano discovering the secrets of viral sequences
Use of an algorithm for computing viral mutations homogeneously across sources, using cloud computing. (2020-11-23)

Rensselaer-developed algorithm accurately predicts COVID-19 patient outcomes
In research recently published online in Medical Image Analysis, a team of engineers demonstrated how a new algorithm they developed was able to successfully predict whether or not a COVID-19 patient would need ICU intervention. This artificial intelligence-based approach could be a valuable tool in determining a proper course of treatment for individual patients. (2020-11-23)

Study: Countering hate on social media
The rise of online hate speech is a disturbing, growing trend in countries around the world, with serious psychological consequences and the potential to impact, and even contribute to, real-world violence. A new paper offers a framework for studying the dynamics of online hate and counter speech, and offers the first large-scale classification of millions of instances such interactions on Twitter. (2020-11-20)

Artificial intelligence-based tool may help diagnose opioid addiction earlier
Researchers have used machine learning, a type of artificial intelligence, to develop a prediction model for the early diagnosis of opioid use disorder. The advance is described in Pharmacology Research & Perspectives. (2020-11-18)

Driver behavior influences traffic patterns as much as roadway design, study reports
Urban planners may soon have a new way to measure traffic congestion. By capturing the different routes by which vehicles can travel between locations, researchers have developed a new computer algorithm that helps quantify regions of congestion in urban areas and suggests ways around them. (2020-11-17)

Drawing the line to answer art's big questions
Algorithms have shown that the compositional structure of Western landscape paintings changed 'suspiciously' smoothly between 1500 and 2000 AD, potentially indicating a selection bias by art curators or in art historical literature, physicists from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and colleagues report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). (2020-11-13)

CCNY & partners in quantum algorithm breakthrough
Researchers led by City College of New York physicist Pouyan Ghaemi report the development of a quantum algorithm with the potential to study a class of many-electron quantums system using quantum computers. Their paper, entitled ''Creating and Manipulating a Laughlin-Type ν=1/3 Fractional Quantum Hall State on a Quantum Computer with Linear Depth Circuits,'' appears in the December issue of PRX Quantum, a journal of the American Physical Society. (2020-11-13)

Novel deep learning method enables clinic-ready automated screening for diabetes-related eye disease
Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München together with LMU University Eye Hospital Munich and the Technical University of Munich (TUM) created a novel deep learning method that makes automated screenings for eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy more efficient. (2020-11-12)

Machine learning algorithm could provide Soldiers feedback
A new machine learning algorithm, developed with Army funding, can isolate patterns in brain signals that relate to a specific behavior and then decode it, potentially providing Soldiers with behavioral-based feedback. (2020-11-12)

Advancing fusion energy through improved understanding of fast plasma particles
PPPL scientists have developed a unique program to track the zig-zagging dance of hot, charged plasma particles that fuel fusion reactions. (2020-11-12)

New prediction algorithm identifies previously undetected cancer driver genes
A new study, led by researchers from the University of California, Irvine, has deepened the understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in tumorigenesis and revealed a previously undetected repertoire of cancer driver genes. The study was published this week in Science Advances. (2020-11-12)

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