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To find the right network model, compare all possible histories
Scientists rarely have the historical data they need to see exactly how nodes in a network became connected. But a new paper in Physical Review Letters offers hope for reconstructing the missing information, using a new method to evaluate the rules that generate network models. (2021-01-25)

Researchers identify the physical mechanism that can kill bacteria with gold nanoparticles
A multidisciplinary team of researchers have discovered that the mechanical deformation of bacteria is a toxic mechanism that can kill bacteria with gold nanoparticles. The results of this research are a breakthrough in researchers' understanding the antibacterial effects of nanoparticles and their efforts to find new materials with bactericide properties. (2020-12-10)

Predicting British railway delays using artificial intelligence
Over the past 20 years, the number of passengers traveling on British train networks has almost doubled to 1.7 billion annually. With numbers like that it's clear that people rely on rail service in Great Britain, and how many disgruntled patrons there would be when delays occur. A recent study from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign used British Railway data and an artificial intelligence model to improve the ability to predict delays in railway networks. (2020-12-10)

Nervous systems of insects inspire efficient future AI systems
Study explores functions of fruit fly's nervous system in food seeking / results valuable for the development and control of artificial intelligence. (2020-11-05)

Paper: Congress must clarify limits of gene-editing technologies
How the next Congress decides to handle the issue editing human sperm and eggs will affect the science, ethics and financing of genomic editing for decades to come, said Jacob S. Sherkow, a professor of law at Illinois who studies the ethical and policy implications of advanced biotechnologies. (2020-10-21)

Predicting sports performance with "big data"
Smartphones and wearable devices are not simple accessories for athletes. A CNRS researcher has developed a simple mathematical model for studying the performance of endurance athletes. A recent collaboration with a scientist from the Polar Electro Oy company (Finland) made it possible to apply the model to data gathered from approximately 14,000 runners training in real conditions. (2020-10-06)

Food safety model may help pandemic management
No precedent exists for managing the COVID-19 pandemic - although a plan for working through major public food scares may point to the best ways of alerting and communicating with the public. (2020-08-17)

Proposed framework for integrating chatbots into health care
While chatbots are becoming more widespread in health care, it's important to implement them thoughtfully and constantly evaluate them in a variety of ways, Penn authors argue. (2020-07-24)

Working on the frontier of nanoparticle research
The Computer-Aided Nano and Energy Lab (CANELa) at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering is advancing the field of nanoparticle research, modeling metal nanoclusters that are atomically precise in structure. An article highlighting their work and its influence on the field of nanoparticles is featured on the cover of the latest issue of Dalton Transactions. (2020-07-21)

National poll: Some parents may not properly protect children from the sun
While the majority of parents recognize the importance of sunscreen, they may not always use best practices to protect children from getting burned, a new national poll suggests. (2020-07-20)

Pitt study shows optical fields can modify electrons in metal
The paper, 'Coherent multidimensional photoelectron spectroscopy of ultrafast quasiparticle dressing by light,' describes how applying intense optical fields to electrons in metals can change how electrons flow between the ions. The results could introduce new innovations by using light to control the properties of matter. (2020-06-12)

Getting groundbreaking medical technology out of the lab
New medical technologies hold immense promise for treating a range of conditions. Despite the pace of innovation in the medtech field, however, most discoveries never make it out of the laboratory. New research from EPFL could fast-track the route to clinical translation. (2020-03-16)

MTU engineers zap and unstick underwater smart glue
Turning adhesion on and off is what makes a glue smart. Inspired by nature, catechols are synthetic compounds that mimic the wet-but-still-sticky proteins found in mussel feet and offer promise for underwater glue, wound dressings, prosthetic attachments or even making car parts and in other manufacturing. A Michigan Tech team has used electricity for the first time to deactivate a catechol-containing adhesive in salt water. (2020-03-02)

Racial discrimination in mortgage market persistent over last four decades
A new Northwestern University analysis finds that racial disparities in the mortgage market suggest that discrimination in loan denial and cost has not declined much over the previous 30 to 40 years, yet discrimination in the housing market has decreased during the same time period. (2020-01-23)

Wearable AC
One day, soldiers could cool down on the military battlefield -- preventing heat stroke or exhaustion -- by using 'wearable air conditioning,' an on-skin device designed by engineers at the University of Missouri. The device, which provides approximately 11 degrees Fahrenheit of cooling to the human body, includes numerous human health care applications such as the ability to monitor blood pressure, electrical activity of the heart and the level of skin hydration. (2020-01-06)

From firearms to fish -- following patterns to discover causality
Mathematicians have successfully applied a new, pictorial approach to answer complex questions that puzzle analysts, such as, do media stories on firearm legislation influence gun sales? Cause-and-effect queries like this pop up in various fields, from finance to neuroscience, and objective methods are needed to deliver reliable answers. The team of researchers wrestled mathematical theory into quantifiable colorful maps called symbolic recurrence plots, and in this week's Chaos, they have proven the method's validity. (2019-11-26)

Some high-cholesterol genes differ between countries
Some of the genes that predict the risk of high cholesterol don't apply to people from Uganda the same as they do in European populations, finds a new UCL-led study published in Nature Communications. (2019-09-24)

ASHG asserts core genetic data privacy principles for all research and funding arenas
The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) today affirmed the crucial role of genetic and genomic data sharing to advance medicine and health research, and asserted core principles about privacy protections that should apply to all human genetics and genomics research regardless of funding source. The Society's views appear today in The American Journal of Human Genetics (AJHG). (2019-09-05)

Biologists and mathematicians team up to explore tissue folding
MIT scientists have now discovered a key feature of embryonic tissue that helps explain how this process is carried out so faithfully each time. In a study of fruit flies, they found that the reproducibility of tissue folding is generated by a network of proteins that connect like a fishing net, creating many alternative pathways that tissues can use to fold the right way. (2019-07-25)

Scientists unearth green treasure -- albeit rusty -- in the soil
Cornell University engineers have taken a step in understanding how iron in the soil may unlock naturally occurring phosphorus bound in organic matter, which can be used in fertilizer, so that one day farmers may be able to reduce the amount of artificial fertilizers applied to fields. (2019-06-17)

Study provides new insight into origin of Canadian Rockies
The Canadian Rocky Mountains were formed when the North American continent was dragged westward during the closure of an ocean basin off the west coast and collided with a microcontinent over 100 million years ago, according to a new study by University of Alberta scientists. (2019-06-06)

Experts advise against hormone treatment in adults with mild thyroid problems
Thyroid hormones should not be routinely offered to adults with a mildly underactive thyroid gland (known as subclinical hypothyroidism) say a panel of international experts in The BMJ today. (2019-05-14)

Measurement of thoughts during knowledge acquisition
How does the brain represent our knowledge of the world? Does it have a kind of map, similar to our sense of direction? And if so, how is it organized? Stephanie Theves and Christian F. Doeller have come one step closer to demonstrating the existence of such a mental navigation system. (2019-03-25)

Criteria for the reduction of environmental impact applied in the Roman Theatre of Itálica
The authors of the study have developed tools that link Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) software so that environmental-impact reduction criteria can be integrated into projects from the moment of their first design. (2019-03-11)

New continuity of care tracking method for GPs
New research has outlined a simple way to measure continuity of care for GPs, to benefit patients. (2019-02-27)

How game theory can bring humans and robots closer together
Researchers at the University of Sussex, Imperial College London and Nanyang Technological University in Singapore have for the first time used game theory to enable robots to assist humans in a safe and versatile manner. (2019-01-07)

Negligible risk of transmitting HIV during sex when viral load is suppressed
There is a negligible risk of transmitting HIV during sex when a person living with HIV is on antiretroviral therapy and maintains a viral load under a specific threshold, according to a study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). (2018-11-19)

New guidance recommends minimal oxygen use for most people in hospital
Routine oxygen therapy is not recommended for hospital patients because the benefit is uncertain and there are clear harms, say a panel of international experts in The BMJ today. (2018-10-24)

The dog, when treated with insecticide, is man's best friend
Treating dogs at a community level with systemic insecticide could considerably reduce the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, according to a modelling study led by ISGlobal, an institution supported by 'la Caixa' Foundation. The results, published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, will help define which kind of insecticide is needed and how to apply it to achieve maximum effectiveness. (2018-10-03)

New paper addresses human/wildlife conflict through use of social and ecological theory
In a new paper in the journal Biological Conservation, the researchers apply a new approach to understand human-black bear conflicts in Durango, Colorado. (2018-08-22)

Highly refined mineral oils in cosmetics
The BfR's risk assessment relates to those mineral oil qualities which comply with the purity requirements for pharmaceuticals and for mineral oil authorized as food additives. Cosmetic products can contain mineral oils. These are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons of different structures and sizes. A distinction should be made between mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). The latter could potentially contain carcinogenic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds. (2018-07-03)

Breakthrough made in atomically thin magnets
Cornell researchers have become the first to control atomically thin magnets with an electric field, a breakthrough that provides a blueprint for producing exceptionally powerful and efficient data storage in computer chips, among other applications. (2018-04-04)

Job ads should be worded wisely to encourage women to apply
Using the wrong type of words in a job advertisement can discourage women from applying. This is one of the findings from a study by Lien Wille and Eva Derous of Ghent University in Belgium. The research is published in Springer's journal Sex Roles. Wille and Derous recommend that human resources professionals carefully consider the kind of message and type of words they use in job ads when they aim to recruit women. (2018-01-10)

In vitro fertilization linked with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth
A new analysis of published studies found an approximate 80 percent increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth (both before 37 and 34 weeks) when women become pregnant via in vitro fertilization (IVF) than through spontaneous conception. (2017-11-08)

Research may lead to improvements in water use for crop irrigation
Two papers published in Irrigation and Drainage may help improve estimates of water requirements for crops, which will save water and minimize losses, allowing more land to be irrigated and subsequently more food to be produced. (2017-10-06)

Students know about learning strategies -- but don't use them
Researchers find that university students have high levels of knowledge about self-regulated learning strategies, but many students don't use them. Specific training on how and when to use these techniques could help more students to maximize their academic potential. (2017-09-28)

IUPUI study links juveniles' views of police with likelihood of aggressive behavior
A new Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis study of juvenile offenders finds that when youth perceive police injustice, it affects not only how they view the justice system, but also their rates of aggression. (2017-09-21)

Tablets can teach kids to solve physical puzzles
Researchers replicated a previous study to confirm that 4- to 6-year-old children can transfer learning of a puzzle from a touchscreen device to the physical version. This contradicts most previous research and suggests that different types of screen learning media could have different effects on whether children can transfer learned skills to the physical world. (2017-09-20)

WSU researchers develop alternative to wasteful methane flaring
WSU researchers say they have a solution to the oil field flares wasting 3.5 percent of the world's natural gas: an inexpensive reactor that can convert methane to electricity. (2017-08-01)

Squirrels have long memory for problem solving
Squirrels can remember problem-solving techniques for long periods and can apply them to new situations, researchers have discovered. (2017-07-13)

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