# Current Applied Mathematics News and Events | Page 4

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UT mathematician develops model to control spread of aquatic invasive species

Adjusting the water flow rate in a river can prevent invasive species from moving upstream and expanding their range. An applied mathematician at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, has developed a partial differential equation model to find the desired flow rate to reduce invasive populations. (2019-11-21)

Foam offers way to manipulate light

A study by Princeton scientists has shown that a type of foam long studied by scientists is able to block particular wavelengths of light, a coveted property for next-generation information technology that uses light instead of electricity. (2019-11-18)

A better understanding of soft artificial muscles

Artificial muscles will power the soft robots and wearable devices of the future. But more needs to be understood about the underlying mechanics of these powerful structures in order to design and build new devices. Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have uncovered some of the fundamental physical properties of artificial muscle fibers. (2019-11-15)

New laser opens up large, underused region of the electromagnetic spectrum

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), in collaboration with MIT and the US Army, have developed a compact, room temperature, widely tunable terahertz laser. (2019-11-14)

What future do emperor penguins face?

Emperor penguins establish their colonies on sea ice under extremely specific conditions. Yet, this ice will gradually melt as the climate warms, depriving these birds of their habitat, food sources, and the capacity to raise their young. To predict what will happen to emperor penguin colonies, a team of scientists led by the Chizé Centre for Biological Studies (CNRS / University of La Rochelle) applied a combination of climate and population models to three different scenarios. (2019-11-12)

Deep learning expands study of nuclear waste remediation

A research collaboration between Berkeley Lab, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Brown University, and NVIDIA has achieved exaflop performance with a deep learning application used to model subsurface flow in the study of nuclear waste remediation. (2019-11-12)

Study finds brains of girls and boys are similar, producing equal math ability

Jessica Cantlon at Carnegie Mellon University led a research team that comprehensively examined the brain development of young boys and girls. Their research shows no gender difference in brain function or math ability. (2019-11-08)

Movement and flow: Simulating complexity of fluids and strands in the virtual world

Simulating the physics behind the movement of liquids and how fluids -- thick or thin -- interact with other objects is a key problem in visual effects. A team of computer scientists are addressing this problem in computer graphics with a novel, multi-scale framework that realistically and precisely imitates the complex dynamics of strands interacting with so-called shear-dependent liquids, such as mud, oil paint, melted chocolate, or pasta sauce. (2019-10-31)

Tiny swimming donuts deliver the goods

Bacteria and other swimming microorganisms evolved to thrive in challenging environments, and researchers struggle to mimic their unique abilities for biomedical technologies, but fabrication challenges created a manufacturing bottleneck. Microscopic, 3D-printed, tori -- donuts -- coated with nickel and platinum may bridge the gap between biological and synthetic swimmers, according to an international team of researchers. (2019-10-30)

Artificial networks shed light on human face recognition

Our brains are so primed to recognize faces - or to tell people apart - that we rarely even stop to think about it, but what happens in the brain when it engages in such recognition is still far from understood. In a new study reported today in Nature Communications, researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have shed new light on this issue. They found a striking similarity between the way in which faces are encoded in the brain and in successfully performing artificial intelligence systems known as deep neural networks. (2019-10-30)

Could mathematics help to better treat cancer?

Impaired information processing may prevent cells from perceiving their environment correctly; they then start acting in an uncontrolled way and this can lead to the development of cancer. To better understand how impaired information transmission influences the activity of diseased cells, researchers (UNIGE) are going beyond the field of biology. They propose to examine cellular communication in the light of information theory, a mathematical theory more commonly used in computer science. (2019-10-29)

Crystallization clarified, researchers report

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Northwestern University have made it possible to observe and simulate the self-assembly of crystalline materials at a much higher resolution than before. (2019-10-28)

Follow the dotted line

In a development offering great promise for additive manufacturing, Princeton University researchers have created a method to precisely create droplets using a jet of liquid. The technique allows manufacturers to quickly generate drops of material, finely control their size and locate them within a 3D space. (2019-10-28)

Prisoner's dilemma game reveals cooperation leads to leadership

Game theory has historically studied cooperation and hierarchy, and has sought to explain why individuals cooperate, even though they might be better off not to do so. In this week's Chaos, researchers use a specialized graph to map a social network of cooperators and their neighbors; they discovered cooperators can attract more neighbors to follow their behaviors and are more likely to become leaders, indicating different learning patterns exist between cooperators and defectors. (2019-10-23)

RUDN scientists proved a theorem that would help calculate water movement in porous rock

Mathematicians from RUDN University have proved the unique continuation theorem for a one dimensional solution to a fractional order diffusion problem. The results of RUDN University mathematicians' work are needed for a more accurate analysis of solutions and their numerical simulation. In the general case, there are no such continuation theorems for other classes of similar equations. (2019-10-23)

Mathematical modelling vital to tackling disease outbreaks

Predicting and controlling disease outbreaks would be easier and more reliable with the wider application of mathematical modelling, according to a new study. The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Waterloo, University of Maryland and Yale's School of Public Health. (2019-10-17)

Parental gender attitudes associated with Japanese girls' reduced university participation

Researchers in Japan have found stereotypical gender role attitudes and negative images of STEM fields of Japanese parents may be associated with girls' reduced university participation. (2019-10-16)

Creating miracles with polymeric fibers

Mohan Edirisinghe leads a team at University College London studying the fabrication of polymeric nanofibers and microfibers -- very thin fibers made up of polymers. The fibers can be woven into textilelike structures but depending on the use, different fiber thicknesses may be necessary. To study the effects of various parameters on fiber fabrication, the researchers compared the characteristics of fibers created in different ways. The group describes the work in Applied Physics Reviews. (2019-10-15)

RUDN researchers proved that flash-memory 'fingerprints' of electronic devices are truly unique

Experts in applied mathematics at RUDN University have experimentally proved that it is possible to accurately identify electronic devices by defects in flash memory cells. It turned out that the distribution and nature of these defects are unique, and they can play the role of 'fingerprints' for memory chips. The new method will improve protection against hacker attacks, as it would create electronic flash keys that cannot be faked. The results of the study are published in the journal IEEE Access. (2019-10-14)

New science on cracking leads to self-healing materials

Cracks in the desert floor appear random to the untrained eye, even beautifully so, but the mathematics governing patterns of dried clay turn out to be predictable -- and useful in designing advanced materials. (2019-10-10)

Explained: The lifetime of an evaporating liquid drop

The lifespan of a liquid droplet which is transforming into vapour can now be predicted thanks to a theory developed at the University of Warwick. The new understanding can now be exploited in a myriad of natural and industrial settings where the lifetime of liquid drops governs a process' behaviour and efficiency. (2019-10-10)

Stabilizing multilayer flows may improve transportation of heavy oils

During the past 20 years, the oil industry has begun to transition away from light oils toward heavier oils. But transporting heavy oils cost-effectively is a challenge because heavy oils are viscous -- essentially a thick, sticky and semifluid mess. One way to outmaneuver this problem, reported in Physics of Fluids, is a viscoplastic lubrication technique. It can complement existing methods to stabilize interfaces within multilayer flows. (2019-10-08)

Computer kidney sheds light on proper hydration

A new computer kidney developed at the University of Waterloo could tell researchers more about the impacts of medicines taken by people who don't drink enough water. (2019-10-07)

Researchers discover critical process for how breast cancer spreads in bones

Researchers from the University of Notre Dame have identified a pair of proteins believed to be critical for spreading, or metastasizing, breast cancer to bone. (2019-10-07)

Shape-shifting structures take the form of a face, antenna

Researchers have created the most complex shape-shifting structures to date -- lattices composed of multiple materials that grow or shrink in response to changes in temperature. To demonstrate their technique, team printed flat lattices that shape morph into a frequency-shifting antenna or the face of pioneering mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss in response to a change in temperature. (2019-10-03)

RUDN University mathematicians help improve efficiency of data centers using Markov chains

RUDN University mathematicians created a model of maximum efficiency of data centers. It is based on a nontrivial Markov chain. In addition to the obvious practical applications of the results for the organization of servers and data centers, the theoretical part will be useful for the theory of queues and queuing, as well as for working with big data and neural networks. The study is published in the journal Mathematics. (2019-09-30)

Research suggests there's a better way to teach physics to university students

Physicists and educators at the University of Kansas has developed a curriculum for college-level students that shows promise in helping students in introductory physics classes further practice and develop their calculus skills. (2019-09-25)

Staying at elementary school for longer associated with higher student attainment

A new study has discovered that US students achieve better results in reading and mathematics tests when they stay in elementary school for grades 6 (age 11-12) and 7 (age 12-13), rather than transfer to middle school. In contrast, students in grade 8 (age 13-14) achieve better results in middle school than high school. (2019-09-20)

Big cities breed partners in crime

Researchers have long known that bigger cities disproportionately generate more crime. Now a new study from Northwestern University and the Santa Fe Institute explains why: It's easier for criminals to find collaborators. (2019-09-19)

RUDN University mathematician first described the movement in a flat strip of plasma

RUDN University mathematician for the first time proved the theorem of existence and uniqueness of solutions of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in a strip. Such theorems are very rare for partial differential equations. The new results can be applied, for instance, in astrophysics, in describing the propagation of plane waves in plasma. The article is published in the journal Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications. (2019-09-19)

Where to park your car, according to math

In a world where the best parking space is the one that minimizes time spent in the lot, 2 physicists compare parking strategies and settle on a prudent approach. (2019-09-19)

Immune response depends on mathematics of narrow escapes

The way immune cells pick friends from foes can be described by a classic maths puzzle known as the 'narrow escape problem'. (2019-09-16)

The ever-winning lottery ticket: Mathematicians solve a dusty mystery

After years of work, University of Copenhagen mathematics researchers have answered a mysterious half-century-old riddle. The mystery was all but forgotten until a Danish researcher heard about, and then decided to tackle it. (2019-09-09)

People can see beauty in complex mathematics, study shows

Ordinary people see beauty in complex mathematical arguments in the same way they can appreciate a beautiful landscape painting or a piano sonata. (2019-09-05)

New methods for optimization of vibration shock protection systems are proposed

Nowadays the words ''uncertainty'' and ''multicriteria'' characterize in a best way the relevance and complexity of modern problems of management of a variety of dynamic objects and processes. (2019-09-04)

New mathematical model can improve radiation therapy of brain tumours

Researchers have developed a new model to optimize radiation therapy and significantly increase the number of tumor cells killed during treatment. The new mathematical model, outlined in a recent study led by a University of Waterloo student, can use information about where the majority of the cells in a tumor are located allowing for radiation treatment to be administered to the densest area. (2019-09-04)

Researchers develop a better way to harness the power of solar panels

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have developed a way to better harness the volume of energy collected by solar panels. In a new study, the researchers developed an algorithm that increases the efficiency of the solar photovoltaic (PV) system and reduces the volume of power currently being wasted due to a lack of effective controls. (2019-08-27)

A new model of heat transfer in crystals was developed by Russian scientists

The understanding of atomic level processes opens a wide range of prospects in nanoelectronics and material engineering. One of such studies is a model suggested by a team of scientists from Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU). The model describes the distribution of heat in ultrapure crystals at the atomic level. (2019-08-26)

Computer model could help test new sickle cell drugs

A new computer model that captures the dynamics of the red blood cell sickling process could help in evaluating drugs for treating sickle cell disease. (2019-08-22)

Speed identified as the best predictor of car crashes

Speeding is the riskiest kind of aggressive driving, according to a unique analysis of data from on-board devices in vehicles. (2019-08-21)

Adjusting the water flow rate in a river can prevent invasive species from moving upstream and expanding their range. An applied mathematician at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, has developed a partial differential equation model to find the desired flow rate to reduce invasive populations. (2019-11-21)

Foam offers way to manipulate light

A study by Princeton scientists has shown that a type of foam long studied by scientists is able to block particular wavelengths of light, a coveted property for next-generation information technology that uses light instead of electricity. (2019-11-18)

A better understanding of soft artificial muscles

Artificial muscles will power the soft robots and wearable devices of the future. But more needs to be understood about the underlying mechanics of these powerful structures in order to design and build new devices. Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have uncovered some of the fundamental physical properties of artificial muscle fibers. (2019-11-15)

New laser opens up large, underused region of the electromagnetic spectrum

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), in collaboration with MIT and the US Army, have developed a compact, room temperature, widely tunable terahertz laser. (2019-11-14)

What future do emperor penguins face?

Emperor penguins establish their colonies on sea ice under extremely specific conditions. Yet, this ice will gradually melt as the climate warms, depriving these birds of their habitat, food sources, and the capacity to raise their young. To predict what will happen to emperor penguin colonies, a team of scientists led by the Chizé Centre for Biological Studies (CNRS / University of La Rochelle) applied a combination of climate and population models to three different scenarios. (2019-11-12)

Deep learning expands study of nuclear waste remediation

A research collaboration between Berkeley Lab, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Brown University, and NVIDIA has achieved exaflop performance with a deep learning application used to model subsurface flow in the study of nuclear waste remediation. (2019-11-12)

Study finds brains of girls and boys are similar, producing equal math ability

Jessica Cantlon at Carnegie Mellon University led a research team that comprehensively examined the brain development of young boys and girls. Their research shows no gender difference in brain function or math ability. (2019-11-08)

Movement and flow: Simulating complexity of fluids and strands in the virtual world

Simulating the physics behind the movement of liquids and how fluids -- thick or thin -- interact with other objects is a key problem in visual effects. A team of computer scientists are addressing this problem in computer graphics with a novel, multi-scale framework that realistically and precisely imitates the complex dynamics of strands interacting with so-called shear-dependent liquids, such as mud, oil paint, melted chocolate, or pasta sauce. (2019-10-31)

Tiny swimming donuts deliver the goods

Bacteria and other swimming microorganisms evolved to thrive in challenging environments, and researchers struggle to mimic their unique abilities for biomedical technologies, but fabrication challenges created a manufacturing bottleneck. Microscopic, 3D-printed, tori -- donuts -- coated with nickel and platinum may bridge the gap between biological and synthetic swimmers, according to an international team of researchers. (2019-10-30)

Artificial networks shed light on human face recognition

Our brains are so primed to recognize faces - or to tell people apart - that we rarely even stop to think about it, but what happens in the brain when it engages in such recognition is still far from understood. In a new study reported today in Nature Communications, researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science have shed new light on this issue. They found a striking similarity between the way in which faces are encoded in the brain and in successfully performing artificial intelligence systems known as deep neural networks. (2019-10-30)

Could mathematics help to better treat cancer?

Impaired information processing may prevent cells from perceiving their environment correctly; they then start acting in an uncontrolled way and this can lead to the development of cancer. To better understand how impaired information transmission influences the activity of diseased cells, researchers (UNIGE) are going beyond the field of biology. They propose to examine cellular communication in the light of information theory, a mathematical theory more commonly used in computer science. (2019-10-29)

Crystallization clarified, researchers report

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Northwestern University have made it possible to observe and simulate the self-assembly of crystalline materials at a much higher resolution than before. (2019-10-28)

Follow the dotted line

In a development offering great promise for additive manufacturing, Princeton University researchers have created a method to precisely create droplets using a jet of liquid. The technique allows manufacturers to quickly generate drops of material, finely control their size and locate them within a 3D space. (2019-10-28)

Prisoner's dilemma game reveals cooperation leads to leadership

Game theory has historically studied cooperation and hierarchy, and has sought to explain why individuals cooperate, even though they might be better off not to do so. In this week's Chaos, researchers use a specialized graph to map a social network of cooperators and their neighbors; they discovered cooperators can attract more neighbors to follow their behaviors and are more likely to become leaders, indicating different learning patterns exist between cooperators and defectors. (2019-10-23)

RUDN scientists proved a theorem that would help calculate water movement in porous rock

Mathematicians from RUDN University have proved the unique continuation theorem for a one dimensional solution to a fractional order diffusion problem. The results of RUDN University mathematicians' work are needed for a more accurate analysis of solutions and their numerical simulation. In the general case, there are no such continuation theorems for other classes of similar equations. (2019-10-23)

Mathematical modelling vital to tackling disease outbreaks

Predicting and controlling disease outbreaks would be easier and more reliable with the wider application of mathematical modelling, according to a new study. The study was conducted by researchers at the University of Waterloo, University of Maryland and Yale's School of Public Health. (2019-10-17)

Parental gender attitudes associated with Japanese girls' reduced university participation

Researchers in Japan have found stereotypical gender role attitudes and negative images of STEM fields of Japanese parents may be associated with girls' reduced university participation. (2019-10-16)

Creating miracles with polymeric fibers

Mohan Edirisinghe leads a team at University College London studying the fabrication of polymeric nanofibers and microfibers -- very thin fibers made up of polymers. The fibers can be woven into textilelike structures but depending on the use, different fiber thicknesses may be necessary. To study the effects of various parameters on fiber fabrication, the researchers compared the characteristics of fibers created in different ways. The group describes the work in Applied Physics Reviews. (2019-10-15)

RUDN researchers proved that flash-memory 'fingerprints' of electronic devices are truly unique

Experts in applied mathematics at RUDN University have experimentally proved that it is possible to accurately identify electronic devices by defects in flash memory cells. It turned out that the distribution and nature of these defects are unique, and they can play the role of 'fingerprints' for memory chips. The new method will improve protection against hacker attacks, as it would create electronic flash keys that cannot be faked. The results of the study are published in the journal IEEE Access. (2019-10-14)

New science on cracking leads to self-healing materials

Cracks in the desert floor appear random to the untrained eye, even beautifully so, but the mathematics governing patterns of dried clay turn out to be predictable -- and useful in designing advanced materials. (2019-10-10)

Explained: The lifetime of an evaporating liquid drop

The lifespan of a liquid droplet which is transforming into vapour can now be predicted thanks to a theory developed at the University of Warwick. The new understanding can now be exploited in a myriad of natural and industrial settings where the lifetime of liquid drops governs a process' behaviour and efficiency. (2019-10-10)

Stabilizing multilayer flows may improve transportation of heavy oils

During the past 20 years, the oil industry has begun to transition away from light oils toward heavier oils. But transporting heavy oils cost-effectively is a challenge because heavy oils are viscous -- essentially a thick, sticky and semifluid mess. One way to outmaneuver this problem, reported in Physics of Fluids, is a viscoplastic lubrication technique. It can complement existing methods to stabilize interfaces within multilayer flows. (2019-10-08)

Computer kidney sheds light on proper hydration

A new computer kidney developed at the University of Waterloo could tell researchers more about the impacts of medicines taken by people who don't drink enough water. (2019-10-07)

Researchers discover critical process for how breast cancer spreads in bones

Researchers from the University of Notre Dame have identified a pair of proteins believed to be critical for spreading, or metastasizing, breast cancer to bone. (2019-10-07)

Shape-shifting structures take the form of a face, antenna

Researchers have created the most complex shape-shifting structures to date -- lattices composed of multiple materials that grow or shrink in response to changes in temperature. To demonstrate their technique, team printed flat lattices that shape morph into a frequency-shifting antenna or the face of pioneering mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss in response to a change in temperature. (2019-10-03)

RUDN University mathematicians help improve efficiency of data centers using Markov chains

RUDN University mathematicians created a model of maximum efficiency of data centers. It is based on a nontrivial Markov chain. In addition to the obvious practical applications of the results for the organization of servers and data centers, the theoretical part will be useful for the theory of queues and queuing, as well as for working with big data and neural networks. The study is published in the journal Mathematics. (2019-09-30)

Research suggests there's a better way to teach physics to university students

Physicists and educators at the University of Kansas has developed a curriculum for college-level students that shows promise in helping students in introductory physics classes further practice and develop their calculus skills. (2019-09-25)

Staying at elementary school for longer associated with higher student attainment

A new study has discovered that US students achieve better results in reading and mathematics tests when they stay in elementary school for grades 6 (age 11-12) and 7 (age 12-13), rather than transfer to middle school. In contrast, students in grade 8 (age 13-14) achieve better results in middle school than high school. (2019-09-20)

Big cities breed partners in crime

Researchers have long known that bigger cities disproportionately generate more crime. Now a new study from Northwestern University and the Santa Fe Institute explains why: It's easier for criminals to find collaborators. (2019-09-19)

RUDN University mathematician first described the movement in a flat strip of plasma

RUDN University mathematician for the first time proved the theorem of existence and uniqueness of solutions of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in a strip. Such theorems are very rare for partial differential equations. The new results can be applied, for instance, in astrophysics, in describing the propagation of plane waves in plasma. The article is published in the journal Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications. (2019-09-19)

Where to park your car, according to math

In a world where the best parking space is the one that minimizes time spent in the lot, 2 physicists compare parking strategies and settle on a prudent approach. (2019-09-19)

Immune response depends on mathematics of narrow escapes

The way immune cells pick friends from foes can be described by a classic maths puzzle known as the 'narrow escape problem'. (2019-09-16)

The ever-winning lottery ticket: Mathematicians solve a dusty mystery

After years of work, University of Copenhagen mathematics researchers have answered a mysterious half-century-old riddle. The mystery was all but forgotten until a Danish researcher heard about, and then decided to tackle it. (2019-09-09)

People can see beauty in complex mathematics, study shows

Ordinary people see beauty in complex mathematical arguments in the same way they can appreciate a beautiful landscape painting or a piano sonata. (2019-09-05)

New methods for optimization of vibration shock protection systems are proposed

Nowadays the words ''uncertainty'' and ''multicriteria'' characterize in a best way the relevance and complexity of modern problems of management of a variety of dynamic objects and processes. (2019-09-04)

New mathematical model can improve radiation therapy of brain tumours

Researchers have developed a new model to optimize radiation therapy and significantly increase the number of tumor cells killed during treatment. The new mathematical model, outlined in a recent study led by a University of Waterloo student, can use information about where the majority of the cells in a tumor are located allowing for radiation treatment to be administered to the densest area. (2019-09-04)

Researchers develop a better way to harness the power of solar panels

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have developed a way to better harness the volume of energy collected by solar panels. In a new study, the researchers developed an algorithm that increases the efficiency of the solar photovoltaic (PV) system and reduces the volume of power currently being wasted due to a lack of effective controls. (2019-08-27)

A new model of heat transfer in crystals was developed by Russian scientists

The understanding of atomic level processes opens a wide range of prospects in nanoelectronics and material engineering. One of such studies is a model suggested by a team of scientists from Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU). The model describes the distribution of heat in ultrapure crystals at the atomic level. (2019-08-26)

Computer model could help test new sickle cell drugs

A new computer model that captures the dynamics of the red blood cell sickling process could help in evaluating drugs for treating sickle cell disease. (2019-08-22)

Speed identified as the best predictor of car crashes

Speeding is the riskiest kind of aggressive driving, according to a unique analysis of data from on-board devices in vehicles. (2019-08-21)

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