Current Ancient DNA News and Events

Current Ancient DNA News and Events, Ancient DNA News Articles.
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Scientists use DNA origami to monitor CRISPR gene targeting
The remarkable genetic scissors called CRISPR/Cas9, the discovery that won the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, sometimes cut in places that they are not designed to target. (2021-02-23)

UIC researchers invent new gene-editing tool
Researchers have discovered a new gene-editing technique that allows for the programming of sequential cuts -- or edits -- over time. (2021-02-23)

A sleep disorder associated with shift work may affect gene function
Going on holiday can affect shift workers on the level of gene function: a new study indicates that resting during a holiday period restored functions associated with DNA regulation in shift workers suffering from sleep deprivation. (2021-02-22)

Dozens of new lichen species discovered in East African mountain forests
The species diversity and relationships of lichens in the genus Leptogium, which are often very difficult to identify to species, were assessed on the basis of DNA analyses using a large dataset collected during more than 10 years from East Africa. (2021-02-22)

Genomic insights into the origin of pre-historic populations in East Asia
East Asia today harbours more than a fifth of the world's population and some of the most deeply branching modern human lineages outside of Africa. However, its genetic diversity and deep population history remain poorly understood relative to many other parts of the world. In a new study, a team of international researchers analyzes genome-wide data for 166 ancient individuals spanning 8,000 years and 46 present-day groups, and provides insights into the formation of East Asian populations. (2021-02-22)

First DNA extracted from modern, ancient and fossil tropical shells
The next time you eat seafood, think about the long-term effects. Will consistently eating the biggest fish or the biggest conch, mean that only the smaller individuals will have a chance to reproduce? (2021-02-22)

Life of a pure Martian design
Experimental microbially assisted chemolithotrophy provides an opportunity to trace the putative bioalteration processes of the Martian crust. A study on the Noachian Martian breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 composed of ancient crustal materials from Mars, led by ERC grantee Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna, now delivered a unique prototype of microbial life experimentally designed on a real Martian material. (2021-02-19)

Magnetic reversal 42,000 years ago triggered global environmental change
Nearly 42,000 years ago, when Earth's magnetic fields reversed, this triggered major environmental changes, extinction events, and long-term changes in human behavior, a new study reports. (2021-02-18)

Changing livestock in ancient Europe reflect political shifts
In ancient European settlements, livestock use was likely primarily determined by political structure and market demands, according to a study published February 17, 2021 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Ariadna Nieto-Espinet and colleagues of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Barcelona. (2021-02-17)

Proton therapy induces biologic response to attack treatment-resistant cancers
Mayo Clinic researchers have developed a novel proton therapy technique to more specifically target cancer cells that resist other forms of treatment. The technique is called LEAP, an acronym for 'biologically enhanced particle therapy.' The findings are published today in Cancer Research, the journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. (2021-02-17)

HKU planetary scientists discover evidence for a reduced atmosphere on ancient Mars
The transition from a reduced planet to an oxidized planet is referred to as the Great Oxidation Event or GOE. This transition was a central part of our planet's evolution, and fundamentally linked to the evolution of life here -- specifically to the prevalence of photosynthesis that produced oxygen. Planetary geologists at HKU have discovered that Mars underwent a great oxygenation event of its own -- billions of years ago, the red planet was not so red. (2021-02-16)

Silencing by crosstalk
Researchers at IMBA -- Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences -- unveil functional and mechanistic details in small RNA-mediated co-transcriptional gene silencing. The results are published in the journal Genes & Development. (2021-02-16)

Fixer-upper: Understanding the DNA repair toolkit to chart cancer evolution
DNA repair pathways exist to correct molecular damage caused by internal and external factors. However, any damage to these pathways can result in the creation of tumors and specific types of cancers. A group of scientists from China have conducted an extensive investigation into the relationship of DNA repair pathways with cancer evolution. Their review, been published in Cancer Biology & Medicine, also shed light on the potential treatment applications of these mechanisms. (2021-02-16)

Capuchin monkey genome reveals clues to its long life and large brain
An international team of scientists has sequenced the genome of a capuchin monkey for the first time, uncovering new genetic clues about the evolution of their long lifespan and large brains. Published in PNAS, the work was led by the University of Calgary in Canada and involved researchers at the University of Liverpool. (2021-02-15)

New discovery could pave the way for improved treatments for diabetes
Monash University researchers have uncovered the barrier to β-cell (beta cell) regeneration that could pave the way for improved treatments for diabetes and diseases that involve organ and tissue damage. (2021-02-12)

Detecting single molecules and diagnosing diseases with a smartphone
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers show that the light emitted by a single molecule can be detected with a low-cost optical setup. Their prototype could facilitate medical diagnostics. (2021-02-12)

Lifestyle changes in pregnant women affected babies' genes
A study led by researchers at Lund University in Sweden showed a connection between lifestyle intervention in pregnant women with obesity and epigenetic alterations in the baby. The study is published in the journal Diabetes. (2021-02-11)

Study identifies never-before-seen dual function in enzyme critical for cancer growth
In developing therapies for hard-to-treat breast and ovarian cancers in patients with BRCA gene mutations, scientists aim to identify ways to keep cancer cells from using DNA break repair pathways. New findings demonstrate a previously-unknown capability for polymerase theta (pol theta) - a key enzyme in this repair function - that shows promise as a new avenue for treatment development. (2021-02-11)

Stirring up conflicts in tumour cells
With two commercially available inhibitors, the cell cycle of the cancer cells in the childhood tumour neuroblastoma can be disrupted at a key point causing tumour cell death. (2021-02-11)

New improved dog reference genome will aid a new generation of investigation
Researchers at Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences have used new methods for DNA sequencing and annotation to build a new, and more complete, dog reference genome. This tool will serve as the foundation for a new era of research, helping scientists to better understand the link between DNA and disease, in dogs and in their human friends. The research is presented in the journal Communications Biology. (2021-02-10)

On the origin of our species
New research suggests that genetic and fossil records will not reveal a single point where modern humans originated (2021-02-10)

Unusual DNA folding increases the rates of mutations
DNA sequences that can fold into shapes other than the classic double helix tend to have higher mutation rates than other regions in the human genome. New research shows that the elevated mutation rate in these sequences plays a major role in determining regional variation in mutation rates across the genome. (2021-02-09)

Not a living fossil: How the Coelacanth recently evolved dozens of new genes
The research shows the dramatic effect traveling DNA can have on the creation of genes and provide a glimpse into some of the forces that shaped the genome of one of the most ancient and mysterious organisms. (2021-02-09)

An end to invasive biopsies?
Hebrew Unievrsity researchers have found a less invasive and more accurate options for diagnoses using a simple blood test that detects DNA fragments. (2021-02-08)

AI researchers ask: What's going on inside the black box?
Brain-like artificial networks are often referred to as a ''black box'' because researchers do not know how they learn and make predictions. Researchers at CSHL reported a way to peek inside the box and identify key features on which the computer relies, particularly when trying to identify complex DNA sequences. (2021-02-08)

How rocks rusted on Earth and turned red
How did rocks rust on Earth and turn red? A Rutgers-led study has shed new light on the important phenomenon and will help address questions about the Late Triassic climate more than 200 million years ago, when greenhouse gas levels were high enough to be a model for what our planet may be like in the future. (2021-02-08)

Scientists discover how a group of caterpillars became poisonous
The Atala butterfly and its five closest relatives in the genus Eumaeus like to display their toxicity. Their toxicity comes from what they eat as caterpillars: plants called cycads that have been around since before dinosaurs roamed the Earth and contain a potent liver toxin. New research tells the evolutionary tale of how these butterflies gained their toxin-laced defenses as well as the bold colors and behaviors that tell all would-be predators to steer clear. (2021-02-08)

Nehandertals' gut microbiota and the bacteria helping our health
Through the study of ancient DNA from 50,000-year-old Neanderthal faecal sediments, an international research group isolated a group of micro-organisms whose characteristics are similar to those of modern Sapiens: such findings can be instrumental to the protection of our gut microbiota (2021-02-05)

Genes for face shape identified
Genes that determine the shape of a person's facial profile have been discovered by a UCL-led research team. (2021-02-05)

Surprising new research: We're more like primitive fishes than once believed
People traditionally think that lungs and limbs are key innovations that came with the vertebrate transition from water to land. But in fact, the genetic basis of air-breathing and limb movement was already established in our fish ancestor 50 million years earlier. This, according to a recent genome mapping of primitive fish conducted by the University of Copenhagen, among others. The new study changes our understanding of a key milestone in our own evolutionary history. (2021-02-04)

Horse remains reveal new insights into how Native peoples raised horses
When a Utah couple dug up the remains of a horse near the city of Provo, researchers suspected that they may have discovered an animal that lived during the last Ice Age. New results suggest a different story. (2021-02-04)

How elephants evolved to become big and cancer-resistant
In this new study, 'We explored how elephants and their living and extinct relatives evolved to be cancer-resistant,' says University at Buffalo biologist Vincent Lynch. He adds, regarding the findings, 'Elephants have lots and lots and lots of extra copies of tumor suppressor genes, and they all contribute probably a little bit to cancer resistance.' (2021-02-04)

A single-molecule guide to understanding chemical reactions better
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) report measurement of electrical conductivity of single DNA molecules as a way of monitoring the formation of double-stranded DNA on a gold surface. In their latest paper, they investigate the time evolution of the reaction and report findings not observed previously, demonstrating the suitability of the single-molecule approach in elucidating reaction pathways and exploring novel chemical processes. (2021-02-04)

The underestimated mutation potential of retrogenes
mRNA molecules from retrogenes are reverse transcribed to DNA and incorporated into the genome. (2021-02-02)

Origami with DNA
To study the behaviour of T-cells, an unusual method was used at TU Wien: DNA molecules were folded in an ingenious way, similar to the paper folding art origami. In this way, not just a double helix is created, but a rectangular ''molecular raft'' that floats across a cell membrane and serves as a tool for novel measurements. (2021-02-01)

Astronomers detect extended dark matter halo around ancient dwarf galaxy
Findings suggest the first galaxies in the universe were more massive than previously thought. (2021-02-01)

Understanding how genetic motifs conduct "the music of life"
Our genetic codes control not only which proteins our cells produce, but also - to a great extent - in what quantity. This ground-breaking discovery, applicable to all biological life, was recently made by systems biologists at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, using supercomputers and artificial intelligence. Their research, which could also shed new light on the mysteries of cancer, was recently published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. (2021-01-28)

NUS scientists discover a new pathway essential for blood formation
Scientists from the National University of Singapore have discovered how a protein called Tip60 plays a vital role in the renewal of blood cells in the body. Without it, the stem cells that make new blood suffer catastrophic damage. This discovery could lead to better treatments for life-threatening blood-related diseases like leukemia. (2021-01-28)

Rules of resistance against transgene silencing
A new protocol brings the precise standards of engineering to the realm of synthetic biology. (2021-01-28)

Malaria threw human evolution into overdrive on this African archipelago
Malaria is an ancient scourge, but it's still leaving its mark on the human genome. And now, researchers have uncovered recent traces of adaptation to malaria in the islanders of Cabo Verde -- thanks to a genetic mutation, inherited from their African ancestors, that prevents a type of malaria parasite from invading red blood cells. The findings represent one of the speediest, most dramatic changes measured in the human genome. (2021-01-28)

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