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A Yellowstone guide to life on Mars
A University of Cincinnati geology student is helping NASA determine whether life existed on other planets. Doctoral candidate Andrew Gangidine is working with UC geology professor Andrew Czaja to develop a marker for ancient bacterial life on Mars. The research could help scientists put to rest one of our most fundamental mysteries. (2018-04-25)

Why freeloader baby-eating ants are welcomed to the colony
It might seem surprising that a colony of ants would tolerate the type of guests that gobble both their grub and their babies. But new research shows there's likely a useful tradeoff to calmly accepting these parasite ants into the fold: They have weaponry that's effective against their host ants and a more menacing intruder ant. (2018-04-23)

What the oldest peace treaty in the world teaches us
Today's peace symbols go back to antiquity -- According to archaeologists, peace images were widespread, especially during wars, despite glorification of war -- Oldest peace treaty attests to long negotiations instead of triumphant victory -- Bronze-colored statue of Eirene shown for the first time -- International Peace Conference of the Cluster of Excellence (2018-04-23)

A better fake leather, inspired by plants
Nature has inspired a coating for synthetic leather that repels oil and water--and keeps the material from getting sticky in the heat. (2018-04-23)

Drinking water may help exercising seniors stay mentally sharp
Older people should drink more water to reap the full cognitive benefits of exercise, new research suggests. The study, to be presented today at the American Physiological Society (APS) annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2018 in San Diego, explores the association between hydration status before exercising and exercise-enhanced cognition in older adults. (2018-04-22)

For heavy lifting, use exoskeletons with caution
You can wear an exoskeleton, but it won't turn you into a superhero. In the journal Applied Ergonomics, researchers report that that a commercially available exoskeleton relieved stress on the arms just as it was supposed to -- but it increased stress on the back by more than 50 percent. (2018-04-20)

Clear as mud: Desiccation cracks help reveal the shape of water on Mars
As Curiosity rover marches across Mars, the red planet's watery past comes into clearer focus. (2018-04-19)

Most primitive kangaroo ancestor rediscovered after 30 years in obscurity
A handful of tiny teeth have led scientists to identify the most distant ancestor of today's kangaroos. The fossils were found in the desert heart of Australia, and then hidden away, and almost forgotten in a museum collection for over three decades. The findings are published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. (2018-04-11)

Synthesizing a deadly mushroom toxin
The death-cap mushroom has a long history as a tool of murder and suicide, going back to ancient Roman times. The fungus, Amanita phalloides, produces one of the world's deadliest toxins: α-amanitin. While it may seem ill-advised, researchers are eager to synthesize the toxin because studies have shown that it could help fight cancer. Scientists now report in the Journal of the American Chemical Society how they overcame obstacles to synthesize the death-cap killer compound. (2018-04-11)

Humans may have occupied Indonesian site Leang Burung 2 earlier than previously thought
Renewed excavations at the Late Pleistocene Leang Burung 2 rock shelter archaeological site on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia have revealed new evidence of early human occupation, according to findings by Adam Brumm of Griffith University's Australian Research Centre for Human Evolution, and colleagues from Indonesia's National Research Centre for Archaeology (ARKENAS), published April 11, 2018 in the journal PLOS ONE. (2018-04-11)

Scientists uncover details of viral infections that drive environmental, human health
New research from The Ohio State University offers a glimpse into the complexity of interactions between bacteria and the viruses -- or phages -- that infect them. (2018-04-10)

First human migration out of Africa more geographically widespread than previously thought
A project led by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has discovered a fossilized finger bone of an early modern human in the Nefud Desert of Saudi Arabia, dating to approximately 90,000 years ago. The discovery, described in Nature Ecology and Evolution, is the oldest directly dated Homo sapiens fossil outside of Africa and the Levant and indicates that early dispersals into Eurasia were more expansive than previously thought. (2018-04-09)

Substance that guides ant trail is produced by symbiotic bacteria
A research with ant from genus Atta reveals that a bacteria in their microbiota plays a key role in communication among individuals and also on the colony's defense against pathogens. A Brazilian group of scientists also showed how a type of fungus participates on stingless bees' development cycle. (2018-04-09)

Ohio Supercomputer Center's spring SUG conference showcases variety of research, OSC resources
The demand for high performance computing in Ohio is relentless, and it does not discriminate by field. At Thursday's Ohio Supercomputer Center Statewide Users Group (SUG) spring conference, OSC clients in fields spanning everything from astrophysics to linguistics gathered to share research highlights and hear updates about the center's direction and role in supporting science across Ohio. (2018-04-06)

Vitamin D blood test may one day speed bipolar diagnosis in kids
A blood test may have the potential to speed accurate diagnosis -- and proper treatment -- of bipolar disorder in children, new research suggests. (2018-04-05)

Giant solar tornadoes put researchers in a spin
Despite their appearance solar tornadoes are not rotating after all, according to a European team of scientists. A new analysis of these gigantic structures, each one several times the size of the Earth, indicates that they may have been misnamed because scientists have so far only been able to observe them using 2-dimensional images. (2018-04-05)

Ohio professor identifies hidden clues to ancient supercontinents, confirms Pannotia
An Ohio University geologist who first proposed the now-accepted supercontinent cycle theory in the 1980s has rallied to the cause of one of those supercontinents, Pannotia, that is in danger of being overlooked. (2018-04-04)

Study explores safety of rear-facing car seats in rear impact car crashes
Experts know that rear-facing car seats protect infants and toddlers in front and side impact crashes, but they are rarely discussed when it comes to rear-impact collisions. Because rear-impact crashes account for more than 25 percent of all accidents, researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center conducted a new study to explore the effectiveness of rear-facing car seats in this scenario. (2018-04-03)

Great magma erup­tions had 2 sources
Research at Finnish Museum of Natural History may explain controversies related to great magma eruptions: the magmas had in fact two contrasting sources. One of them was the upper mantle, as suggested in previous research, whereas the other was most probably a deep mantle plume. (2018-04-03)

How to fight side effects of hormone therapy for prostate cancer
Men on hormone therapy for prostate cancer may benefit significantly from hitting the gym with fellow patients and choosing more veggies and fewer cheeseburgers, a new study suggests. (2018-04-03)

Ohio University study shows high number of concussion-related symptoms in performing arts
A recent study released by the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine shows a stunning number of participants not only experienced concussion-related symptoms and head impacts but also continued performing either without reporting the incident or without receiving the recommended care. These participants were not taking part in any sporting contest at the time, however. They are theater personnel. (2018-04-03)

Island emus' size related to size of island homes
Emus that lived isolated on Australia's offshore islands until the 19th century, including Kangaroo Island, King Island and Tasmania, were smaller versions of their larger mainland relatives -- and their overall body size correlated to the size of the islands they inhabited. (2018-04-03)

Breakthrough in determining ages of different microbial groups
An international team of scientists, which includes the University of Bristol, have made a significant breakthrough in how we understand the first three-quarters of life on earth by creating new techniques for investigating the timing and co-evolution of microbial groups. (2018-04-02)

'Molecular scissors' could be key to cutting off diseases including HIV infection
One way to fight diseases including HIV infection and autoimmune disorders could involve changing how a naturally occurring enzyme called SAMHD1 works to influence the immune system, new research suggests. (2018-04-02)

Accurately diagnosing genetic disease prevents cancer, saves lives
New research testing a method of genetic screening in colon cancer patients could be the key to preventing cancer for thousands of people. (2018-03-29)

Fossils highlight Canada-Russia connection 53 million years ago
A new 53 million-year-old insect fossil called a scorpionfly discovered at B.C.'s McAbee fossil bed site bears a striking resemblance to fossils of the same age from Pacific-coastal Russia, giving further evidence of an ancient Canada-Russia connection. (2018-03-28)

Narcissists don't hunt for partners who are already taken -- but it doesn't stop them
Narcissists aren't necessarily on the hunt for partners who are already in a relationship - but that doesn't appear to stand in their way, either, new research suggests. (2018-03-27)

New standards for ancient protein studies set forth by multi-national group of researchers
A team of researchers from institutions at the leading edge of the new field of palaeoproteomics have published guidelines to provide it with a firm foundation. Ancient proteins are used to study everything from extinct species to ancient human diets to the evolution of diseases, and more. The guide, published in Nature Ecology & Evolution, aims to support good practices in the field and to ensure the generation of robust, reproducible results. (2018-03-26)

High GPA could work against young women job hunters
Stellar grades in college could hurt -- rather than help -- women new to the job market, according to a new study that suggests employers place more value on the perceived 'likability' of female applicants than on their academic success. (2018-03-22)

Are traumatic brain injuries in kids associated with later ADHD?
Severe traumatic brain injury in children was associated with increased risk for later onset of attention-deficit/hyperactivity up to about seven years after injury. (2018-03-19)

What happens to a dying cell's corpse? New findings illuminate an old problem
Scientists have discovered a curious way for cells to die. In studying it, they are learning about how remnants of diseased cells are normally chewed up and removed. (2018-03-19)

Race, pre-pregnancy BMI may help predict maternal weight gain
Race and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) both affect leptin and adiponectin levels, and leptin levels in mid-pregnancy may be an important predictor of weight gain during pregnancy, new research suggests. The results will be presented on in a poster on Sunday, March 18 at ENDO 2018, the 100th annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in Chicago, Ill. (2018-03-18)

Studying DNA of ancient humans from Morocco reveals ancestral surprises
After sequencing DNA in bone matter of several 15,000-year-old humans from North Africa, a region critical for understanding human history but one in which it has been challenging to connect genetic dots, researchers report a notable lack of relatedness to ancient Europeans, in their specimens - a finding that rules out hypotheses of gene flow from southern Europe into northern Africa at a particular time. (2018-03-15)

How much snow accumulates in North America each year? More than scientists thought
Scientists have revised an estimate of snow volume for the entire continent, and they've discovered that snow accumulation in a typical year is 50 percent higher than previously thought. Researchers at The Ohio State University place the yearly estimate at about 1,200 cubic miles of snow. If spread evenly across the surface of the continent from Canada to Mexico, the snow would measure a little over 7.5 inches deep. (2018-03-13)

Cancer 'signature' first step toward blood test for patients
A discovery by Melbourne researchers could help to identify patients with a particularly aggressive type of lung cancer that are likely to respond to immunotherapies currently used in the clinic to treat other cancers. The research has also revealed a unique molecular signature in the blood that could, in the future, be used to detect these aggressive lung cancers with a simple blood test. (2018-03-08)

Some teachers don't talk to anyone about violent incidents
One in five teachers who were the victims of physical or verbal violence at their schools didn't report the incidents to school administrators, according to a nationwide study. The results showed that significant minorities of teachers who experienced violence also didn't tell their colleagues (14 percent) or family (24 percent). (2018-03-07)

Ball or stuffed toy -- Do dogs 'know' what they're smelling?
Dogs' excellent sense of smell is well-known, whether it is in the context of searching for people or for contraband substances. However, the question of how dogs understand what they perceive with their sense of smell has largely been unexplored. In a study published today in the Journal of Comparative Psychology, scientists investigated this question and found evidence that dogs create a 'mental representation' of the target when they track a scent trail. (2018-03-05)

Engineers, physicians, team to replace heart valves using personalized modeling
Engineers are exploring applications for 3-D printers in the medical field, and the newest research is now going from the lab to the operating room. Experts at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center use CT scans to model a patient's aorta, then create a 3D-printed replica down to its exact texture based on the calcification in a patient's tissue. (2018-03-05)

Fossilised plant leaf wax provides new tool for understanding ancient climates
New research, published in Scientific Reports, has outlined a new methodology for estimating ancient atmospheric water content based on fossil plant leaf waxes. (2018-03-02)

Newly discovered CRISPR mechanism may help prevent dangerous errors
researchers at The Ohio State University report that they've figured out the mechanism by which the CRISPR gene-editing enzyme Cas9 determines where and when to cut DNA strands -- a discovery that could help prevent gene-cutting errors. (2018-02-28)

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