Current Architecture News and Events

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A memory without a brain
Having a memory of past events enables us to take smarter decisions about the future. Researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization (MPI-DS) and the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have now identified how the slime mold Physarum polycephalum saves memories - although it has no nervous system. (2021-02-23)

A language learning system that pays attention -- more efficiently than ever before
SpAtten, a hardware and software system developed at MIT, called SpAtten, that streamlines state-of-the-art natural language processing. The advance could reduce the computing power, energy, and time required for text analysis and generation. (2021-02-10)

What rules govern the structure of membraneless organelles?
A study published on Feb. 8 in Nature Communications explores how membraneless organelles (MLOs) or biomolecular condensates, form and organize themselves. The research lays out physical rules controlling the arrangement of various types of synthetic MLOs created using just three kinds of building materials: RNA and two different proteins, a prion-like polypeptide (PLP) and an arginine-rich polypeptide (RRP). (2021-02-08)

At the core of the Integrator complex
A new paper from the Galej group at EMBL Grenoble describes the structure of key parts of the Integrator complex. This complex, which is composed of multiple protein subunits, is involved in global regulation of the process of transcription, during which the cell's DNA is used as a template to make instructions in the form of RNA. Knowing the structure of the Integrator complex will help scientists to better understand the interactions between its subunits and how it is involved in gene expression. (2021-02-05)

Tiny 3D structures enhance solar cell efficiency
A new method for constructing special solar cells could significantly increase their efficiency. Not only are the cells made up of thin layers, they also consist of specifically arranged nanoblocks. This has been shown in a new study by an international research team led by the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU), which was published in the scientific journal ''Nano Letters''. (2021-02-02)

Glitch in genome architecture may cause B-cell malignancies
Restoring an enzyme that maintains the way chromosomes are packed inside cells may lead to new therapies for some blood cancers, according to a new study by Columbia researchers. (2021-02-01)

Constructing termite turrets without a blueprint
Following a series of studies on termite mound physiology and morphogenesis over the past decade, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have now developed a mathematical model to help explain how termites construct their intricate mounds. (2021-01-19)

Extremely energy efficient microprocessor developed using superconductors
Researchers from Yokohama National University in Japan have developed a prototype microprocessor using superconductor devices that are about 80 times more energy efficient than the state-of-the-art semiconductor devices found in the microprocessors of today's high-performance computing systems. (2020-12-28)

Batteries mimic mammal bones for stability
Sodium-ion batteries offer several advantages over lithium-ion batteries; however, it is difficult to develop sodium cathodes, materials through which electrons can enter a battery. Many candidate materials are unstable or cannot withstand high voltages. To find a solution, researchers turned to nature. They created a porous system of NVP structures, surrounded by a dense shell of reduced graphene oxide. They describe the mammal bone-inspired sodium cathode in the journal Applied Physics Reviews. (2020-12-08)

Surrey's new hybrid X-ray detector goes toe-to-toe with state-of-the-art rivals
A new hybrid X-ray detector developed by the University of Surrey outperforms commercial devices - and could lead to more accurate cancer therapy. (2020-11-26)

Towards 6G wireless communication networks: vision, enabling technologies, and new paradigm shifts
Recently, a long-form review titled ''Towards 6G wireless communication networks: vision, enabling technologies, and new paradigm shifts'' was published in SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences Vol. 64, No.1. This article, co-authored by 50 researchers from 24 scientific research institutes, colleges, and companies both at home and abroad, provides a comprehensive survey of the latest progress and developmental trends about 6G networks. (2020-11-25)

Replication cycle of SARS-CoV-2 in 3D
Researchers have studied SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells and obtained detailed insights into the alterations induced in infected cells. This information is essential to guide the development of urgently needed therapeutic strategies for suppressing viral replication and induced pathology. (2020-11-23)

Next-generation computer chip with two heads
EPFL engineers have developed a computer chip that combines two functions - logic operations and data storage - into a single architecture, paving the way to more efficient devices. Their technology is particularly promising for applications relying on artificial intelligence. (2020-11-05)

Melding biology and physical sciences yields deeper understanding of cancer
An evolving understanding of cancer that incorporates the physical properties of tumors and their surrounding tissues into existing biologic and genetic models can direct cancer researchers down previously uncharted avenues, potentially leading to new drugs and new treatment strategies, say investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School (HMS) and the Ludwig Center at HMS. (2020-10-30)

Graphene-based memory resistors show promise for brain-based computing
As progress in traditional computing slows, new forms of computing are coming to the forefront. At Penn State, a team of engineers is attempting to pioneer a type of computing that mimics the efficiency of the brain's neural networks while exploiting the brain's analog nature. (2020-10-29)

IPK scientists discover gene that ensures slim inflorescence shape of barley
The inflorescences of grasses often have very different shapes. An international research team led by IPK has now succeeded in identifying a gene that plays a decisive role in ensuring that barley develops its characteristic slender inflorescences, called spikes. Compared to other grasses, the COMPOSITUM1 (COM1) gene has acquired a new function during grass evolution. The results have today been published in Nature Communications magazine. (2020-10-12)

Palladium catalysts can do it
Palladium catalysts help synthesize key chemicals for many industries. However, direct reaction of two basic reagents, aryl halides and alkyllithium compounds, remains a challenge. Now, a team of scientists have found that a catalyst containing YPhos-type ligands can mediate this reaction even at room temperature. This discovery may contribute to the development of more sustainable processes in the chemical industry, the authors write in the journal Angewandte Chemie. (2020-10-09)

Tiny protein motor fuels bacterial movement
The ability to move is key for bacteria like some strains of salmonella and E. coli to efficiently spread infections. They can propel themselves forward using threads, known as flagella, powered by the flagellar rotary motor. But how this rotary motor is powered has been a mystery among scientists. Now, researchers from UCPH show that the bacterial flagellar motor is powered by yet another even tinier, rotary motor. (2020-09-15)

Ammonium triggers formation of lateral roots
Despite the importance of changes in root architecture to exploit local nutrient patches, mechanisms integrating external nutrient signals into the root developmental program remain poorly understood. ''Here, we show for the first time that local ammonium supply stimulates the accumulation of auxin in the root vasculature and promotes auxin diffusion and lateral root formation to build a highly branched root system'', says Prof. Nicolaus von Wirén from the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK). (2020-09-11)

How to make AI trustworthy
One of the biggest impediments to adoption of new technologies is trust in AI. Now, a new tool developed by USC Viterbi Engineering researchers generates automatic indicators if data and predictions generated by AI algorithms are trustworthy (2020-08-27)

Getting to the root of the problem
Researchers analyze bean root architecture for better crop breeding (2020-08-26)

New technique to prevent imaging cyberthreats proposed by Ben-Gurion University researchers
As part of his Ph.D. research, Ben-Gurion University researcher Tom Mahler has developed a technique using artificial intelligence that analyzes the instructions sent from the PC to the physical components using a new architecture for the detection of anomalous instructions. (2020-08-25)

Researchers help inform cassava breeding worldwide
Scientists in Cornell University's NextGen Cassava project have uncovered new details regarding cassava's genetic architecture that may help breeders more easily pinpoint traits for one of Africa's key crops. (2020-08-25)

Sleep duration, efficiency and structure change in space
It's hard to get a good night's sleep in space. An evaluation of astronauts serving on the Mir space station found that they experienced shorter sleep durations, more wakefulness, and changes in the structure of their sleep cycles while in microgravity. (2020-08-25)

Sussex study enables predicting computational power of early quantum computers
University of Sussex quantum physicists have developed an algorithm which helps early quantum computers to perform calculations most efficiently (2020-08-24)

The mathematical magic of bending grids
A mathematical discovery opens up new possibilities for architecture and design: For any desired curved surface a flat grid of straight bars can be calculated that can be folded out to the desired curved structure. The result is a stable form that can even carry loads. (2020-08-24)

Teamwork can make the 5G dream work: A collaborative system architecture for 5G networks
A research team led by Prof Jeongho Kwak from Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) has designed a novel system architecture where collaboration between cloud service providers and mobile network operators plays a central role. Such a collaborative architecture would allow for optimizing the use of network, computing, and storage resources, thereby unlocking the potential of various novel services and applications. (2020-08-24)

Dinosaurs' unique bone structure key to carrying weight
A unique collaboration between paleontologists, mechanical engineers and biomedical engineers revealed that the trabecular bone structure of hadrosaurs and several other dinosaurs is uniquely capable of supporting large weights, and different than that of mammals and birds. (2020-08-20)

Scientists further cowpea research--boosting canopy CO2 assimilation, water-use efficiency
In a recent study published in Food and Energy Security, a research aimed to understand how much variation exists within diverse cowpea lines' canopy photosynthesis. Results from this study suggest that by optimizing canopy structures, researchers could increase cowpea yields, and yields across other crops, to improve our global food security. (2020-08-17)

​NTU Singapore scientists develop artificial intelligence system for high precision recognition of hand gestures
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system that recognises hand gestures by combining skin-like electronics with computer vision. (2020-08-13)

Chemical thermometers take temperature to the nanometric scale
Scientists from the Coordination Chemistry Laboratory and Laboratory for Analysis and Architecture of Systems, both of the CNRS, recently developed molecular films that can measure the operating temperature of electronic components on a nanometric scale. These patented temperature-sensitive molecules have the distinctive quality of being extremely stable, even after millions of uses. They were presented in an article published in Nature Communications on 17 July 2020, and could soon be deployed in the microelectronics industry. (2020-07-17)

Cryo-electron tomography reveals uromodulin's role in urinary tract infection protection
Free-flowing filaments of Uromodulin protect against urinary tract infections (UTIs) by duping potentially harmful bacteria to attach to their fishbone-like molecular architecture - rather than to sensitive urinary tract tissues - before being flushed out of the body during urination, researchers report. (2020-07-02)

'Spear and shield' inspire high toughness microstructure
Researchers designed a discontinuous fibrous Bouligand (DFB) architecture and tested the 3D-printed single-edge notched specimens with such architecture for optimization parameter. (2020-06-28)

Dynamics of DNA replication revealed at the nanoscale
Using super-resolution technology a University of Technology Sydney led team has directly visualised the process of DNA replication in single human cells. (2020-06-25)

22,000 tiny tremblors illustrate 3D fault geometry and earthquake swarm evolution
By mapping the more than 22,000 tremblors, researchers composed a detailed, three-dimensional image of the complex fault structure below southern California's Cahuilla Valley. (2020-06-18)

Natural fluid injections triggered Cahuilla earthquake swarm
Scientists generated a catalog of 22,000 seismic events from a four-year period to reveal the structure of an active fault zone. (2020-06-18)

3D X-ray reveals secrets from inside bones
An international team of researchers from Aarhus University, the European Synchotron (ESRF), Chalmers University and the Paul Scherrer Institute have uncovered a previously unknown substructure in bone tissue using a new X-ray technique to produce 3D images of the internal structure of bones. The discovery potentially questions fundamentally a number of the models of bone tissue and the mechanical properties of bones that, among other things, is used to describe the process of bone formation. (2020-06-15)

Rice engineers offer smart, timely ideas for AI bottlenecks
Rice University researchers have demonstrated methods for both designing data-centric computing hardware and co-designing hardware with machine-learning algorithms that together can improve energy efficiency in artificial intelligence hardware by as much as two orders of magnitude. (2020-06-11)

3-D shape of human genome essential for robust inflammatory response
The three-dimensional structure of the human genome is essential for providing a rapid and robust inflammatory response but is surprisingly not vital for reprogramming one cell type into another. The findings can aid efforts to understand why an inflammatory response is impaired or exaggerated and may one day be used to modulate it. (2020-06-08)

Protecting the neuronal architecture
Protecting nerve cells from losing their characteristic extensions, the dendrites, can reduce brain damage after a stroke. Neurobiologists from Heidelberg University have demonstrated this by means of research on a mouse model. The team, led by Prof. Dr. Hilmar Bading in cooperation with Junior Professor Dr. Daniela Mauceri, is investigating the protection of neuronal architecture to develop new approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. (2020-06-05)

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