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Overall stability analysis of improved buckling restrained braces
In this paper, a program was edited by the language of MATLAB based on theoretical model formulation of IBRBs and applied to the calculation of overall stability strength capacity. Finite element models of IBRBs were carried out and both load displacement curves and strength capacity were obtained. (2016-04-21)

Transfer of gut bacteria affects brain function and nerve fiber insulation
Specific combinations of gut bacteria produce substances that affect myelin content and cause social avoidance behaviors in mice. (2016-04-20)

Lauren Sciences LLC awarded second grant for LAUR-301 from The ALS Association
Lauren Sciences LLC, private New York biotechnology company developing breakthrough V-Smart™ Nanomedicines for brain diseases, announced today award of second grant from The ALS Association. The ALS Association grant will support Lauren Sciences continued development of LAUR-301, its V-Smart™ Nanomedicine designed for ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease. (2016-04-19)

AAN updates guidelines: Botulinum toxin for spasticity, headache, other brain disorders
The American Academy of Neurology has updated its 2008 guidelines on the use of botulinum toxin for spasticity, cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and migraine headache, based on recent research. The guideline is published in the April 18, 2016, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology, and will be presented at the 68th AAN Annual Meeting in Vancouver, Canada, April 15 to 21, 2016. (2016-04-18)

At-home cognitive remediation may help cognitive symptoms in multiple sclerosis
In a randomized controlled trial, people with MS who used a computer-based cognitive remediation training program at home for 12 weeks had significantly higher cognitive test scores than those who used a placebo computer program. The new research, from NYU Langone Medical Center, was presented April 17 at the American Academy of Neurology's 68th Annual Meeting in Vancouver. (2016-04-15)

Enzyme in myelination process could lead to better understanding of neurological disorders
The removal of the enzyme Dnmt1 during oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation in the central nervous system resulted in inefficient myelin formation and neurological deterioration, including loss of control of bodily movements, in mice. (2016-04-14)

Mayo Clinic neurologist awarded prize for groundbreaking research in MS
Claudia Lucchinetti, M.D., will be awarded the 2016 John Dystel Prize for Multiple Sclerosis Research for her outstanding contributions to understanding and treating multiple sclerosis. (2016-04-13)

Maple syrup protects neurons and nurtures young minds
Catherine Aaron and Gabrielle Beaudry were 17 when they knocked on the door of the laboratory of Alex Parker, a neuroscience researcher at the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM). While students at Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf in Montreal, they were looking for a mentor for an after-school research project. Two and half years later, the results of this scientific adventure were published today in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (2016-04-13)

Anti-fibrotic peptide shows early promise against interstitial lung disease
Investigators at the Medical University of South Carolina report preclinical findings showing that the M10 peptide reduces collagen production and reverses fibrotic damage due to systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) in the April 2016 issue of Translational Research. ILD is one of the deadliest complications of SSc, a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy, autoimmunity, and excessive collagen production and deposition. Lung fibrosis carries a high risk of morbidity/mortality in SSc patients. (2016-04-13)

Over-the-counter drug may reverse chronic vision damage caused by multiple sclerosis
A common antihistamine used to treat symptoms of allergies and the common cold, called clemastine fumarate, partially reversed damage to the visual system in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a preliminary study released today that will be presented today at the American Academy of Neurology's 68th Annual Meeting in Vancouver, Canada, April 15 to 21, 2016. (2016-04-12)

Solving a genetic mystery in type 1 diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks the body's own insulin-producing cells. Scientists understand reasonably well how this autoimmune attack progresses, but they don't understand what triggers the attack or how to stop it, says Stephan Kissler, Ph.D., Investigator in the Section on Immunobiology at Joslin Diabetes Center and Assistant Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. (2016-04-11)

Zika virus may now be tied to another brain disease
The Zika virus may be associated with an autoimmune disorder that attacks the brain's myelin similar to multiple sclerosis, according to a small study that is being released today and will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 68th Annual Meeting in Vancouver, Canada, April 15 to 21, 2016. (2016-04-10)

Underappreciated protein plays critical role in RNA regulation and male fertility
A protein once thought to be of little consequence has been found to be a central player in processes ranging from male fertility to early embryonic development, according to a study published in the March 31 online issue of Cell by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. (2016-03-31)

Fights are won and lost in the brain
Researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan have found that a deep-brain structure called the habenula contains two neural circuits that work in a complex interplay to influence whether a fight will be a win or loss. (2016-03-31)

American Association of Anatomists awards lifetime achievement in anatomy
The American Association of Anatomists (AAA) is honored to announce its 2016 award winners. All awards will be presented during the Closing Awards Ceremony at AAA's 2016 annual meeting at Experimental Biology in San Diego, CA. The ceremony is being held at The Marriot Marquis San Diego Marina on Tuesday, April 5, 2016, at 7pm. (2016-03-29)

A new model for how twisted bundles take shape
In the current issue of Nature Materials, polymer scientists at the UMass Amherst and Virginia Tech identify for the first time the factors that govern the final morphology of self-assembling chiral filament bundles. They also report experimental results supporting their new model. (2016-03-21)

For first time, scientists use CRISPR-Cas9 to target RNA in live cells
Scientists have long sought an efficient method for targeting RNA -- intermediary genetic material that carries the genetic code from the cell's nucleus to protein-making machinery -- in living cells. Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have now achieved this by applying the popular DNA-editing technique CRISPR-Cas9 to RNA. The study is published March 17, 2016 in Cell. (2016-03-17)

Future brain therapies for Parkinson's possible with stem cell bioengineering innovation
Scientists at Rutgers and Stanford universities have created a new technology that could someday help treat Parkinson's disease and other devastating brain-related conditions that affect millions of people. The technology -- a major innovation -- involves converting adult tissue-derived stem cells into human neurons on 3-D 'scaffolds,' or tiny islands, of fibers, said Prabhas V. Moghe, a distinguished professor at Rutgers. (2016-03-17)

CRISPR-based method tracks RNA
The gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9 can now be used as a flexible and accessible means to target and track the movement of RNA in living cells. This new method, presented March 17, 2016 in Cell, could eventually be used to study a wide range of disease-related RNA processes and to manipulate gene transcription for disease modeling. (2016-03-17)

CIRM grant to fund proposed stem cell trials for ALS
The Independent Citizens Oversight Committee of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine approved yesterday a $6.3 million grant to a research team from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and University of California, Davis to pursue a novel human embryonic stem cell-based therapy to rescue and restore neurons devastated by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS. (2016-03-17)

New role of environment in multiple sclerosis revealed
Environmental factors may be playing a greater role in the onset of multiple sclerosis than previously realized, according to early research by Queen Mary University of London and Barts Health NHS Trust. The theory is based on findings showing that Black people and South Asians in east London have a higher prevalence of MS compared to those groups in ancestral countries, indicating a strong environmental influence that could be driving higher MS rates in London. (2016-03-17)

Key findings -- Discovery of the characteristics of subcortical regions in schizophrenia
A Japanese research group found that patients with schizophrenia demonstrated a specific leftward volumetric asymmetry for the globus pallidus, one of the basal ganglia of the brain. The basal ganglia are involved in motivation and volition, the impairment of which may result in difficulties in social life. This finding is expected to help elucidate the underlying pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Moreover, it will be a step toward the development of therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia. (2016-03-17)

Researchers find that immune cells play unexpected role in Lou Gehrig's disease
Cedars-Sinai research scientists have found that immune cells in the brain play a direct role in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, offering hope for new therapies to target the neurodegenerative disease that gradually leads to paralysis and death. (2016-03-17)

WSU searches for drugs to fight ALS, Alzheimer's, other brain disorders
Repairing the brain's 'house-cleaning function,' which could help people with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 100 other diseases, is the focus of recently funded research at Washington State University. (2016-03-16)

Neuroscientist receives Javits Award to study how brain tumors thwart immune system
U-M neuroscientist Maria G. Castro, Ph.D., has been selected to receive the 2016 Javits Neuroscience Investigator Award, an honor that provides up to seven years of research funding for her brain tumor work. (2016-03-15)

TSRI study identifies new type of protein clump that may be implicated in ALS
A new study led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute suggests that cells construct protein 'clumps' to protect against neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a.k.a. ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease. (2016-03-10)

Depression, high blood pressure, other chronic conditions may be common at MS diagnosis
People newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) may often have other chronic health conditions as well, according to a study published in the March 9, 2016 online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. (2016-03-09)

Fingolimod in multiple sclerosis: No hint of added benefit in new therapeutic indication
The fourth early benefit assessment of fingolimod shows no proof of added benefit for patients with highly active RRMS who do not respond to other treatments. (2016-03-08)

Video games improve brain connections in multiple sclerosis patients
Playing 'brain-training' video games may help improve some cognitive abilities of people with multiple sclerosis by strengthening neural connections in an important part of their brains, according to a new study. (2016-03-08)

Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may increase risk of MS in children
Children of mothers with vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy appeared to be at greater risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) in adulthood, according to an article published online by JAMA Neurology. (2016-03-07)

Exercise may protect nerve cells in Spinal Muscular Atrophy patients
Long-term exercise appears to be beneficial for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) like mice, suggesting a potential of active physiotherapy for patient care; according to a study published today in The Journal of Physiology. (2016-03-04)

A new way to stretch DNA
Researchers have recently developed a new way to controllably manipulate materials, in this case biomolecules that are too small to see with the naked eye. By stretching molecules like DNA and proteins, scientists can find out important information about the structure, chemical bonding and mechanical properties of the individual molecules that make up our bodies. This understanding could shed light on diseases like cancer and ALS. The new technique is called acoustic force spectroscopy. (2016-03-01)

Loss of MHCI in motor neurons leads to ALS astrocyte toxicity
Until recently, the role of astrocytes, glial cells that normally support motor neurons, in motor neuron death has been a mystery, but new research sheds light on molecular mechanisms responsible for motor neuron death in ALS. In this study, scientists demonstrated the explicit loss of major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) expression in the outer membrane of motor neurons in ALS, leading to motor neuron vulnerability to ALS astrocyte toxicity. (2016-02-29)

Preventing protein unfolding
A computational model shows that polymers can reinforce proteins to prevent them from unfolding under mechanical forces. (2016-02-26)

Study shows financial engineering could make life-saving drugs more available, affordable
Stratospheric costs for therapies not yet covered by insurance put some drugs out of reach for many patients. This study shows how securitized consumer health-care loans could spread the cost of therapies over many years, giving more patients access to drugs while generating returns to investors. (2016-02-24)

Natural sugar may treat fatty liver disease
New research shows that a natural sugar called trehalose prevents fatty liver disease in mice. The study found that trehalose prevents the sugar fructose -- thought to be a major contributor to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease -- from entering the liver and triggers a cellular housekeeping process that cleans up excess fat buildup inside liver cells. (2016-02-23)

Shaping lumens by force
Scientists from Singapore and France have revealed the underlying mechanism for the formation and growth of a fundamental type of tissue -- epithelial tubes. Defects in the architecture of epithelial tubes lead to diseases such as cholestasis, atherosclerosis and polycystic kidney disease. The study suggests that the shape and size of some types of epithelial tubes are governed by the mechanical forces that arise from the interaction of cells with the supportive extracellular matrix that surrounds them (2016-02-23)

Study discovers and uses key mechanism to treat autoimmune diseases
A new study from the University of Calgary could change the way researchers understand and treat autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The study is published in the February edition of the prestigious journal Nature. (2016-02-18)

Parvus' nanotechnology treatment reprograms immune cells to reverse autoimmune disease
Nanotechnology approach restores glucose regulation and motor function in in vivo preclinical models of diabetes and multiple sclerosis, respectively; joint swelling and destruction resolved in in vivo model of rheumatoid arthritis. (2016-02-17)

TAxI shuttles protein cargo into spinal cord
The peptide TAxi is an effective vehichle for shuttling functional proteins, such as active enzymes, into the spinal cord after a muscle injection. The peptide and its cargo travel up the fibers on motor neurons to bypass the spinal cord/blood barrier. TAxI holds promise for carrying biologic therapeutics into this hard to reach location for treating disorders like motor neuron disease and other degenerative nerve conditions (2016-02-16)

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