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Current Amino Acid News and Events, Amino Acid News Articles.
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Intercontinental study sheds light on the microbial life of sourdough
In a study of 500 sourdough starters spanning four continents, scientists have garnered new insights into the environmental factors that contribute to each sourdough starter's microbial ecosystem, and how different types of microbes influence both a sourdough's aroma and how quickly the sourdough rises. The results may surprise sourdough enthusiasts. (2021-01-26)

Ocean toxin a heartbreaking threat for sea otters
Heart disease is a killer threat for southern sea otters feasting on domoic acid in their food web, according to a study led by the University of California, Davis. Climate change projections indicate that toxic blooms and domoic acid exposure will continue to rise. (2021-01-26)

Race plays a role in children's food allergies
Black children have significantly higher rates of shellfish and fish allergies than white children, confirming that race plays an important role in how children are affected by food allergies, researchers at Rush University Medical Center have found. (2021-01-26)

Efficient solid-state depolymerization of waste PET
Despite significant methodological and technological advancements in chemical recycling of synthetic polymers, an effective mechanochemical PET degradation has not yet been described in the scientific literature, until now! Vjekoslav Štrukil from the Rudjer Boskovic Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia, found that the challenging breakdown of waste PET under ambient conditions of temperature and pressure can be achieved by mechanochemical ball milling or vapor-assisted aging. (2021-01-25)

Novel molecules to combat asthma and covid-related lung diseases discovered
Australian researchers have made the extraordinary discovery of two molecules - one found in a commercially available dietary supplement - that provide profound protection in experimental models of asthma and can also substantially reduce the severity of asthma attacks. The molecules also appear to have a role in treating the respiratory illness that is often fatal in people with serious COVID-19. (2021-01-25)

Mapping mutations that escape antibodies against COVID-19 suggests prior mapping incomplete
A new approach to mapping viral mutations that 'escape' leading clinical antibodies has revealed mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 virus that allow it to evade treatments, including a single amino-acid mutation that fully escapes Regeneron's antibody cocktail. (2021-01-25)

ACSL1 as a main catalyst of CoA conjugation of propionic acid-class NSAIDs in liver
Researchers from Kanazawa University have found that propionic acid-class nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ibuprofen, form ''conjugates'' with coenzyme A (CoA) by one of the acyl-CoA synthetases, ACSL1, in liver. These conjugates have the covalent binding ability to cellular proteins that may lead to liver injury, a rare severe side effect of NSAID treatment. This knowledge could help pharmaceutical companies to generate pain control options with fewer risks of severe side effects. (2021-01-22)

Cargo delivery by polymers
Degradable, bio-based polymers offer options for chemical recycling, and they can be a tool to store and release useful molecules. Scientists have developed a class of sugar-based polymers that are degradable through acid hydrolysis. The researchers also integrated ''cargo'' molecules in the polymer, which are designed to split off after polymer degradation. Degradable, cargo-bearing polymers are important for medical and sensor applications, says the study published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2021-01-22)

Vegan diet significantly remodels metabolism in young children
University of Helsinki researchers report a comprehensive pilot study on the metabolic effects of full vegan diet on young children. The study found vegan children to have remarkably altered metabolism and lower vitamin A and D status compared to children with no special diet. (2021-01-21)

Scientists make pivotal discovery on mechanism of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection
Wistar Researchers have discovered a new enzymatic function of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) protein EBNA1, a critical factor in EBV's ability to transform human cells and cause cancer. Study provides new indications for inhibiting EBNA1 function, opening up fresh avenues for development of therapies to treat EBV-associated cancers. (2021-01-21)

New biochemical clues in cell receptors help explain how SARS-CoV-2 may hijack human cells
The SARS-CoV-2 virus may enter and replicate in human cells by exploiting newly-identified sequences within cell receptors, according to work from two teams of scientists. (2021-01-21)

Hope for a vaccination against Staphylococcus areus infections?
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ranks among the globally most important causes of infections in humans and is considered a dreaded hospital pathogen. Active and passive immunisation against multi-resistant strains is seen as a potentially valuable alternative to antibiotic therapy. However, all vaccine candidates so far have been clinically unsuccessful. With an epitope-based immunisation, scientists at Cologne University Hospital and the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF) have now described a new vaccination strategy against S. aureus in the Nature Partner Journal NPJ VACCINES. (2021-01-20)

Inflamed environment is C. diff paradise
A new study shows that the inflammation caused by Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) infection gives the pathogen a two-fold advantage: by both creating an inhospitable environment for competing bacteria and providing nutrients that enable C. diff to thrive. (2021-01-19)

Fatty acid may help combat multiple sclerosis
The abnormal immune system response that causes multiple sclerosis (MS) by attacking and damaging the central nervous system can be triggered by the lack of a specific fatty acid in fat tissue, according to a new Yale study. The finding suggests that dietary change might help treat some people with the autoimmune disease. (2021-01-19)

Not as simple as thought: How bacteria form membrane vesicles
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba identified a novel mechanism by which bacteria form membrane vesicles, which bacteria employ to communicate with each other or to defend themselves against antibiotics. By studying mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MCB), which also includes tuberculosis-causing bacteria, the researchers demonstrated that environmental stimuli dictate the route by which the MCB form membrane vesicles. Further, their observations were consistent among various MCB. This study has implications for vaccine development as well as novel therapies. (2021-01-14)

The regulatory network of sugar and organic acid in watermelon fruit is revealed
The innovation project watermelon and melon cultivation and physiology team of Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute has made new progress in the metabolism regulation of sugar and organic acid in watermelon fruit. (2021-01-14)

Moffitt researchers discover biochemical pathway that protects cells from ferroptosis
In an article published in Cell Metabolism, Moffitt Cancer Center researchers report on a newly discovered biochemical pathway that protects cells from a type of cell death called ferroptosis. (2021-01-14)

Model analyzes how viruses escape the immune system
MIT researchers have devised a way to computationally model viral escape, using models that were originally developed to model language. The model can predict which sections of viral surface proteins, including those of influenza, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2, are more likely to mutate in a way that allows the virus to evade the human immune system. It can also identify sections that are less likely to mutate, making them good targets for new vaccines. (2021-01-14)

Snakes evolve a magnetic way to be resistant to venom
Certain snakes have evolved a unique genetic trick to avoid being eaten by venomous snakes, according to University of Queensland research. Associate Professor Bryan Fry from UQ's Toxin Evolution Lab said the technique worked in a manner similar to the way two sides of a magnet repel each other. (2021-01-14)

Comprehensive characterization of vascular structure in plants
With funding from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, two teams of plant researchers and bioinformatics researchers under the leadership of Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (HHU) have succeeded for the first time in identifying the functions of the different cell types in the leaf vasculature of plants. They present their fundamental findings in the current edition of the journal ''The Plant Cell''. (2021-01-12)

The odd structure of ORF8: Mapping the coronavirus protein linked to disease severity
A team of biologists who banded together to support COVID-19 science determined the atomic structure of a coronavirus protein thought to help the pathogen evade and dampen response from human immune cells. The structural map - which is now published in the journal PNAS, but has been open-access for the scientific community since August - has laid the groundwork for new antiviral treatments and enabled further investigations into how the newly emerged virus ravages the human body. (2021-01-12)

Study identifies immune response biomarkers, novel pathways in four marine mollusc species
A new study involving the University of Maine assessed immune responses in four economically important marine mollusc species -- the blue mussel, soft-shell clam, Eastern oyster, and Atlantic jackknife clam -- and identified new biomarkers relating to changes in protein function involved in novel regulatory mechanisms of important metabolic and immunological pathways. (2021-01-12)

Carbon monoxide reduced to valuable liquid fuels
Rice engineers develop a reactor to produce liquid acetic acid directly from carbon monoxide. (2021-01-11)

Link between driver of ovarian cancer and metabolism opens up new therapeutic strategies
Wistar scientists found mutations that inactivate the ARID1A gene in ovarian cancer increase utilization of the glutamine amino acid making cancer cells dependent on glutamine metabolism. Researchers also showed that pharmacologic inhibition of glutamine metabolism may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for ARID1A-mutant ovarian cancer. (2021-01-11)

Singapore and US scientists uncover the structure of Wnt, Wntless proteins
Preventing Wnt from hitching a ride may offer new avenue for novel treatments for cancer and fibrosis. (2021-01-11)

Expanding the boundaries of CO2 fixation
Design and realization of synthetic enzymes open up an alternative to natural photorespiration (2021-01-09)

High-speed atomic force microscopy visualizes cell protein factories
Factor-pooling by ribosomes caught on video using state-of-art high-speed atomic force microscopy technology. (2021-01-08)

A subtle change in the DNA may predispose to polyneuropathy after gut infection
Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) identified a novel genetic variant associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). By analyzing the DNA sequence of patients with the disease, the researchers identified two novel variants of the ganglioside-binding protein Siglec-10 accumulated in the patients. They found that one of these variants impairs the function of the protein, predisposing carriers to the development of GBS. This study improves our understanding of the pathophysiology of GBS. (2021-01-07)

New drug form may help treat osteoporosis, calcium-related disorders
Purdue University innovators developed a stabilized form of human calcitonin, which is a peptide drug already used for people with osteoporosis. Researchers at Purdue created a prodrug form of the peptide hormone to increase its effectiveness as an osteoporosis treatment. (2021-01-06)

A plant's way to its favorite food
Nitrogen is one the most essential nutrients for plants. Its availability in the soil plays a major role in plant growth and development, thereby affecting agricultural productivity. Scientists at the IST Austria were now able to show, how plants adjust their root growth to varying sources of nitrogen. In a new study published in The EMBO Journal they give insights in the molecular pathways of roots adaptation. (2021-01-05)

Sweat, bleach and gym air quality
One sweaty, huffing, exercising person emits as many chemicals from their body as up to five sedentary people, according to a new University of Colorado Boulder study. And notably, those human emissions, including amino acids from sweat or acetone from breath, chemically combine with bleach cleaners to form new airborne chemicals with unknown impacts to indoor air quality. (2021-01-05)

Alpha-ray missile therapy: tumor cells attacked from intracellular region
Researchers from Osaka University have innovated a technique of irradiating cancer from within. They tagged α-methyl-L-tyrosine with 211Astatine, an α-emitter, to prepare 211At-AAMT; this radiopharmaceutical was effectively conveyed into cancer cells by the amino acid transporter LAT1. Alpha radiation combines high linear energy transfer with minimal tissue penetration, damaging cancer cells lethally while sparing surrounding normal tissue. This strategy may prove a breakthrough in the management of intractable or advanced cancers. (2021-01-04)

Supercapacitors challenge batteries
A team working with Roland Fischer, Professor of Inorganic and Metal-Organic Chemistry at the Technical University Munich (TUM) has developed a highly efficient supercapacitor. The basis of the energy storage device is a novel, powerful and also sustainable graphene hybrid material that has comparable performance data to currently utilized batteries. (2021-01-04)

Scientists turned toxic pesticide into treatment against antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Russian scientists from Kaliningrad and St. Petersburg have synthesized nitrogen-containing cyclic compounds that differ only in the relative position of side substituents. They are analogs of pesticides which are toxic and carcinogenic to humans, but the modifications allowed turning them into a powerful weapon against bacteria resistant to most antibiotics. (2020-12-29)

Switching DNA functions on and off by means of light
Biochemists at Münster University have developed a new strategy for controlling the biological functions of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) by means of light and therefore provide a tool to investigate processes which take place in cells. The results have been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2020-12-28)

TPU chemists convert plastic bottle waste into insecticide sorbent
Scientists of Tomsk Polytechnic University proposed a method to create a sorbent for imidacloprid insecticide removal from water. The sorbent belongs to metal-organic frameworks, a class of non-conventional materials. The TPU chemists grew such a framework right on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) used to produce regular plastic bottles. The method is quite simple and allows converting used materials into a useful product. The research findings are published in Applied Materials Today academic journal (IF: 8,352; Q1). (2020-12-23)

How a large protein complex assembles in a cell
A team of ETH researchers led by Karsten Weis has developed a method that allows them to study the assembly process for large protein complexes in detail for the first time. As their case study, the biologists chose one of the largest cellular complexes: the nuclear pore complex in yeast cells. (2020-12-22)

Researchers illuminate neurotransmitter transport using X-ray crystallography and molecular simulations
Scientists from the MIPT Research Center for Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-Related Diseases have joined forces with their colleagues from Jülich Research Center, Germany, and uncovered how sodium ions drive glutamate transport in the central nervous system. Glutamate is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter and is actively removed from the synaptic cleft between neurons by specialized transport proteins called excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). (2020-12-21)

Enhanced scorpion venom molecules can be used to treat Chagas disease
Brazilian researchers tested the antichagasic properties of VmCT1, obtained from the venom of Vaejovis mexicanus, a scorpion harmless to humans, and synthesized novel analogs to redesign the native molecule (2020-12-21)

How cancers hurt themselves to hurt immune cells more
A study of melanoma cells explains a puzzling response they exhibit to ward off T cell attacks. (2020-12-20)

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