# Current Applied Mathematics News and Events

Current Applied Mathematics News and Events, Applied Mathematics News Articles.Sort By: Most Relevant | Most Viewed

Page 1 of 25 | 1000 Results

In response to Stephen Colbert, FAU professor says 'spice it up'

A research professor gives a ''shout out'' to comedian Stephen Colbert. His motivation? Colbert previously referred to mathematical equations as the devil's sentences and an unnatural commingling of letters and numbers - the worst being the quadratic equation - an infernal salad of numbers, letters and symbols. In response, the professor suggests that mathematics education needs to be enlivened so that students will recognize that this discipline is not merely a necessary evil, but a vibrant, exciting and fascinating subject. (2021-02-17)

New research finds drive-through mass-vaccination clinics could alter COVID-19 trajectory

Policymakers at all levels of government are racing to vaccinate hundreds of millions of people to save lives and blunt the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. New research published in the INFORMS Journal on Applied Analytics provides a simulated model for drive-through clinics that can be used for mass COVID-19 vaccinations based on the successful use of such a clinic to address H1N1. (2021-02-17)

Supercomputer turns back cosmic clock

Astronomers have tested a method for reconstructing the state of the early Universe by applying it to 4000 simulated universes using the ATERUI II supercomputer at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). They found that together with new observations the method can set better constraints on inflation, one of the most enigmatic events in the history of the Universe. The method can shorten the observation time required to distinguish between various inflation theories. (2021-02-16)

How icebergs really melt -- and what this could mean for climate change

Iceberg melt is responsible for about half the fresh water entering the ocean from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Accurately modelling how it enters is important for understanding potential impact on ocean circulation. (2021-02-16)

Can evolution be predicted?

Evolution adapts and optimizes organisms to their ecological niche. This could be used to predict how an organism evolves, but how can such predictions be rigorously tested? The Biophysics and Computational Neuroscience group led by professor Gašper Tkačik at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria has now created a mathematical framework to do exactly that. (2021-02-15)

RUDN University mathematician suggested a scheme for solving telegraph equations

A mathematician from RUDN University suggested a stable difference scheme for solving inverse problems for elliptic-telegraph and differential equations that are used to describe biological, physical, and sociological processes. (2021-02-11)

Swirlonic super particles baffle physicists

We report a novel state of active matter--a swirlonic state. It is comprised of swirlons, formed by groups of active particles orbiting their common center of mass. (2021-02-11)

A new quantum switch for electronics

A Russian physicist and his international colleagues studied a quantum point contact (QCP) between two conductors with external oscillating fields applied to the contact. They found that, for some types of contacts, an increase in the oscillation frequency above a critical value reduced the current to zero - a promising mechanism that can help create nanoelectronics components. (2021-02-11)

Study of supergiant star Betelgeuse unveils the cause of its pulsations

Betelgeuse is normally one of the brightest, most recognizable stars of the winter sky, marking the left shoulder of the constellation Orion. But lately, it has been behaving strangely: an unprecedentedly large drop in its brightness has been observed in early 2020 (Figure 1), which has prompted speculation that Betelgeuse may be about to explode. (2021-02-08)

Mathematics developed new classes of stellar dynamics systems solutions

The Vlasov-Poisson equations describe many important physical phenomena such as the distribution of gravitating particles in the interstellar space, high-temperature plasma kinetics, and the Landau damping effect. A joint team of scientists from the Mathematical Institute of RUDN University and the Mathematical Institute of the University of Munich suggested a new method to obtain stationary solutions for a system of Vlasov-Poisson equations in a three-dimensional case. (2021-02-05)

The Ramanujan Machine

The study, which was published in the journal

NUI Galway demonstrate the promise of precision genomics in cancer treatment

Researchers at NUI Galway have identified genomic signatures in women developing the most common type of breast cancer that can be associated with long-term survival. The NUI Galway team analysed the genomes of breast cancer patients to look for associations with survival rates using advanced statistical techniques. (2021-02-04)

'Audeo' teaches artificial intelligence to play the piano

A University of Washington team created Audeo, a system that can generate music using only visual cues of someone playing the piano. (2021-02-04)

RUDN University mathematicians developed new approach to 5g base stations operation

Mathematicians from RUDN University suggested and tested a new method to assess the productivity of fifth-generation (5G) base stations. The new technology would help get rid of mobile access stations and even out traffic fluctuations. (2021-02-03)

Chinese spice helps unravel the mysteries of human touch

New insight into how human brains detect and perceive different types of touch, such as fluttery vibrations and steady pressures, has been revealed by UCL scientists with the help of the ancient Chinese cooking ingredient, Szechuan pepper. (2021-01-28)

Study provides first real-world evidence of Covid-19 contact tracing app effectiveness

An international research collaboration, involving scientists from the UK, US and Spain, has shed new light on the usefulness of digital contact tracing (DCT) to control the spread of Covid-19. (2021-01-26)

Constructing termite turrets without a blueprint

Following a series of studies on termite mound physiology and morphogenesis over the past decade, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have now developed a mathematical model to help explain how termites construct their intricate mounds. (2021-01-19)

A mathematical study describes how metastasis starts

A scientific study carried out by the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) has produced a mathematical description of the way in which a tumor invades the epithelial cells and automatically quantifies the progression of the tumor and the remaining cell islands after its progression. The model developed by these researchers could be used to better understand the biophysical characteristics of the cells involved when developing new treatments for wound healing, organ regeneration, or cancer progression. (2021-01-18)

Can sodium-ion batteries replace trusty lithium-ion ones?

Sodium-ion batteries are a potential replacement for lithium batteries, but different anodes are needed for the same level of performance. Amorphous carbon is known to be a useful anode, because it has defects and voids that can be used to store sodium ions. Nitrogen/phosphorus-doped carbon also offers appealing electrical properties. In

Researchers track and analyze smallpox epidemics over three centuries

Researchers from McMaster University have studied and analyzed thousands of weekly records documenting the deaths of smallpox victims in London, England over the span of nearly 300 years. The analysis provides new and rare insights into the ecology of infectious disease, establishing that the time between epidemics, the size of the outbreaks, and even the season when the epidemics occurred, changed over the centuries. (2020-12-21)

Research develops new theoretical approach to manipulate light

The quest to discover pioneering new ways in which to manipulate how light travels through electromagnetic materials has taken a new, unusual twist. (2020-12-08)

A hint of new physics in polarized radiation from the early universe

Yuto Minami at KEK and Eiichiro Komatsu at Kavli IPMU developed a new method to calibrate detectors to the light from dust in our Galaxy, thereby describing a new physics, with 99.2 percent accuracy, that may show parity symmetry breaking. (2020-12-02)

RUDN University physicists described a new type of amorphous solid bodies

Many substances with different chemical and physical properties, from diamonds to graphite, are made up of carbon atoms. Amorphous forms of solid carbon do not have a fixed crystal structure and consist of structural units--nanosized graphene particles. A team of physicists from RUDN University studied the structure of amorphous carbon and suggested classifying it as a separate type of amorphous solid bodies: a molecular amorphic with enforced fragmentation. (2020-12-02)

Clothing, tattoos could be used to monitor patient health

A shirt that monitors your blood pressure or a pair of socks that can keep track of your cholesterol levels might be just a few years away from becoming reality. In Applied Physics Reviews, researchers examine the use of microfibers and nanofibers as wearable monitors that could keep track of a patient's vital signs. The microfiber- and nanofiber-based technology addresses growing concerns in the medical community about monitoring chronic illnesses as the population ages. (2020-12-01)

RUDN University mathematician suggested new approach to cooperative game

A mathematician from RUDN University developed a matrix representation of set functions. This approach is vivid and easy to check, and it makes the calculations easier. Among other things, the new development can be applied to cooperative game theory. (2020-12-01)

Researchers validate theory that neutrinos shape the universe

A research team including Kavli IPMU Principal Investigator Naoki Yoshida has, in a world first, succeeded in performing a 6-dimensional simulation of neutrinos moving through the universe. (2020-12-01)

RUDN University research team of mathematicians suggested a new decision making algorithm

A research team from RUDN University developed an algorithm to help large groups of people make optimal decisions in a short time. They confirmed the efficiency of their model using the example of the market at which the outbreak of COVID-19 began. The model helped the administration and sellers agree on closing the market and reach a consensus about the sums of compensations in just three steps. (2020-11-25)

RUDN University mathematicians applied 19th century ideas to modern computerized algebra systems

A team of mathematicians from RUDN University added new symbolic integration functionality to the Sage computerized algebra system. The team implemented ideas and methods suggested by the German mathematician Karl Weierstrass in the 1870s. (2020-11-25)

High achievement cultures may kill students' interest in math -- especially for girls

In countries where academic performance in math is high, students paradoxically tend to have lower levels of interest in the subject. A recent study suggests that this effect is even stronger among girls, potentially explaining why they tend to do slightly less well at math than their male peers in high-achieving countries. (2020-11-25)

Research shows the intrinsically nonlinear nature of receptive fields in vision

According to a study led by Marcelo Bertalmío, a researcher at the Department of Information and Communication Technologies, published in the journal of the group Nature,

A measure of smell

Meeting a 100-year-old challenge could lead the way to digital aromas (2020-11-19)

A student's experience with math is affected by the composition of the group they are in

Weak students in high-performing math classes, especially boys, feel more shame compared to students in low-performing math classes. Stronger students, in turn, feel more bored and enjoy mathematics less in high-performing math classes, according to a new study. (2020-11-17)

Making the best decision: Math shows diverse thinkers equal better results

A Florida State University researcher found that networks that consisted of both impulsive and deliberate individuals made, on average, quicker and better decisions than a group with homogenous thinkers. (2020-11-16)

UCLA researchers create armored emulsions as tiny test tubes for parallel reactions

UCLA bioengineers and mathematicians have invented the first-ever 'armored' emulsions. The armor comes in the form of tiny soft U-shaped cups, about a half-millimeter in length. With a hydrophobic (water-repelling) exterior and hydrophilic (water-attracting) interior, each U-shaped particle captures a fluid droplet resulting in an emulsion that stays intact following mixing. The research was published in Science Advances. (2020-11-12)

Connecting two classes of unconventional superconductors

The understanding of unconventional superconductivity is one of the most challenging and fascinating tasks of solid-state physics. Different classes of unconventional superconductors share that superconductivity emerges near a magnetic phase despite the underlying physics is different. (2020-11-11)

New black hole merger simulations could help power next-gen gravitational wave detectors

Rochester Institute of Technology scientists have developed new simulations of black holes with widely varying masses merging that could help power the next generation of gravitational wave detectors. RIT Professor Carlos Lousto and Research Associate James Healy from RIT's School of Mathematical Sciences outline these record-breaking simulations in a new

Disease-transmission model forecasts election outcomes

To simulate how interactions between voters may play a role in the upcoming presidential, gubernatorial and senatorial elections, a Northwestern University research team is adapting a model that is commonly used to study infectious diseases. (2020-10-29)

Biophysicists modelled the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes

A team of biophysics from leading Russian research and educational institutions (MSU, RUDN University, and the Federal Research and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia) developed a computer model that shows the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes. The common concepts regarding the mode of action of antiseptics turned out to be incorrect: instead of destroying bacterial membranes, they cause changes in their structure. These changes make the bacteria weaker and more susceptible to adverse external factors. (2020-10-28)

Lost and found: UH geologists 'resurrect' missing tectonic plate

A team of geologists at the University of Houston College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics believes they have found the lost plate known as Resurrection in northern Canada by using existing mantle tomography images. (2020-10-20)

Showcasing successful women's STEM achievements, a social vaccine against gender stereotypes

In a study published in the open access journal Frontiers in Psychology, a team of researchers led by the director of the GenTIC (Gender and ICT) research group at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Milagros Sáinz, have demonstrated the impact of female role models in influencing girls' preferences for studying STEM subjects. (2020-10-19)

A research professor gives a ''shout out'' to comedian Stephen Colbert. His motivation? Colbert previously referred to mathematical equations as the devil's sentences and an unnatural commingling of letters and numbers - the worst being the quadratic equation - an infernal salad of numbers, letters and symbols. In response, the professor suggests that mathematics education needs to be enlivened so that students will recognize that this discipline is not merely a necessary evil, but a vibrant, exciting and fascinating subject. (2021-02-17)

New research finds drive-through mass-vaccination clinics could alter COVID-19 trajectory

Policymakers at all levels of government are racing to vaccinate hundreds of millions of people to save lives and blunt the deadly COVID-19 pandemic. New research published in the INFORMS Journal on Applied Analytics provides a simulated model for drive-through clinics that can be used for mass COVID-19 vaccinations based on the successful use of such a clinic to address H1N1. (2021-02-17)

Supercomputer turns back cosmic clock

Astronomers have tested a method for reconstructing the state of the early Universe by applying it to 4000 simulated universes using the ATERUI II supercomputer at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). They found that together with new observations the method can set better constraints on inflation, one of the most enigmatic events in the history of the Universe. The method can shorten the observation time required to distinguish between various inflation theories. (2021-02-16)

How icebergs really melt -- and what this could mean for climate change

Iceberg melt is responsible for about half the fresh water entering the ocean from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Accurately modelling how it enters is important for understanding potential impact on ocean circulation. (2021-02-16)

Can evolution be predicted?

Evolution adapts and optimizes organisms to their ecological niche. This could be used to predict how an organism evolves, but how can such predictions be rigorously tested? The Biophysics and Computational Neuroscience group led by professor Gašper Tkačik at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria has now created a mathematical framework to do exactly that. (2021-02-15)

RUDN University mathematician suggested a scheme for solving telegraph equations

A mathematician from RUDN University suggested a stable difference scheme for solving inverse problems for elliptic-telegraph and differential equations that are used to describe biological, physical, and sociological processes. (2021-02-11)

Swirlonic super particles baffle physicists

We report a novel state of active matter--a swirlonic state. It is comprised of swirlons, formed by groups of active particles orbiting their common center of mass. (2021-02-11)

A new quantum switch for electronics

A Russian physicist and his international colleagues studied a quantum point contact (QCP) between two conductors with external oscillating fields applied to the contact. They found that, for some types of contacts, an increase in the oscillation frequency above a critical value reduced the current to zero - a promising mechanism that can help create nanoelectronics components. (2021-02-11)

Study of supergiant star Betelgeuse unveils the cause of its pulsations

Betelgeuse is normally one of the brightest, most recognizable stars of the winter sky, marking the left shoulder of the constellation Orion. But lately, it has been behaving strangely: an unprecedentedly large drop in its brightness has been observed in early 2020 (Figure 1), which has prompted speculation that Betelgeuse may be about to explode. (2021-02-08)

Mathematics developed new classes of stellar dynamics systems solutions

The Vlasov-Poisson equations describe many important physical phenomena such as the distribution of gravitating particles in the interstellar space, high-temperature plasma kinetics, and the Landau damping effect. A joint team of scientists from the Mathematical Institute of RUDN University and the Mathematical Institute of the University of Munich suggested a new method to obtain stationary solutions for a system of Vlasov-Poisson equations in a three-dimensional case. (2021-02-05)

The Ramanujan Machine

The study, which was published in the journal

*Nature*, was carried out by undergraduates from different faculties under the tutelage of Assistant Professor Ido Kaminer of the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the Technion. (2021-02-05)NUI Galway demonstrate the promise of precision genomics in cancer treatment

Researchers at NUI Galway have identified genomic signatures in women developing the most common type of breast cancer that can be associated with long-term survival. The NUI Galway team analysed the genomes of breast cancer patients to look for associations with survival rates using advanced statistical techniques. (2021-02-04)

'Audeo' teaches artificial intelligence to play the piano

A University of Washington team created Audeo, a system that can generate music using only visual cues of someone playing the piano. (2021-02-04)

RUDN University mathematicians developed new approach to 5g base stations operation

Mathematicians from RUDN University suggested and tested a new method to assess the productivity of fifth-generation (5G) base stations. The new technology would help get rid of mobile access stations and even out traffic fluctuations. (2021-02-03)

Chinese spice helps unravel the mysteries of human touch

New insight into how human brains detect and perceive different types of touch, such as fluttery vibrations and steady pressures, has been revealed by UCL scientists with the help of the ancient Chinese cooking ingredient, Szechuan pepper. (2021-01-28)

Study provides first real-world evidence of Covid-19 contact tracing app effectiveness

An international research collaboration, involving scientists from the UK, US and Spain, has shed new light on the usefulness of digital contact tracing (DCT) to control the spread of Covid-19. (2021-01-26)

Constructing termite turrets without a blueprint

Following a series of studies on termite mound physiology and morphogenesis over the past decade, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have now developed a mathematical model to help explain how termites construct their intricate mounds. (2021-01-19)

A mathematical study describes how metastasis starts

A scientific study carried out by the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) and the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) has produced a mathematical description of the way in which a tumor invades the epithelial cells and automatically quantifies the progression of the tumor and the remaining cell islands after its progression. The model developed by these researchers could be used to better understand the biophysical characteristics of the cells involved when developing new treatments for wound healing, organ regeneration, or cancer progression. (2021-01-18)

Can sodium-ion batteries replace trusty lithium-ion ones?

Sodium-ion batteries are a potential replacement for lithium batteries, but different anodes are needed for the same level of performance. Amorphous carbon is known to be a useful anode, because it has defects and voids that can be used to store sodium ions. Nitrogen/phosphorus-doped carbon also offers appealing electrical properties. In

*Applied Physics Reviews*, researchers describe how they applied basic physical concepts of atomic scale to build high-performance anodes for sodium-ion batteries. (2021-01-12)Researchers track and analyze smallpox epidemics over three centuries

Researchers from McMaster University have studied and analyzed thousands of weekly records documenting the deaths of smallpox victims in London, England over the span of nearly 300 years. The analysis provides new and rare insights into the ecology of infectious disease, establishing that the time between epidemics, the size of the outbreaks, and even the season when the epidemics occurred, changed over the centuries. (2020-12-21)

Research develops new theoretical approach to manipulate light

The quest to discover pioneering new ways in which to manipulate how light travels through electromagnetic materials has taken a new, unusual twist. (2020-12-08)

A hint of new physics in polarized radiation from the early universe

Yuto Minami at KEK and Eiichiro Komatsu at Kavli IPMU developed a new method to calibrate detectors to the light from dust in our Galaxy, thereby describing a new physics, with 99.2 percent accuracy, that may show parity symmetry breaking. (2020-12-02)

RUDN University physicists described a new type of amorphous solid bodies

Many substances with different chemical and physical properties, from diamonds to graphite, are made up of carbon atoms. Amorphous forms of solid carbon do not have a fixed crystal structure and consist of structural units--nanosized graphene particles. A team of physicists from RUDN University studied the structure of amorphous carbon and suggested classifying it as a separate type of amorphous solid bodies: a molecular amorphic with enforced fragmentation. (2020-12-02)

Clothing, tattoos could be used to monitor patient health

A shirt that monitors your blood pressure or a pair of socks that can keep track of your cholesterol levels might be just a few years away from becoming reality. In Applied Physics Reviews, researchers examine the use of microfibers and nanofibers as wearable monitors that could keep track of a patient's vital signs. The microfiber- and nanofiber-based technology addresses growing concerns in the medical community about monitoring chronic illnesses as the population ages. (2020-12-01)

RUDN University mathematician suggested new approach to cooperative game

A mathematician from RUDN University developed a matrix representation of set functions. This approach is vivid and easy to check, and it makes the calculations easier. Among other things, the new development can be applied to cooperative game theory. (2020-12-01)

Researchers validate theory that neutrinos shape the universe

A research team including Kavli IPMU Principal Investigator Naoki Yoshida has, in a world first, succeeded in performing a 6-dimensional simulation of neutrinos moving through the universe. (2020-12-01)

RUDN University research team of mathematicians suggested a new decision making algorithm

A research team from RUDN University developed an algorithm to help large groups of people make optimal decisions in a short time. They confirmed the efficiency of their model using the example of the market at which the outbreak of COVID-19 began. The model helped the administration and sellers agree on closing the market and reach a consensus about the sums of compensations in just three steps. (2020-11-25)

RUDN University mathematicians applied 19th century ideas to modern computerized algebra systems

A team of mathematicians from RUDN University added new symbolic integration functionality to the Sage computerized algebra system. The team implemented ideas and methods suggested by the German mathematician Karl Weierstrass in the 1870s. (2020-11-25)

High achievement cultures may kill students' interest in math -- especially for girls

In countries where academic performance in math is high, students paradoxically tend to have lower levels of interest in the subject. A recent study suggests that this effect is even stronger among girls, potentially explaining why they tend to do slightly less well at math than their male peers in high-achieving countries. (2020-11-25)

Research shows the intrinsically nonlinear nature of receptive fields in vision

According to a study led by Marcelo Bertalmío, a researcher at the Department of Information and Communication Technologies, published in the journal of the group Nature,

*Scientific Reports*, which proposes a paradigm shift for both vision science and for artificial intelligence. (2020-11-23)A measure of smell

Meeting a 100-year-old challenge could lead the way to digital aromas (2020-11-19)

A student's experience with math is affected by the composition of the group they are in

Weak students in high-performing math classes, especially boys, feel more shame compared to students in low-performing math classes. Stronger students, in turn, feel more bored and enjoy mathematics less in high-performing math classes, according to a new study. (2020-11-17)

Making the best decision: Math shows diverse thinkers equal better results

A Florida State University researcher found that networks that consisted of both impulsive and deliberate individuals made, on average, quicker and better decisions than a group with homogenous thinkers. (2020-11-16)

UCLA researchers create armored emulsions as tiny test tubes for parallel reactions

UCLA bioengineers and mathematicians have invented the first-ever 'armored' emulsions. The armor comes in the form of tiny soft U-shaped cups, about a half-millimeter in length. With a hydrophobic (water-repelling) exterior and hydrophilic (water-attracting) interior, each U-shaped particle captures a fluid droplet resulting in an emulsion that stays intact following mixing. The research was published in Science Advances. (2020-11-12)

Connecting two classes of unconventional superconductors

The understanding of unconventional superconductivity is one of the most challenging and fascinating tasks of solid-state physics. Different classes of unconventional superconductors share that superconductivity emerges near a magnetic phase despite the underlying physics is different. (2020-11-11)

New black hole merger simulations could help power next-gen gravitational wave detectors

Rochester Institute of Technology scientists have developed new simulations of black holes with widely varying masses merging that could help power the next generation of gravitational wave detectors. RIT Professor Carlos Lousto and Research Associate James Healy from RIT's School of Mathematical Sciences outline these record-breaking simulations in a new

*Physical Review Letters*paper. (2020-11-09)Disease-transmission model forecasts election outcomes

To simulate how interactions between voters may play a role in the upcoming presidential, gubernatorial and senatorial elections, a Northwestern University research team is adapting a model that is commonly used to study infectious diseases. (2020-10-29)

Biophysicists modelled the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes

A team of biophysics from leading Russian research and educational institutions (MSU, RUDN University, and the Federal Research and Clinical Center of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia) developed a computer model that shows the effect of antiseptics on bacterial membranes. The common concepts regarding the mode of action of antiseptics turned out to be incorrect: instead of destroying bacterial membranes, they cause changes in their structure. These changes make the bacteria weaker and more susceptible to adverse external factors. (2020-10-28)

Lost and found: UH geologists 'resurrect' missing tectonic plate

A team of geologists at the University of Houston College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics believes they have found the lost plate known as Resurrection in northern Canada by using existing mantle tomography images. (2020-10-20)

Showcasing successful women's STEM achievements, a social vaccine against gender stereotypes

In a study published in the open access journal Frontiers in Psychology, a team of researchers led by the director of the GenTIC (Gender and ICT) research group at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Milagros Sáinz, have demonstrated the impact of female role models in influencing girls' preferences for studying STEM subjects. (2020-10-19)

Brightsurf.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.