Current Anaerobic News and Events

Current Anaerobic News and Events, Anaerobic News Articles.
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Termite gut microbes could aid biofuel production
Wheat straw, the dried stalks left over from grain production, is a potential source of biofuels and commodity chemicals. But before straw can be converted to useful products by biorefineries, the polymers that make it up must be broken down into their building blocks. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering have found that microbes from the guts of certain termite species can help break down lignin, a particularly tough polymer in straw. (2021-02-17)

Waste into wealth: Harvesting useful products from microbial growth
Anca Delgado, a researcher in the Biodesign Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology at Arizona State University, has been exploring how bacteria can convert organic waste into useful products. In a new study, she describes for the first time how the chain elongation processes are carried out by microorganisms under normal conditions in soil. (2021-02-17)

RUDN University biologists studied the effect of jungles on global warming
Biologists from RUDN University described the role of tropical rainforests in the production of methane, the second most harmful greenhouse gas after CO2. It turned out that some areas of rainforests not only consumed methane but also emitted it. (2021-02-16)

Pooping out miracles: scientists reveal mechanism behind fecal microbiota transplantation
In a study published in Gastroenterology - Researchers at Osaka City University and The Institute for Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, in collaboration with Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, report the intestinal bacterial and viral metagenome information from the fecal samples of patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). This comprehensive analysis reveals the bacteria and phages involved in pathogenesis in rCDI, and their remarkable pathways important for the recovery of intestinal flora function. (2021-02-10)

Wonder fungi
Michelle O'Malley(link is external) has long been inspired by gut microbes. Since she began studying the herbivore digestive tract, the UC Santa Barbara chemical engineering professor has guided several students to their doctoral degrees, won early and mid-career awards (including a recognition from President Obama), attained tenure and advanced to the position of full professor. She even had three children along the way. A constant through it all: goat poop. (2021-02-01)

Scientists discover slimy microbes that may help keep coral reefs healthy
Microbes living within the slimy biofilms of some coral species may help protect the coral against excess nitrogen levels, according to research from MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), in collaboration with colleagues in Cuba. (2021-01-08)

SwRI models point to a potentially diverse metabolic menu at Enceladus
Using data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, scientists at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) modeled chemical processes in the subsurface ocean of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The studies indicate the possibility that a varied metabolic menu could support a potentially diverse microbial community in the liquid water ocean beneath the moon's icy facade. (2020-12-16)

Chemists from RUDN University synthesized chitin-based antibiotics
?hemists from RUDN University discovered previously unknown derivatives of chitin, a biopolymer that forms the exoskeletons of insects and carapaces of crayfish and other arthropods. The new compounds and their nanoparticles have antibacterial properties and are able to catalyze chemical reactions. (2020-12-14)

Magnetic bacteria as micropumps
ETH scientists use magnetic bacteria to control liquids at the micro level. They are already thinking about using them in the human bloodstream for precision delivery of cancer drugs to a tumour. (2020-12-08)

Study reveals physical demands of two-hour marathon
Elite runners need a specific combination of physiological abilities to have any chance of running a sub-two-hour marathon, new research shows. (2020-11-13)

In your gut: How bacteria survive low oxygen environments
Researchers from ITQB NOVA, in collaboration with the Institut Pasteur in Paris, have shed light on the mechanisms that allow Clostridioides difficile, a pathogen that can only grow in oxygen-free environments, to survive low oxygen levels. C. difficile is a major cause of intestinal problems associated with the use of antibiotics, causing an estimated number of 124k cases per year in the EU, costing on average 5k€ per patient, as a direct consequence of healthcare-associated contagion. (2020-11-02)

Gut bacteria associated with animal-based diet may mitigate risk of cardiovascular disease
Researchers have found that a type of common gut bacteria sometimes associated with inflammation, abscesses, bowel disease and cancer has a major silver lining: It seems to help prevent cardiovascular disease. (2020-10-26)

Placing barthelonids on the tree of life
Researchers at the University of Tsukuba have clearly defined the phylogenetic position of barthelonids, a group of microscopic free-living anaerobic biflagellates. Their findings suggest that the Barthelona spp. represent a clade of metamonads that branched off early in evolutionary history. Additionally, phylogenomic data confirmed their specific commonality and transcriptome analysis outlined the likely evolutionary history of their ATP-generating organelles. (2020-09-23)

High-intensity interval training combining rowing and cycling improves insulin sensitivity, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in obesity and type 2 diabetes
New research presented at this year's annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) shows that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) combining cycling and rowing markedly improves insulin sensitivity, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in cases of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) (2020-09-23)

How a gooey slime helps bacteria survive
Researchers from the University of Tsukuba found that the bacterium C. perfringens modulates the structure of its biofilm at different temperatures by regulating the expression of the novel extracellular protein BsaA. They showed the number of BsaA-producing cells decreases when the temperature increases from 25°C to 37°C, and BsaA-producing cells cover non-BsaA-producing cells to provide tolerance to external stresses. These findings help us understand how bacteria adapt to their environment to survive. (2020-08-03)

Viral dark matter exposed: Metagenome database detects phage-derived antibacterial enzyme
In a pioneer study published in Cell Host & Microbe - Researchers at Osaka City University and The Institute for Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, reported intestinal bacterial and viral metagenome information from the fecal samples of 101 healthy Japanese individuals. This analysis, leveraging host bacteria-phage associations, detected phage-derived antibacterial enzymes that control pathobionts. As proof-of-concept, phage-derived endolysins are shown to regulate C. difficile infection in mice. (2020-07-10)

Anammox bacteria generate energy from wastewater while taking a breath
More energy-efficient wastewater treatment may be possible by harnessing anammox bacteria's surprising ability to 'breathe' solid-state matter. (2020-06-29)

Anaerobically disinfect soil to increase phosphorus using diluted ethanol
Anaerobic disinfection of soil is an effective method to kill unwanted bacteria, parasites and weeds without using chemical pesticides. Scientists in Japan were able to show that it also increases the availability of useable phosphorus. (2020-06-15)

A new understanding of everyday cellular processes
We use cells to breathe, to moderate body temperature, to grow and many other every day processes, however the cells in these processes are so complex its left scientists perplexed into how they develop in different environments. Researchers from the University of Warwick say future research needs to look into the bioelectrical composition of cells for answers. (2020-05-20)

Minimum energy requirements for microbial communities to live predicted
A microbial community is a complex, dynamic system composed of hundreds of species and their interactions, they are found in oceans, soil, animal guts and plant roots. Each system feeds the Earth's ecosystem and their own growth, as they each have their own metabolism that underpin biogeochemical cycles. Researchers from the School of Life Sciences at the University of Warwick have produced an extendable thermodynamic model for simulating the dynamics of microbial communities. (2020-05-06)

Catalyst opens door to more efficient, environmentally friendly ethylene production
Researchers have engineered a new catalyst that can more efficiently convert ethane into ethylene, which is used in a variety of manufacturing processes. The discovery could be used in a conversion process to drastically reduce ethylene production costs and cut related carbon dioxide emissions by up to 87%. (2020-04-24)

Large population study links blood infection with certain bacteria to increased risk of colorectal cancer
New research due to be presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) shows a link between blood infections with certain anaerobic bacteria and the risk of developing colorectal cancer. The study is by Dr. Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and colleagues. (2020-04-20)

Valorizing wastewater can improve commercial viability of biomass oil production
Oil produced from biomass can provide a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels. But technological challenges make it difficult to scale up production. A new study from the University of Illinois discusses methods to manage wastewater from biocrude oil production, providing a possible path to commercially viable production. (2020-04-17)

New metabolism discovered in bacteria
Microbiologists at Goethe University Frankfurt have discovered how the bacterium Acetobacterium woodii uses hydrogen in a kind of cycle to conserve energy. The bacterium lives in an environment without oxygen, and thanks to hydrogen cycling, it can exist independent of other species of bacteria. (2020-03-30)

How to break new records in the 200 metres?
Usain Bolt's 200m record has not been beaten for ten years and Florence Griffith Joyner's for more than thirty years. And what about if the secret behind beating records was to use mathematics? Thanks to a mathematical model, french researchers have proved that the geometry of athletic tracks could be optimised to improve records. They recommend to build shorter straights and larger radii in the future. (2020-03-25)

Bacteria loop-the-loop
The magnetotactic bacterium Magnetococcus marinus swims with the help of two bundles of flagella, which are thread-like structures. This bacterium possesses a sort of intracellular 'compass needle' and their movements can be controlled using a magnetic field. So they can be used as a biological model for microrobots. An international team with participation from the University of Göttingen has investigated how these bacteria move and determined their swimming speed. The results were published in the journal eLife. (2020-02-27)

Tel Aviv University researchers discover unique non-oxygen breathing animal
Researchers at Tel Aviv University (TAU) have discovered a non-oxygen breathing animal. The unexpected finding changes one of science's assumptions about the animal world. (2020-02-25)

Model shows how to make on-farm sustainable energy projects profitable
Researchers have developed a model that could boost investment in farm-based sustainable energy projects by allowing investors to more accurately predict whether a project will turn a profit. The model improves on earlier efforts by using advanced computational techniques to address uncertainty. (2020-02-10)

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin induces claudin-4 to activate YAP in oral squamous cell
Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 4: Treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines HSC3 and HSC4 with Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, induced CLDN4 nuclear translocation to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness, cell proliferation, and invasive ability. (2020-02-04)

Flushing nitrogen from seawater-based toilets
With about half the world's population living close to the coast, using seawater to flush toilets could be possible with a salt-tolerant bacterium. (2020-02-03)

Could dark carbon be hiding the true scale of ocean 'dead zones'?
The impact of climate change on the world's oceans is becoming increasingly known but new research suggests current computer models could be omitting a crucial piece of evidence when it comes to assessing the scale of ocean dead zones. (2019-12-10)

Discovery of an unusual protein
Scientists from Bremen discover an unusual protein playing a significant role in the Earth's nitrogen cycle. The novel heme-containing cytochrome is involved in the anammox process, which is responsible for producing half of the dinitrogen gas in the atmosphere and important in greenhouse gas regulation. (2019-12-02)

How diversity of respiratory quinones affects microbial physiology
A new study provides a fundamental understanding of the diversification of small molecules called respiratory quinones and its adaptive consequences in bacterial species. Bioengineers at the University of California San Diego specifically examined how respiration is affected by different types of quinones present in bacteria growing in aerobic environments. (2019-11-25)

Increased use of antibiotics may predispose to Parkinson's disease
Higher exposure to commonly used oral antibiotics is linked to an increased risk of Parkinson's disease according to a recently published Finnish study. The strongest associations were found for broad spectrum antibiotics and those that act against against anaerobic bacteria and fungi. The timing of antibiotic exposure also seemed to matter. (2019-11-22)

Turning (more) fat and sewage into natural gas
NC State University researchers have developed what is, to date, the most efficient means of converting sewage sludge and restaurant grease into natural gas. (2019-11-13)

Hospital disinfectants struggling to kill C. diff bacteria colonies
The deadly superbug, Clostridioides difficile (C. diff), is putting up a winning fight against hospital-grade disinfectants meant to kill it, reports UH pharmacy professor Kevin Garey in a study that helps explain why C. diff is so hard to eradicate. The survival of C. diff in hospitals and nursing homes is especially hazardous -- within one month of diagnosis, one in 11 people over age 65 died of a health care-associated C. diff infection. (2019-11-06)

Preaching the benefits of vaccination in an increasingly skeptical world
The jam-packed schedule for IDWeek2019 includes presentations about vaccines and other therapies that are effective against infectious diseases, new research insights about emerging infections and updates about global outbreaks past and present, such as measles and Zika. Children's National faculty is represented all week. (2019-10-02)

Warm on top, cold below: Unexpected greenhouse gas effect in lakes
A research team led by the University of Basel and the University of Montreal examined how the ongoing climate warming affects the 'behavior' of lakes. The researchers found out why, in near-bottom waters, lakes may even cool down despite warming at the surface, and what the consequences are for the production and emission of greenhouse gases. The results of the study were published in the most recent edition of the journal Limnology and Oceanography Letters. (2019-09-09)

Methane-producing microorganism makes a meal of iron
A new understanding of how a microorganism produces methane and carbon dioxide could eventually allow researchers to manipulate how much of these important greenhouse gases escape into the atmosphere. (2019-09-04)

Unusual mucous-like substance found buried within seafloor sediment
The location and microbial composition of recently found biofilms are challenging beliefs about methane diffusion. (2019-08-28)

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