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Current Amino Acids News and Events, Amino Acids News Articles.
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Study shows how tiny compartments could have preceded cells
Researchers used Argonne's Advanced Photon Source to study membraneless compartments as they underwent wet-dry cycles, shedding light on prebiotic Earth. (2020-10-27)

Neutrons chart atomic map of COVID-19's viral replication mechanism
To better understand how the novel coronavirus behaves and how it can be stopped, scientists have completed a three-dimensional map that reveals the location of every atom in an enzyme molecule critical to SARS-CoV-2 reproduction. Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory used neutron scattering to identify key information to improve the effectiveness of drug inhibitors designed to block the virus's replication mechanism. (2020-10-27)

New test method to standardize immunological evaluation of nucleic acid nanoparticles
Recent successes of several FDA-approved therapeutic nucleic acids, together with the rapid preclinical progression of nucleic acid nanoparticles (NANPs), have made it apparent that immunological effects of NANPs must be carefully assessed to permit their successful clinical translation. Based on extensive studies, a standardized protocol allowing for the assessment of NANPs' pro-inflammatory properties in validated preclinical model, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, has been developed to be highly predictive of cytokine responses. (2020-10-23)

Extruded grains may be better for pigs
Extrusion is the norm in the pet and aqua feed industries, yet it remains unusual for swine feed in the United States. But the technology can improve energy and protein digestibility in pigs, according to research from the University of Illinois. (2020-10-23)

Hidden states of the COVID-19 spike protein
Computer modeling of the COVID-19 virus on supercomputers showed that the spike protein visits an intermediate state before it can dock to the receptor protein on the host cell membrane. This intermediate state can be useful for drug targeting to prevent the spike protein to initiate viral infection. The initial findings, which showed the existence of an intermediate semi-open state of the spike protein, was published in the Journal of Chemical Physics. (2020-10-21)

Tryptophan's role in celiac pathway in mice points to treatment strategies
New studies in mice show how an inability to metabolize tryptophan may be related to celiac disease, according to Bruno Lamas and colleagues. (2020-10-21)

More turkey dinners for people with celiac disease?
An international team of researchers led by McMaster University has found that tryptophan, an amino acid present in high amounts in turkey, along with some probiotics, may help them heal and respond better to a gluten-free diet (2020-10-21)

Neuropilin-1 drives SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, finds breakthrough study
In a major breakthrough an international team of scientists, led by the University of Bristol, has potentially identified what makes SARS-CoV-2 highly infectious and able to spread rapidly in human cells. The findings, published in Science today [20 October] describe how the virus's ability to infect human cells can be reduced by inhibitors that block a newly discovered interaction between virus and host, demonstrating a potential anti-viral treatment. (2020-10-20)

Two studies point to an unrecognized avenue for anti-viral therapies against COVID-19
Helping to explain what makes SARS-CoV-2 so capable of infecting human cells, researchers in two independent studies discovered that the virus's spike protein recognizes and binds a protein on the human cell surface called neuropilin-1. (2020-10-20)

New study shows how complex metabolism may have self-assembled from simple precursors
Life as we know uses energy to reproduce itself. Organisms build and break down larger molecules using a common set of reactive intermediate energy carrier molecules. These carrier molecules help chaperone the reactions which build life's biochemical complexity and help push metabolic reactions to drive cellular reproduction. New research suggests that such compounds can be made easily in the environment in the absence of biology, providing a hint as to how life may have started. (2020-10-19)

Changes in blood metabolite profile are visible years before diagnosis of alcohol-related disease
A new study from the University of Eastern Finland is the first in the world to show that the serum metabolite profile can be used to identify individuals likely at risk of developing an alcohol-related disease in the future. The finding also opens up new avenues for preventing alcohol-related adverse effects. (2020-10-19)

Prebiotic chemistry - In the beginning, there was sugar
Organic molecules formed the basis for the evolution of life. But how could inorganic precursors have given rise to them? Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich chemist Oliver Trapp now reports a reaction pathway in which minerals catalyze the formation of sugars in the absence of water. (2020-10-19)

Gut bacteria could be responsible for side effect of Parkinson's drug
Bacteria in the small intestine can deaminate levodopa, the main drug that is used to treat Parkinson's disease. Bacterial processing of the unabsorbed fractions of the drug results in a metabolite that reduces gut motility. These findings were described in the journal BMC Biology on 20 October by scientists from the University of Groningen. Since the disease is already associated with constipation, processing of the drug by gut bacteria may worsen gastrointestinal complications. (2020-10-19)

Peptides+antibiotic combination may result in a more effective treatment for leishmaniasis
A combination of peptides and antibiotics could be key to eliminating the parasite causing leishmaniasis and avoiding the toxicity to people and animals caused by current drugs. The study, coordinated by researchers at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona opens the door to new, more effective treatments against this disease. (2020-10-16)

Those funky cheese smells allow microbes to 'talk' to and feed each other
Researchers found that bacteria essential to ripening cheese can sense and respond to compounds produced by fungi in the rind and released into the air, enhancing the growth of some species of bacteria over others. The make-up of the cheese microbiome is critical to flavor and quality of the cheese. (2020-10-16)

What fuels the beating heart? Study reveals nutrients used by normal and failing hearts
A team led by scientists in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania has produced a detailed picture of fuel and nutrient use by the human heart. The study was the first of its kind, involving the simultaneous sampling of blood from different parts of the circulatory system in dozens of human participants, in order to record the levels of related molecules going into and coming out of the beating heart. (2020-10-15)

Reelin-Nrp1 interaction regulates neocortical dendrite development
Reelin exhibits a context-dependent function during brain development; however, its underlying mechanism is not well understood. Here, we found that neuropilin-1 specifically binds to the C-terminal region of Reelin and acts as a co-receptor for canonical Reelin-receptor. The Reelin-Nrp1 interaction is essential for proper dendritic development in superficial-layer neurons. This study provides evidence of the context-specific function of Reelin regulated by the C-terminal residues. (2020-10-15)

Boost to develop microalgae into health foods
A new discovery may provide the crucial link that helps accelerate development of microalgae into beneficial human health supplements. (2020-10-14)

College of Medicine researcher makes novel discoveries in preventing epileptic seizures
A team of researchers from the Florida State University College of Medicine has found that an amino acid produced by the brain could play a crucial role in preventing a type of epileptic seizure. (2020-10-13)

Quality control mechanism closes the protein production 'on-ramps'
Recent work revealed a newfound quality control system in the protein production assembly line with possible implications for understanding neurogenerative disease. (2020-10-08)

First detailed look at how molecular Ferris wheel delivers protons to cellular factories
All cells with nuclei, from yeast to humans, use molecular machines called proton pumps to regulate the acidity of organelles - compartments where various types of work are done. A new study reveals a key step in how these Ferris wheel-like pumps operate. (2020-10-07)

Igniting the synthetic transport of amino acids in living cells
Researchers from ICIQ's Ballester group and IRBBarcelona's Palacín group have published a paper in Chem showing how a synthetic carrier calix[4]pyrrole cavitand can transport amino acids across liposome and cell membranes bringing future therapies a step closer. (2020-10-06)

RUDN University Chemist created a niobium-silica catalyst to boost petrochemical reactions
Alkylation reactions are used in the petrochemical industry to obtain high-octane number components for gasolines. A chemist from RUDN University found a way to speed this process up to 24 times. To do so, he developed a catalyst based on silica and niobium. (2020-10-06)

80-year-old antibiotic redesigned for new medical uses
Chemists at the University of Tokyo have transformed one of the world's oldest antibiotics into new versions that - in preliminary lab tests - appear to be safer, stronger drugs to combat antibiotic resistance. Moreover, these altered versions of the antibiotic exhibit species-specific ion channel activity. (2020-10-04)

Carb-eating bacteria under viral threat
Strictly speaking, humans cannot digest complex carbohydrates -- that's the job of bacteria in our large intestines. UC Riverside scientists have just discovered a new group of viruses that attack these bacteria. (2020-10-01)

Repurposed anti-malarial compounds kill diarrheal parasite, study finds
A class of compounds used for malaria treatment also kill the intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium, a leading cause of diarrheal disease and death in children that has no cure, a multi-institution collaboration of researchers found in a new study. (2020-10-01)

Rapeseed instead of soy burgers: researchers identify a new source of protein for humans
Rapeseed has the potential to replace soy as the best plant-based source of protein for humans. In a current study, nutrition scientists at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU), found that rapeseed protein consumption has comparable beneficial effects on human metabolism as soy protein. The glucose metabolism and satiety were even better. Another advantage: The proteins can be obtained from the by-products of rapeseed oil production. The study was published in the journal ''Nutrients''. (2020-09-30)

Preheating gelatin as a facile approach to increase 3D printing duration
SUTD researchers' new approach finds that preheating gelatin extended its 3D printing time compared to freshly prepared gelatin and enhanced the printability of the ink, which is essential for extrusion-based bioprinting and food printing. (2020-09-29)

Microwaves are useful to combine amino acids with hetero-steroids
Aza-steroids are important class of compounds because of their numerous biological activities. The hetero steroids have different hydrogen bonding ability and hydrophobicity in comparison to steroids. (2020-09-29)

Scientists found a connection between amino acid metabolism and joint hypermobility in autistic children
A team of researchers found out that children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased levels of the amino acid hydroxyproline. According to the medics, this may be associated with joint hypermobility, a common symptom in ASD patients. This information can help improve anti-ASD therapy. (2020-09-29)

New study finds novel functions of the pyruvate-sensing protein PdhR in E. Coli
Scientists at Meiji University, Hosei University, and Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) aimed to better understand the homeostasis of pyruvate, a key connection point of many metabolic pathways in Escherichia coli bacteria. Scientists focused on a transcription factor called PdhR because it regulates pyruvate breakdown into other molecules. They identified ~20 genes that PdhR targets, and showed their involvement in pathways connected to pyruvate. (2020-09-28)

NTU Singapore scientists devise 'Trojan horse' approach to kill cancer cells without using drugs
Cancer cells are killed in lab experiments and tumour growth reduced in mice, using a new approach that turns a nanoparticle into a 'Trojan horse' that causes cancer cells to self-destruct, a research team at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) has found. (2020-09-23)

How a single protein in non-neuronal cells controls brain development
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba identified the protein PRMT1 as an important regulator of glial cell function and normal brain development. They found that mice lacking PRMT1 during brain development showed significant inflammation as well as an increase in astrocyte and microglia cells in the postnatal period. These findings help clarify the molecular mechanisms of normal brain development. (2020-09-23)

A Sudoku-solving algorithm holds promise for protein medicine
Computational biologists from the University of Toronto have developed an artificial intelligence algorithm that has the potential to design novel protein molecules as finely tuned therapeutics. (2020-09-23)

Feeding indoor cats just once a day could improve health
New University of Guelph research has found that feeding cats one large meal a day may help control hunger better than feeding them several times a day. (2020-09-23)

Cincinnati Children's scientists identify hormone that might help treat malabsorption
Scientists at Cincinnati Children's used human intestinal organoids grown from stem cells to discover how our bodies control the absorption of nutrients from the food we eat. They further found that one hormone might be able to reverse a congenital disorder in babies who cannot adequately absorb nutrients and need intravenous feeding to survive. (2020-09-22)

Ribeye-eating pigs demonstrate protein quality for humans
Nearly a decade ago, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) developed a new index to assess protein quality in foods. The goal, writ large, was to address food security for the world's most vulnerable populations, creating more accurate tools for food assistance programs seeking to provide balanced nutrition. Hans H. Stein at the University of Illinois knew he could help. (2020-09-21)

Evolutionary paths: Scientists have found new patterns in protein evolution
Russian scientists studied the trends in the evolution of amino acid sequences of proteins in vertebrates and insects. External factors can be considered as a reason for positive selection affecting genomic positions and serve as an essential aspect of the rapid evolution. But the effect of epistasis is manifested in positions under negative selection, as a result of which substitutions occur less often in them - they evolve more slowly. (2020-09-18)

Time-restricted feeding improves health without altering the body's core clock
For the first time, scientists have studied the early effects of time-restricted feeding on the daily periodic oscillations of metabolites and genes in muscle, and metabolites in blood. The findings by scientists at the University of Copenhagen, the Australian Catholic University and Karolinska Institutet find that time-restricted feeding does not influence the muscle's core clock, and opens the door to more research on how these observed changes improve health. (2020-09-17)

Engineered bacteria churn out cancer biomarkers
A Cornell lab has created these very tools by commandeering simple, single-celled microorganisms - namely E. coli bacteria - and engineering them to explore the complex process of glycosylation and the functional role that protein-linked glycans play in health and disease. (2020-09-17)

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